René Descartes

DescartesCartesianRene DescartesDescartes, RenéCartesianism Descartes’CartesCartesian doubtCartesian dualistic spaceCartesian plan
René Descartes (, also, ; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: Cartesian ; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.wikipedia
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Passions of the Soul

Les passions de l'âmepassions of the souThe Passion of the Soul
In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, an early modern treatise on emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before".
In his final philosophical treatise, The Passions of the Soul (Les Passions de l'âme), completed in 1649 and dedicated to Queen Christina of Sweden, René Descartes contributes to a long tradition of philosophical enquiry into the nature of "the passions".

Scientist

scientistsresearch scientistscience
René Descartes (, also, ; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: Cartesian ; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Descartes was not only a pioneer of analytic geometry but formulated a theory of mechanics and advanced ideas about the origins of animal movement and perception.

Modern philosophy

modernmodern philosophersphilosophy
One of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age, Descartes is also widely regarded as one of the founders of modern philosophy.
Major rationalists were Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, and Nicolas Malebranche.

Principles of Philosophy

Principia PhilosophiaePrincipes de la philosophiePrincipia
His best known philosophical statement is "I think, therefore I am" (Je pense, donc je suis; cogito, ergo sum), found in Discourse on the Method (1637; written in French and Latin) and Principles of Philosophy (1644; written in Latin).
Principles of Philosophy (Principia Philosophiæ) is a book by René Descartes.

Meditations on First Philosophy

MeditationsFirst MeditationMeditation
Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy (1641) continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.
Meditations on First Philosophy in which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated (Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas demonstratur) is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641.

Discourse on the Method

Discourse on MethodDiscours de la méthodeDiscours de la Methode
His best known philosophical statement is "I think, therefore I am" (Je pense, donc je suis; cogito, ergo sum), found in Discourse on the Method (1637; written in French and Latin) and Principles of Philosophy (1644; written in Latin).
Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences (Discours de la Méthode Pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences) is a philosophical and autobiographical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637.

Geometry

geometricgeometricalgeometries
He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry—used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis.
By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat.

Rationalism

rationalistrationalistsrationalistic
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and was later opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
In his book, Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes postulates three classifications for our ideas when he says, "Among my ideas, some appear to be innate, some to be adventitious, and others to have been invented by me. My understanding of what a thing is, what truth is, and what thought is, seems to derive simply from my own nature. But my hearing a noise, as I do now, or seeing the sun, or feeling the fire, comes from things which are located outside me, or so I have hitherto judged. Lastly, siren s, hippogriffs and the like are my own invention."

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and was later opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.

Empiricism

empiricistempiricalempirically
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and was later opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
René Descartes (, also, ; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: Cartesian ; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Among the most notable are René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

Mathematical analysis

analysisclassical analysisanalytic
He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry—used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis.
Descartes and Fermat independently developed analytic geometry, and a few decades later Newton and Leibniz independently developed infinitesimal calculus, which grew, with the stimulus of applied work that continued through the 18th century, into analysis topics such as the calculus of variations, ordinary and partial differential equations, Fourier analysis, and generating functions.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena.
René Descartes' metaphysical system of mind–body dualism describes two kinds of substance: matter and mind.

Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution.
The term British empiricism came into use to describe philosophical differences perceived between two of its founders Francis Bacon, described as empiricist, and René Descartes, who was described as a rationalist.

Augustine of Hippo

AugustineSt. AugustineSaint Augustine
Many elements of Descartes' philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine.
Augustine was not preoccupied, as Plato and Descartes were, with going too much into details in efforts to explain the metaphysics of the soul-body union.

Rules for the Direction of the Mind

RegulaeRegulæ ad directionem ingenii
It was there that he composed his first essay on method: Regulae ad Directionem Ingenii (Rules for the Direction of the Mind).
In 1628 or a few years earlier, René Descartes began work on an unfinished treatise regarding the proper method for scientific and philosophical thinking entitled Regulae ad directionem ingenii, or Rules for the Direction of the Mind.

Thomas Hobbes

HobbesHobbesianHobbes, Thomas
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and was later opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
In Paris, he rejoined the coterie around Mersenne and wrote a critique of the Meditations on First Philosophy of Descartes, which was printed as third among the sets of "Objections" appended, with "Replies" from Descartes, in 1641.

Adrien Baillet

BailletBaillet, Adrien
According to Adrien Baillet, on the night of 10–11 November 1619 (St. Martin's Day), while stationed in Neuburg an der Donau, Descartes shut himself in a room with an "oven" (probably a cocklestove ) to escape the cold.
He is now best known as a biographer of René Descartes.

Leiden University

University of LeidenLeidenUniversity of Leyden
The next year, under the name "Poitevin", he enrolled at the Leiden University to study mathematics with Jacobus Golius, who confronted him with Pappus's hexagon theorem, and astronomy with Martin Hortensius.
During this time, Leiden became the home to individuals such as René Descartes, Rembrandt, Christiaan Huygens, Hugo Grotius, Baruch Spinoza and Baron d'Holbach.

The World (Descartes)

The WorldThe World'' (Descartes)Descartes' vortex theory
In 1633, Galileo was condemned by the Italian Inquisition, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years.
The World, also called Treatise on the Light (French title: Traité du monde et de la lumière), is a book by René Descartes (1596–1650).

Marin Mersenne

MersenneMersenne, MarinFather Mersenne
In the fall of the same year, in the residence of the papal nuncio Guidi di Bagno, where he came with Mersenne and many other scholars to listen to a lecture given by the alchemist Nicolas de Villiers, Sieur de Chandoux on the principles of a supposed new philosophy, Cardinal Bérulle urged him to write an exposition of his own new philosophy in some location beyond the reach of the Inquisition.
There he studied mathematics and music and met with other kindred spirits such as René Descartes, Étienne Pascal, Pierre Petit, Gilles de Roberval, Thomas Hobbes, and Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc.

University of Poitiers

PoitiersUniversité de PoitiersPoitiers University
After graduation in 1614, he studied for two years (1615–16) at the University of Poitiers, earning a Baccalauréat and Licence in canon and civil law in 1616, in accordance with his father's wishes that he should become a lawyer.
Of the 4,000 students who attended it at the time, some were to become famous: Joachim Du Bellay, Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac, François Rabelais, René Descartes, Francis Bacon and Scévole de Sainte-Marthe, to name but a few.

George Berkeley

BerkeleyBishop BerkeleyEsse est percipi
Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and was later opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
In his Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, Berkeley frequently criticised the views of the Optic Writers, a title that seems to include Molyneux, Wallis, Malebranche and Descartes.

Elisabeth of the Palatinate

Elisabeth of BohemiaElisabeth of Bohemia, Princess PalatinePrincess Elisabeth of Bohemia
Descartes began (through Alfonso Polloti, an Italian general in Dutch service) a six-year correspondence with Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia, devoted mainly to moral and psychological subjects.
Elisabeth of the Palatinate is a philosopher best known for her correspondence with René Descartes.

Dutch Golden Age

Golden AgeDutch styleGolden Age of Dutch science and technology
One of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age, Descartes is also widely regarded as one of the founders of modern philosophy.
French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650) lived in Holland from 1628 until 1649.