Relational database

relational database management systemRDBMSrelational databasesrelationalrelational database management systemsdatabaserelational database systemsdatabase constraintsdatabasesrelational query
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E.wikipedia
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Database

database management systemdatabasesDBMS
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s.

SQL

Structured Query LanguageSQL databaseSQL Databases
Many relational database systems have an option of using the SQL (Structured Query Language) for querying and maintaining the database. As of 2009, most commercial relational DBMSs employ SQL as their query language.
SQL ( S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).

Relational model

relationalrelational data modelrelationships
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database.

Edgar F. Codd

E. F. CoddE.F. CoddCodd
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.

Oracle Corporation

OracleOracle Technology NetworkOracle Corp.
However, the first commercially available RDBMS was Oracle, released in 1979 by Relational Software, now Oracle Corporation.
Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems (RDBMS) named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks".

4th Dimension (software)

4th Dimension4D4D (4th Dimension)
In 1984, the first RDBMS for Macintosh began being developed, code-named Silver Surfer, it was later released in 1987 as 4th Dimension and known today as 4D.
4D (4th Dimension, or Silver Surfer, as it was known during early development) is a relational database management system and IDE developed by Laurent Ribardière.

IBM Informix

InformixInformix Dynamic ServerIBM Informix Dynamic Server
Other examples of an RDBMS include DB2, SAP Sybase ASE, and Informix.
IBM Informix is a product family within IBM's Information Management division that is centered on several relational database management system (RDBMS) offerings.

Ingres (database)

IngresIngres CorporationIngres Database
Ingres Database is a proprietary SQL relational database management system intended to support large commercial and government applications.

Christopher J. Date

Chris DateC. J. DateC.J. Date
A second school of thought argues that if a database does not implement all of Codd's rules (or the current understanding on the relational model, as expressed by Christopher J. Date, Hugh Darwen and others), it is not relational.
Chris Date (born 1941) is an independent author, lecturer, researcher, and consultant, specializing in relational database theory.

Oracle Database

OracleOracle RDBMSOracle 10g
However, the first commercially available RDBMS was Oracle, released in 1979 by Relational Software, now Oracle Corporation.
Oracle's RDBMS release numbering has used the following codes:

QUEL query languages

QUELIngres QUELPOSTQUEL query language
Alternative query languages have been proposed and implemented, notably the pre-1996 implementation of Ingres QUEL.
QUEL is a relational database query language, based on tuple relational calculus, with some similarities to SQL.

Relation (database)

relationrelation schemarelations
A relation is defined as a set of tuples that have the same attributes.
In relational database theory, a relation, as originally defined by E. F. Codd, is a set of tuples (d 1, d 2, ..., d n ), where each element d j is a member of D j, a data domain.

Multics Relational Data Store

MRDS
The Multics Relational Data Store, or MRDS for short, was the first commercial relational database management system.

Query language

querydatabase query languageData query language
As of 2009, most commercial relational DBMSs employ SQL as their query language.

Column (database)

columnscolumnAttribute
This model organizes data into one or more tables (or "relations") of columns and rows, with a unique key identifying each row.
In a relational database, a column is a set of data values of a particular simple type, one value for each row of the database.

Foreign key

Foreignforeign key constraintforeign key references
Rows in a table can be linked to rows in other tables by adding a column for the unique key of the linked row (such columns are known as foreign keys).
In the context of relational databases, a foreign key is a set of attributes subject to a certain kind of inclusion dependency constraint, specifically a constraint that the tuples consisting of the foreign key attributes in one relation, R, must also exist in some other (not necessarily distinct) relation, S, and furthermore that those attributes must also be a candidate key in S. In simpler words, a foreign key is a set of attributes that references a candidate key.

Row (database)

rowsrowrecord
This model organizes data into one or more tables (or "relations") of columns and rows, with a unique key identifying each row.
In the context of a relational database, a row—also called a tuple—represents a single, implicitly structured data item in a table.

Table (database)

tabletablesdatabase table
This model organizes data into one or more tables (or "relations") of columns and rows, with a unique key identifying each row.
In relational databases, and flat file databases, a table is a set of data elements (values) using a model of vertical columns (identifiable by name) and horizontal rows, the cell being the unit where a row and column intersect.

IBM IS1

IS1
IS/1 was the world's first relational database system, implemented at the IBM United Kingdom Scientific Centre in Peterlee in the years 1970–1972.

Stored procedure

stored proceduresproceduresdatabase procedures
Most of the programming within a RDBMS is accomplished using stored procedures (SPs).
A stored procedure (also termed proc, storp, sproc, StoPro, StoredProc, StoreProc, sp, or SP) is a subroutine available to applications that access a relational database management system (RDBMS).

Adaptive Server Enterprise

Sybase ASESybase SQL ServerSybase
Other examples of an RDBMS include DB2, SAP Sybase ASE, and Informix.
Originally for Unix platforms in 1987, Sybase Corporation's primary relational database management system product was initially marketed under the name Sybase SQL Server.

IBM Peterlee Relational Test Vehicle (PRTV)

PRTV
PRTV (Peterlee Relational Test Vehicle) was the world's first relational database management system that could handle significant data volumes.

IBM System R

System RIBM's System R
In 1974, IBM began developing System R, a research project to develop a prototype RDBMS.
It was also the first system to demonstrate that a relational database management system could provide good transaction processing performance.

Codd's 12 rules

the relational model as described by Codd12 rulestwelve rules
Codd's view of what qualifies as an RDBMS is summarized in Codd's 12 rules.
Codd's twelve rules are a set of thirteen rules (numbered zero to twelve) proposed by Edgar F. Codd, a pioneer of the relational model for databases, designed to define what is required from a database management system in order for it to be considered relational, i.e., a relational database management system (RDBMS).

Hugh Darwen

Darwen
A second school of thought argues that if a database does not implement all of Codd's rules (or the current understanding on the relational model, as expressed by Christopher J. Date, Hugh Darwen and others), it is not relational.
Darwen is the author of The Askew Wall and co-author of The Third Manifesto, a proposal for serving object-oriented programs with purely relational databases without compromising either side and getting the best of both worlds, arguably even better than with so-called object-oriented databases.