Reinforcement

positive reinforcementnegative reinforcementreinforcingreinforcementsreinforcerreinforceschedules of reinforcementpositive reinforcerIntermittent or partial reinforcementreward
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.wikipedia
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Operant conditioning

operantconditioningavoidance learning
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
See schedules of reinforcement.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion.
The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., they are perceived as being inherently positive, desirable, and pleasurable).

Motivational salience

incentive salienceaversive saliencetask saliency
Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" (desire and pleasure, respectively) and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers; the converse statement is also true: positive reinforcers provide a desirable stimulus.
Incentive salience is the attractive form of motivational salience that causes approach behavior, and is associated with operant reinforcement, desirable outcomes, and pleasurable stimuli.

Behavior modification

behavioral modificationbehaviour modificationbehavioral interventions
Though punishment may seem just the opposite of reinforcement, Skinner claimed that they differ immensely, saying that positive reinforcement results in lasting behavioral modification (long-term) whereas punishment changes behavior only temporarily (short-term) and has many detrimental side-effects.
Based on methodological behaviorism, overt behavior was modified with presumed consequences, including artificial positive and negative reinforcement contingencies to increase desirable behavior, or administering positive and negative punishment and/or extinction to reduce problematic behavior.

Reward system

rewardrewardingrewards
Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" (desire and pleasure, respectively) and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers; the converse statement is also true: positive reinforcers provide a desirable stimulus.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positively-valenced emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

Punishment (psychology)

punishmentpositive punishmentnegative punishment
For the punishment aspect of operant conditioning – see punishment (psychology).
As with reinforcement, it is the behavior, not the animal, that is punished.

Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. B.F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism.
The earliest derivatives of behavioral learning theory can be traced back to the late 19th century where Edward Thorndike pioneered the law of effect, a process that involved strengthening or weakening behavior through the use of reinforcement and punishment.

B. F. Skinner

B.F. SkinnerSkinnerSkinnerian
B.F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism.
Both types of reinforcement strengthen behavior, or increase the probability of a behavior reoccurring; the difference is in whether the reinforcing event is something applied (positive reinforcement) or something removed or avoided (negative reinforcement).

Experimental analysis of behavior

Experimental analysis of behaviourbehaviorbehavior analysis
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion. The reliability of schedule control supported the idea that a radical behaviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental or cognitive processes.

Token economy

response costtokenToken Economics
A token economy is a system of contingency management based on the systematic reinforcement of target behavior.

Applied behavior analysis

Applied behavioral analysisABAbehavior analysis
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion.
Specifically, operant conditioning refers to the three-term contingency that uses stimulus control, in particular an antecedent contingency called the discriminative stimulus (SD) that influences the strengthening or weakening of behavior through such consequences as reinforcement or punishment.

Clicker training

behavioral toolclickerclickers
An example of a secondary reinforcer would be the sound from a clicker, as used in clicker training.
The system uses conditioned reinforcers, which a trainer can deliver more quickly and more precisely than primary reinforcers such as food.

Radical behaviorism

Radical behaviourismradical behavioristRadical behaviorists
The reliability of schedule control supported the idea that a radical behaviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental or cognitive processes.

David Premack

David and Anne PremackPremackPremack, David
Premack's first publication (1959) was a new theory of reinforcement (which became known as Premack's principle).

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion.
An addictive drug is a drug which is both rewarding and reinforcing.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
The reliability of schedule control supported the idea that a radical behaviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental or cognitive processes.
A new method of "instrumental" or "operant" conditioning added the concepts of reinforcement and punishment to the model of behavior change.

Aversives

aversiveaversive stimuliaversive stimulus
Aversive stimuli may also be used as negative reinforcement to increase the rate or probability of a behavior by its removal.

Social trap

Brechner (1974, 1977) introduced the concept of superimposed schedules of reinforcement in an attempt to create a laboratory analogy of social traps, such as when humans overharvest their fisheries or tear down their rainforests.
By applying the findings of basic research on "schedules of operant reinforcement" (B.F. Skinner 1938, 1948, 1953, 1957; Keller and Schoenfeld, 1950), Platt recognized that individuals operating for short-term positive gain ("reinforcement") had a tendency to over-exploit a resource, which led to a long-term overall loss to society.

Two-alternative forced choice

2AFCforcedforced-choice
For example, in a two-alternative forced choice task, a pigeon in a Skinner box is faced with two pecking keys; pecking responses can be made on either, and food reinforcement might follow a peck on either.
In animals, the 2AFC task has been used to test reinforcement probability learning, for example such as choices in pigeons after reinforcement of trials.

Relapse

recurrencerelapsingrecurrent
However, such posters are no longer used because of the effects of incentive salience in causing relapse upon sight of the stimuli illustrated in the posters.
The availability of the dopamine receptor D2 plays a role in self-administration and the reinforcing effects of cocaine and other stimulants.

Extinction (psychology)

extinctionextinction learningdisappearance
If when a red light is present food will not be delivered, then the red light is an extinction stimulus (food here is used as an example of a reinforcer).

Matching law

response matching
When both the concurrent schedules are variable intervals, a quantitative relationship known as the matching law is found between relative response rates in the two schedules and the relative reinforcement rates they deliver; this was first observed by R.J. Herrnstein in 1961.
In operant conditioning, the matching law is a quantitative relationship that holds between the relative rates of response and the relative rates of reinforcement in concurrent schedules of reinforcement.

Abusive power and control

controlling behaviorcoercive controlcontrolling behaviour
Manipulators and abusers control their victims with a range of tactics, including positive reinforcement (such as praise, superficial charm, flattery, ingratiation, love bombing, smiling, gifts, attention), negative reinforcement, intermittent or partial reinforcement, psychological punishment (such as nagging, silent treatment, swearing, threats, intimidation, emotional blackmail, guilt trips, inattention) and traumatic tactics (such as verbal abuse or explosive anger).

Psychological dependence

psychologicalpsychological dependencypsychological or behavioral dependence
In drug dependent individuals, negative reinforcement occurs when a drug is self-administered in order to alleviate or "escape" the symptoms of physical dependence (e.g., tremors and sweating) and/or psychological dependence (e.g., anhedonia, restlessness, irritability, and anxiety) that arise during the state of drug withdrawal.
The mechanism that generates the dependence involves a neuronal counter-adaption, which is localized to the area where the drugs positive reinforcement stems from.

Mathematical principles of reinforcement

This model is known as MPR, short for mathematical principles of reinforcement.
The three key principles of MPR, arousal, constraint, and coupling, describe how incentives motivate responding, how time constrains it, and how reinforcers become associated with specific responses, respectively.