Reliability engineering

reliabilityreliability theoryreliableReliability analysisReliable system designReliability engineerpoint of failurereliability testingsystem reliabilitypoints of failure
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.wikipedia
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Availability

mission capable rateavailablemission capable
Reliability is closely related to availability, which is typically described as the ability of a component or system to function at a specified moment or interval of time.
In reliability theory and reliability engineering, the term availability has the following meanings:

Dependability

dependabledispatch reliabilityDependable Systems
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.
As interest in fault tolerance and system reliability increased in the 1960s and 1970s, dependability came to be a measure of [x] as measures of reliability came to encompass additional measures like safety and integrity.

Product lifecycle

product lifecycle managementPLMproduct life cycle
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.

Systems engineering

systems engineersystem engineeringsystems
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.

Failure mode and effects analysis

FMEAfailure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)failure modes and effects analysis
Many engineering techniques are used in reliability risk assessments, such as reliability block diagrams, hazard analysis, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), Reliability Centered Maintenance, (probabilistic) load and material stress and wear calculations, (probabilistic) fatigue and creep analysis, human error analysis, manufacturing defect analysis, reliability testing, etc. It is crucial that these analyses are done properly and with much attention to detail to be effective.
It was developed by reliability engineers in the late 1950s to study problems that might arise from malfunctions of military systems.

Risk assessment

risk assessmentsassessmentacceptable risk
Many engineering techniques are used in reliability risk assessments, such as reliability block diagrams, hazard analysis, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), Reliability Centered Maintenance, (probabilistic) load and material stress and wear calculations, (probabilistic) fatigue and creep analysis, human error analysis, manufacturing defect analysis, reliability testing, etc. It is crucial that these analyses are done properly and with much attention to detail to be effective.
In the engineering of complex systems, sophisticated risk assessments are often made within safety engineering and reliability engineering when it concerns threats to life, environment, or machine functioning.

Fault tree analysis

fault treeevent treesfault tree analysis (FTA)
Many engineering techniques are used in reliability risk assessments, such as reliability block diagrams, hazard analysis, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), Reliability Centered Maintenance, (probabilistic) load and material stress and wear calculations, (probabilistic) fatigue and creep analysis, human error analysis, manufacturing defect analysis, reliability testing, etc. It is crucial that these analyses are done properly and with much attention to detail to be effective.
This analysis method is mainly used in the fields of safety engineering and reliability engineering to understand how systems can fail, to identify the best ways to reduce risk or to determine (or get a feeling for) event rates of a safety accident or a particular system level (functional) failure.

Design for X

Design for Excellence (DfX)Design for repairDesign for Service
DfR is often used as part of an overall Design for Excellence (DfX) strategy.

Spare part

sparepartsPart
This type of model allows demands on a supply system to ultimately be traced to their operational reliability, allowing for analysis of the dynamics of the supply system, in particular, spare parts.

Single point of failure

single points of failurecentral point of failurecauses the entire circuit to "open" or stop operating
SPOFs are undesirable in any system with a goal of high availability or reliability, be it a business practice, software application, or other industrial system.

Integrated logistics support

Logistics Support Analysislogistics supportCentral support
The impact of ILS is often measured in terms of metrics such as reliability, availability, maintainability and testability (RAMT), and sometimes System Safety (RAMS).

Failure rate

hazard functionMean Distance Between FailuresDecreasing failure rate
The most common reliability parameter is the mean time to failure (MTTF), which can also be specified as the failure rate (this is expressed as a frequency or conditional probability density function (PDF)) or the number of failures during a given period.
It is usually denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is often used in reliability engineering.

Stress testing

stress teststress testsStress
Reliability engineers often test items under expected stress or even under accelerated stress in order to determine the operating life of the item or to determine modes of failure.

Risk

risksdangerrisk-taking
Reliability engineering deals with the estimation, prevention and management of high levels of "lifetime" engineering uncertainty and risks of failure.

Burn-in

burn inburn-in testburning in
Examples of reliability tests of lasers are life test and burn-in.
The intention is to detect those particular components that would fail as a result of the initial, high-failure rate portion of the bathtub curve of component reliability.

Statistical process control

statistical quality controlstatistical controlSPC
In the 1920s, product improvement through the use of statistical process control was promoted by Dr. Walter A. Shewhart at Bell Labs, around the time that Waloddi Weibull was working on statistical models for fatigue.

Structural reliability

Structural reliability or the reliability of structures is the application of reliability theory to the behavior of structures.
Structural reliability is about applying Reliability engineering theories to Building s and, more generally, structural analysis.

Factor of safety

safety factorsafety marginfactors of safety
High reliability (safety factor) levels also result from good engineering and from attention to detail, and almost never from only reactive failure management (using reliability accounting and statistics).
Many systems are intentionally built much stronger than needed for normal usage to allow for emergency situations, unexpected loads, misuse, or degradation (reliability).

Hazard analysis

Hazard IdentificationHAZID(Weak Link Analysis)
Many engineering techniques are used in reliability risk assessments, such as reliability block diagrams, hazard analysis, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), Reliability Centered Maintenance, (probabilistic) load and material stress and wear calculations, (probabilistic) fatigue and creep analysis, human error analysis, manufacturing defect analysis, reliability testing, etc. It is crucial that these analyses are done properly and with much attention to detail to be effective.
The term is used in several engineering specialties, including avionics, chemical process safety, safety engineering, reliability engineering and food safety.

Monte Carlo method

Monte CarloMonte Carlo simulationMonte Carlo methods
It accounts for variation in load, strength, and stress that lead to failure with a high level of detail, made possible with the use of modern finite element method (FEM) software programs that can handle complex geometries and mechanisms such as creep, stress relaxation, fatigue, and probabilistic design (Monte Carlo Methods/DOE).

Logistics

logisticallogisticlogistics management
In larger organizations, there is usually a product assurance or specialty engineering organization, which may include reliability, maintainability, quality, safety, human factors, logistics, etc. In such case, the reliability engineer reports to the product assurance manager or specialty engineering manager.
RAM Logistics (see also Logistic engineering) combines both business logistics and military logistics since it is concerned with highly complicated technological systems for which Reliability, Availability and Maintainability are essential, ex: weapon systems and military supercomputers.