Relative species abundance

abundancerelative abundance distributionsRelative specisee belowspecies prevalence
Relative species abundance is a component of biodiversity and refers to how common or rare a species is relative to other species in a defined location or community.wikipedia
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Abundance (ecology)

abundanceabundancesabundant
Relative species abundances tend to conform to specific patterns that are among the best-known and most-studied patterns in macroecology.
The ratio of abundance of one species to one or multiple other species living in an ecosystem is referred to as relative species abundances.

Niche apportionment models

niche apportionment model
Although Motomura originally developed the model as a statistical (descriptive) means to plot observed abundances, the "discovery" of his paper by Western researchers in 1965 led to the model being used as a niche apportionment model – the "niche-preemption model".
Mechanistic models for niche apportionment are biological models used to explain relative species abundance distributions.

Rank abundance curve

rank-abundance diagrams
Relative species abundance distributions are usually graphed as frequency histograms ("Preston plots"; Figure 2) or rank-abundance diagrams ("Whittaker Plots"; Figure 3).
A rank abundance curve or Whittaker plot is a chart used by ecologists to display relative species abundance, a component of biodiversity.

Ronald Fisher

R.A. FisherR. A. FisherFisher
The logseries was developed by Ronald Fisher to fit two different abundance data sets: British moth species (collected by Carrington Williams) and Malaya butterflies (collected by Alexander Steven Corbet).
In 1943, along with A.S. Corbet and C.B. Williams he published a paper on relative species abundance where he developed the logseries to fit two different abundance data sets In the same year he took the Balfour Chair of Genetics where the Italian researcher Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza was recruited in 1948, establishing a one-man unit of bacterial genetics.

Logarithmic distribution

Fisher Log-Serieslogarithmic (series) distributionlogarithmic series distribution
Together, this produced the logseries distribution (Figure 4).
R. A. Fisher described the logarithmic distribution in a paper that used it to model relative species abundance.

Biodiversity

diversitybiological diversitybiodiverse
Relative species abundance is a component of biodiversity and refers to how common or rare a species is relative to other species in a defined location or community.

Macroecology

macroecologicalmacroecologist
Relative species abundances tend to conform to specific patterns that are among the best-known and most-studied patterns in macroecology.

Trophic level

trophictrophic levelsmean trophic level
Usually relative species abundances are described for a single trophic level.

Plankton

planktonicnanoplanktonmicroplankton
For example, relative species abundances might describe all terrestrial birds in a forest community or all planktonic copepods in a particular marine environment.

Copepod

copepodsCopepodaNeocopepoda
For example, relative species abundances might describe all terrestrial birds in a forest community or all planktonic copepods in a particular marine environment.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
For example, Charles Darwin noted in 1859 in The Origin of Species that "... rarity is the attribute of vast numbers of species in all classes...."

On the Origin of Species

The Origin of SpeciesOrigin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
For example, Charles Darwin noted in 1859 in The Origin of Species that "... rarity is the attribute of vast numbers of species in all classes...."

C.B. Williams

Carrington Bonsor WilliamsC. B. WilliamsCarrington Williams
The logseries was developed by Ronald Fisher to fit two different abundance data sets: British moth species (collected by Carrington Williams) and Malaya butterflies (collected by Alexander Steven Corbet).

Alexander Steven Corbet

A.S. CorbetCorbetSteven Corbet
The logseries was developed by Ronald Fisher to fit two different abundance data sets: British moth species (collected by Carrington Williams) and Malaya butterflies (collected by Alexander Steven Corbet).

Dimensionless quantity

dimensionlessdimensionless numberdimensionless quantities
Fisher's dimensionless α is often used as a measure of biodiversity, and indeed has recently been found to represent the fundamental biodiversity parameter θ from neutral theory ([[Relative species abundance#Fisher.E2.80.99s alpha and Hubbell.E2.80.99s theta .E2.80.93 an interesting convergence|see below]]).

Frank W. Preston

F. W. Preston
Using several data sets (including breeding bird surveys from New York and Pennsylvania and moth collections from Maine, Alberta and Saskatchewan) Frank W. Preston (1948) argued that species abundances (when binned logarithmically in a Preston plot) follow a normal (Gaussian) distribution, partly as a result of the central limit theorem (Figure 4).

Gaussian function

Gaussianbell curveGaussian kernel
Using several data sets (including breeding bird surveys from New York and Pennsylvania and moth collections from Maine, Alberta and Saskatchewan) Frank W. Preston (1948) argued that species abundances (when binned logarithmically in a Preston plot) follow a normal (Gaussian) distribution, partly as a result of the central limit theorem (Figure 4).

Central limit theorem

Lyapunov's central limit theoremlimit theoremscentral limit
Using several data sets (including breeding bird surveys from New York and Pennsylvania and moth collections from Maine, Alberta and Saskatchewan) Frank W. Preston (1948) argued that species abundances (when binned logarithmically in a Preston plot) follow a normal (Gaussian) distribution, partly as a result of the central limit theorem (Figure 4).

Log-normal distribution

lognormallog-normallognormal distribution
This means that the abundance distribution is lognormal.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
The Yule model is based on a much earlier, Galton–Watson model which was used to describe the distribution of species among genera.

Zero-sum game

zero-sumzero sumNon-zero-sum game
The model is zero-sum as there are a limited number of spaces that can be occupied: an increase in the number of individuals of one species in the grid must result in corresponding decrease in the number of individuals of other species in the grid.

Metacommunity

metacommunitiesmetacommunity dynamics
An unexpected result of the UNTB is that at very large sample sizes, predicted relative species abundance curves describe the metacommunity and become identical to Fisher's logseries.

Species richness

richnessspecies compositionspecies-rich
Species richness is simply a count of species, and it does not take into account the abundances of the species or their relative abundance distributions.

Decline in insect populations

Declines in insect abundanceInsect extinctionInsect population decline
For many studies, factors such as abundance, biomass, and species richness are often found to be declining for some, but not all locations; some species are in decline while others are not.

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
Biodiversity within ecosystems can be organized into trophic pyramids, in which the vertical dimension represents feeding relations that become further removed from the base of the food chain up toward top predators, and the horizontal dimension represents the abundance or biomass at each level.