Reis telephone

make-and-break transmittertelephone
The Reis telephone was an invention named after Philipp Reis of a telephonelike device he constructed.wikipedia
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Johann Philipp Reis

Johann-Philipp-Reis AwardJohann ReisPhilip Reis
The Reis telephone was an invention named after Philipp Reis of a telephonelike device he constructed.
In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
The Reis telephone was an invention named after Philipp Reis of a telephonelike device he constructed.
Later, c. 1860, Johann Philipp Reis used the term in reference to his Reis telephone, his device appears to be the first such device based on conversion of sound into electrical impulses, the term telephone was adopted into the vocabulary of many languages.

Invention of the telephone

inventor of the telephoneinvented the telephonepatent for the telephone
Invention of the telephone
The Reis telephone was developed from 1857 on. Allegedly, the transmitter was difficult to operate, since the relative position of the needle and the contact were critical to the device's operation.

Timeline of the telephone

chronicles the developmentexistence of a transatlantic telephoneon-or-off transmission methods
Timeline of the telephone
1860: Johann Philipp Reis of Germany demonstrates a make-and-break transmitter after the design of Bourseul and a knitting-needle receiver. Witnesses said they heard human voices being transmitted.

Thomas Edison

EdisonThomas Alva EdisonThomas A. Edison
In 1862, Reis demonstrated his telephone to Wilhelm von Legat, Inspector of the Royal Prussian Telegraph Corps who produced an account of it (Legat, 1862), a translation of which was obtained by Thomas Edison in 1875 and which was used in Edison's successful development of the carbon microphone.

Carbon microphone

carbon transmittercarbon button microphonesbutton microphone
In 1862, Reis demonstrated his telephone to Wilhelm von Legat, Inspector of the Royal Prussian Telegraph Corps who produced an account of it (Legat, 1862), a translation of which was obtained by Thomas Edison in 1875 and which was used in Edison's successful development of the carbon microphone.

Parchment

parchmentspergamentanimal skins
The Reis microphone was based on a horizontal parchment diaphragm as a sound transducer.

Magnetostriction

magnetostrictivemagnetostrictive actuatorsmagnetostrictive alloy
Reis's speaker worked by magnetostriction.

Resonator

resonant cavityresonatorscavity resonator
The image, below, shows an advanced version where the iron bar is clamped to a cigar-box-shaped resonator.

Fidelity

lo-filow fidelitylo fi
It produces weak sound but has good fidelity.

Electric current

currentcurrentselectrical current
It requires very high current and is a current-sensitive device rather than a voltage-sensitive device.

Voltage

potential differenceVvoltages
It requires very high current and is a current-sensitive device rather than a voltage-sensitive device.

David Edward Hughes

Hughes
In 1865, however, British scientist David E. Hughes used the Reis telephone with "good results".

List of German inventors and discoverers

famous inventors and engineersGerman inventor
List of German inventors and discoverers

Rutgers University

RutgersRutgers CollegeRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Edison, Thomas A. 2006. The Edison Papers, Digital Edition Rutgers University, accessed 26 March 2006.

January 7

7 January77-Jan
1834 – Johann Philipp Reis, German physicist and academic, invented the Reis telephone (d. 1874)

1861 in science

1861
German scientist Philipp Reis succeeds in creating a device that captures sound and converts it to electrical impulses which are transmitted via electrical wires to another device that transforms these pulses into recognizable sounds similar to the original acoustical source. Reis coins the term telephone to describe his device, the Reis telephone.

Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering

emerging electronics
1861: Grade school teacher Philipp Reis presents his telephone in Frankfurt, inventing the loudspeaker as a by-product.

January 14

14 January14
1874 – Johann Philipp Reis, German physicist and academic, invented the Reis telephone (b. 1834)

Friedrichsdorf

Johann Philipp Reis (1834–1874), teacher and inventor of the Reis telephone