Reincarnation

reincarnatedrebirthpast livestransmigrationreincarnateReincarnation researchtransmigration of the soulpast lifetransmigration of soulsreborn
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being starts a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death.wikipedia
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Saṃsāra

samsaracycle of rebirthSansara
It is also called rebirth or transmigration, and is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence. The idea of reincarnation, saṃsāra, did not exist in the early Vedic religions.
Saṃsāra is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, reincarnation, and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence".

Metempsychosis

transmigration of soulsmigration of the soulReincarnation
A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato.
Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
Reincarnation is a central tenet of Indian religions, namely Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Hinduism, although there are Hindu groups that do not believe in reincarnation but believe in an afterlife.
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma (ethics/duties), Artha (prosperity/work), Kama (desires/passions) and Moksha (liberation/freedom from the cycle of death and rebirth/salvation); karma (action, intent and consequences), Saṃsāra (cycle of death and rebirth), and the various Yogas (paths or practices to attain moksha).

Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagoras of SamosPythagoreans
A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato.
The teaching most securely identified with Pythagoras is metempsychosis, or the "transmigration of souls", which holds that every soul is immortal and, upon death, enters into a new body.

Reincarnation in popular culture

many contemporary worksReincarnation in popular western culturereincarnates
In recent decades, many Europeans and North Americans have developed an interest in reincarnation, and many contemporary works mention it.
Reincarnation is regularly mentioned in feature films, books, and popular music.

Palingenesis

palingeneticpalingenesiare-created again
Another Greek term sometimes used synonymously is palingenesis, "being born again".
Palingenesis (also palingenesia) is a concept of rebirth or re-creation, used in various contexts in philosophy, theology, politics, and biology.

Druze

DruzesDruzismDruse
Although the majority of denominations within Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; these groups include the mainstream historical and contemporary followers of Cathars, Alawites, the Druze, and the Rosicrucians.
Druze believe in theophany and reincarnation, or the transmigration of the soul.

Alawites

AlawiteAlawiAlawis
Although the majority of denominations within Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; these groups include the mainstream historical and contemporary followers of Cathars, Alawites, the Druze, and the Rosicrucians.
Finally, they also believe in reincarnation.

Karma

karmicKarmaskamma
The early Vedas, do not mention the doctrine of Karma and rebirth but mention the belief in an afterlife.
The philosophy of karma is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Indian religions (particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism ) as well as Taoism.

Moksha

liberationmuktimoksa
They consider the release from the cycle of reincarnations as the ultimate spiritual goal, and call the liberation by terms such as moksha, nirvana, mukti and kaivalya.
In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth.

Sikhism

SikhSikhsSikh religion
Reincarnation is a central tenet of Indian religions, namely Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Hinduism, although there are Hindu groups that do not believe in reincarnation but believe in an afterlife.
Sikhs believe in reincarnation and karma concepts found in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.

Historical Vedic religion

BrahmanismVedicVedic religion
The idea of reincarnation, saṃsāra, did not exist in the early Vedic religions.
Vedic religion is now generally accepted to be a predecessor of Hinduism, but they are not the same because the textual evidence suggests significant differences between the two, such as the belief in an afterlife instead of the later developed reincarnation and samsāra concepts.

Afterlife

life after deathhereafterafter death
Reincarnation is a central tenet of Indian religions, namely Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Hinduism, although there are Hindu groups that do not believe in reincarnation but believe in an afterlife. The early Vedas, do not mention the doctrine of Karma and rebirth but mention the belief in an afterlife.
After completing its stay in the respective region, the soul is subjected to rebirth in different living forms according to its karma.

Druid

DruidsDruidismDruidry
The Greek Pre-Socratics discussed reincarnation, and the Celtic Druids are also reported to have taught a doctrine of reincarnation.
Alexander Cornelius Polyhistor referred to the druids as philosophers and called their doctrine of the immortality of the soul and reincarnation or metempsychosis "Pythagorean":

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato.
In the dialogues of Plato though, Socrates sometimes seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions, this is generally attributed to Plato.

Phaedrus (dialogue)

PhaedrusPhædrusdivine madness
There are myths and theories to the same effect in other dialogues, in the Chariot allegory of the Phaedrus, in the Meno, Timaeus and Laws.
Although ostensibly about the topic of love, the discussion in the dialogue revolves around the art of rhetoric and how it should be practiced, and dwells on subjects as diverse as metempsychosis (the Greek tradition of reincarnation) and erotic love.

Rebirth in Germanic paganism

Rebirth in Norse religionreincarnationrebirth
Surviving texts indicate that there was a belief in rebirth in Germanic paganism.
Surviving texts indicate that there was a belief in rebirth in Germanic paganism.

Ahiṃsā

Ahimsanon-violenceAhinsa
For example, all three discuss various virtues – sometimes grouped as Yamas and Niyamas – such as non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, non-possessiveness, compassion for all living beings, charity and many others.
It bars violence against "all creatures" (sarvabhuta) and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of rebirths (CU 8.15.1).

Dionysus

BacchusDionysosDionysiac
Orpheus proclaimed the need of the grace of the gods, Dionysus in particular, and of self-purification until the soul has completed the spiral ascent of destiny to live for ever.
Dionysus was the patron god of the Orphics, who they connected to death and immortality, and he symbolized the one who guides the process of reincarnation.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being starts a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death.
Concepts most of them share in common include karma, caste, reincarnation, mantras, yantras, and darśana.

Hermeticism

HermeticHermetismHermetic philosophy
The historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Orphism, Hermeticism, Manicheanism, and Gnosticism of the Roman era as well as the Indian religions have been the subject of recent scholarly research.
Reincarnation is mentioned in Hermetic texts.

Pythagoreanism

PythagoreanPythagoreansPythagorean school
An association between Pythagorean philosophy and reincarnation was routinely accepted throughout antiquity.
The highest reward a human could attain was for the soul to join in the life of the gods and thus escaped the cycle of reincarnation in another human body.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato.
In the Dialogues of Plato, though Socrates sometimes seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions, this is generally attributed to Plato.

Giordano Bruno

BrunoBruno, GiordanoBruno's cosmology
Marsilio Ficino argued that Plato's references to reincarnation were intended allegorically, Shakespeare alluded to the doctrine of reincarnation but Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake by authorities after being found guilty of heresy by the Roman Inquisition for his teachings.
Bruno's pantheism was also a matter of grave concern, as was his teaching of the transmigration of the soul/reincarnation.

Catharism

CatharsCatharAlbigensians
Although the majority of denominations within Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; these groups include the mainstream historical and contemporary followers of Cathars, Alawites, the Druze, and the Rosicrucians.
Cathars thought human spirits were the sexless spirits of angels trapped in the material realm of the evil god, destined to be reincarnated until they achieved salvation through the consolamentum, when they could return to the benign God.