Reinforcement

positive reinforcementnegative reinforcementreinforcingreinforcementsreinforcerreinforcepositive reinforcerschedules of reinforcementIntermittent or partial reinforcementreward
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.wikipedia
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Behaviorism

behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. B.F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism.
The earliest derivatives of Behaviorism can be traced back to the late 19th century where Edward Thorndike pioneered the law of effect, a process that involved strengthening behavior through the use of reinforcement.

Operant conditioning

operantconditioningavoidance learning
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
1) Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is rewarding or the behavior is followed by another stimulus that is rewarding, increasing the frequency of that behavior. For example, if a rat in a Skinner box gets food when it presses a lever, its rate of pressing will go up. This procedure is usually called simply reinforcement.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion.
The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., they are perceived as being inherently positive, desirable, and pleasurable).

Motivational salience

incentive salienceaversive saliencetask saliency
Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" (desire and pleasure, respectively) and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers; the converse statement is also true: positive reinforcers provide a desirable stimulus.
Incentive salience is the attractive form of motivational salience that causes approach behavior, and is associated with operant reinforcement, desirable outcomes, and pleasurable stimuli.

Behavior modification

behavioral modificationbehaviour modificationbehavioral interventions
Though punishment may seem just the opposite of reinforcement, Skinner claimed that they differ immensely, saying that positive reinforcement results in lasting behavioral modification (long-term) whereas punishment changes behavior only temporarily (short-term) and has many detrimental side-effects.
Based on methodological behaviorism, overt behavior was modified with presumed consequences, including artificial positive and negative reinforcement contingencies to increase desirable behavior, or administering positive and negative punishment and/or extinction to reduce problematic behavior.

Reward system

rewardrewardingrewards
Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" (desire and pleasure, respectively) and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers; the converse statement is also true: positive reinforcers provide a desirable stimulus.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positively-valenced emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

Punishment (psychology)

punishmentpositive punishmentnegative punishment
For the punishment aspect of operant conditioning – see punishment (psychology).
As with reinforcement, it is the behavior, not the animal, that is punished.

B. F. Skinner

B.F. SkinnerSkinnerSkinnerian
B.F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism.
Both types of reinforcement strengthen behavior, or increase the probability of a behavior reoccurring; the difference is in whether the reinforcing event is something applied (positive reinforcement) or something removed or avoided (negative reinforcement).

Token economy

response costtokenToken Economics
In his 1967 paper, Arbitrary and Natural Reinforcement, Charles Ferster proposed classifying reinforcement into events that increase frequency of an operant as a natural consequence of the behavior itself, and events that are presumed to affect frequency by their requirement of human mediation, such as in a token economy where subjects are "rewarded" for certain behavior with an arbitrary token of a negotiable value.
A token economy is a system of contingency management based on the systematic reinforcement of target behavior.

Experimental analysis of behavior

behaviorbehavior analysisBehavioral experiment (analysis)
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion. The reliability of schedule control supported the idea that a radical behaviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental or cognitive processes.
Consequences can consist of reinforcing stimuli (S) or punishing stimuli (S) which follow and modify an operant response. Reinforcing stimuli are often classified as positively (S) or negatively reinforcing (S). Reinforcement may be governed by a schedule of reinforcement, that is, a rule that specifies when or how often a response is reinforced. (See operant conditioning).

Applied behavior analysis

ABAbehavior analysisapplied behavioral analysis
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion.
Specifically, operant conditioning refers to the three-term contingency that uses stimulus control, in particular an antecedent contingency called the discriminative stimulus (SD) that influences the strengthening or weakening of behavior through such consequences as reinforcement or punishment.

Clicker training

behavioral toolclickerclickers
An example of a secondary reinforcer would be the sound from a clicker, as used in clicker training.
The system uses conditioned reinforcers, which a trainer can deliver more quickly and more precisely than primary reinforcers such as food.

Radical behaviorism

radical behavioristRadical behavioristsradical behaviourism
The reliability of schedule control supported the idea that a radical behaviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental or cognitive processes.
If the probability of a behavior is increased as a consequence of the presentation of a stimulus, that stimulus is a positive reinforcer.

David Premack

David and Anne PremackPremackPremack, David
The Premack principle is a special case of reinforcement elaborated by David Premack, which states that a highly preferred activity can be used effectively as a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity.
Premack's first publication (1959) was a new theory of reinforcement (which became known as Premack's principle).

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior and is a core concept in some medical and psychopharmacology models, particularly addiction, dependence, and compulsion.
An addictive drug is a drug which is both rewarding and reinforcing.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
The reliability of schedule control supported the idea that a radical behaviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental or cognitive processes.
A new method of "instrumental" or "operant" conditioning added the concepts of reinforcement and punishment to the model of behavior change.

Social trap

Brechner (1974, 1977) introduced the concept of superimposed schedules of reinforcement in an attempt to create a laboratory analogy of social traps, such as when humans overharvest their fisheries or tear down their rainforests.
By applying the findings of basic research on "schedules of operant reinforcement" (B.F. Skinner 1938, 1948, 1953, 1957; Keller and Schoenfeld, 1950), Platt recognized that individuals operating for short-term positive gain ("reinforcement") had a tendency to over-exploit a resource, which led to a long-term overall loss to society.

Two-alternative forced choice

2AFCforcedforced-choice
For example, in a two-alternative forced choice task, a pigeon in a Skinner box is faced with two pecking keys; pecking responses can be made on either, and food reinforcement might follow a peck on either.
In animals, the 2AFC task has been used to test reinforcement probability learning, for example such as choices in pigeons after reinforcement of trials.

Aversives

aversiveaversive stimuliaversive stimulus
Negative reinforcement occurs when the rate of a behavior increases because an aversive event or stimulus is removed or prevented from happening.
Aversive stimuli may also be used as negative reinforcement to increase the rate or probability of a behavior by its removal.

Extinction (psychology)

extinctionextinction learningdisappearance
Contiguous stimuli are stimuli closely associated by time and space with specific behaviors. They reduce the amount of time needed to learn a behavior while increasing its resistance to extinction. Giving a dog a piece of food immediately after sitting is more contiguous with (and therefore more likely to reinforce) the behavior than a several minute delay in food delivery following the behavior.
If when a red light is present food will not be delivered, then the red light is an extinction stimulus (food here is used as an example of a reinforcer).

Relapse

recurrencerelapsingrecurrent
However, such posters are no longer used because of the effects of incentive salience in causing relapse upon sight of the stimuli illustrated in the posters.
The availability of the dopamine receptor D2 plays a role in self-administration and the reinforcing effects of cocaine and other stimulants.

Matching law

response matching
When both the concurrent schedules are variable intervals, a quantitative relationship known as the matching law is found between relative response rates in the two schedules and the relative reinforcement rates they deliver; this was first observed by R.J. Herrnstein in 1961.
In operant conditioning, the matching law is a quantitative relationship that holds between the relative rates of response and the relative rates of reinforcement in concurrent schedules of reinforcement.

Abusive power and control

controlling behaviorcontrolling behaviourcontrol
Braiker identified the following ways that manipulators control their victims:
Manipulators and abusers control their victims with a range of tactics, including positive reinforcement (such as praise, superficial charm, flattery, ingratiation, love bombing, smiling, gifts, attention), negative reinforcement, intermittent or partial reinforcement, psychological punishment (such as nagging, silent treatment, swearing, threats, intimidation, emotional blackmail, guilt trips, inattention) and traumatic tactics (such as verbal abuse or explosive anger).

Mathematical principles of reinforcement

This model is known as MPR, short for mathematical principles of reinforcement.
The three key principles of MPR, arousal, constraint, and coupling, describe how incentives motivate responding, how time constrains it, and how reinforcers become associated with specific responses, respectively.

Differential outcomes effect

While in most practical applications, the effect of any given reinforcer will be the same regardless of whether the reinforcer is signalling or strengthening, this approach helps to explain a number of behavioural phenomenon including patterns of responding on intermittent reinforcement schedules (fixed interval scallops) and the differential outcomes effect.
The Differential Outcomes Effect not only states that an association between a stimulus and a response is formed as traditional Classical Conditioning states, but that a simultaneous association is formed between a stimulus and a reinforcer in the subject.