A report on Renaissance

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.
Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1480–85) (Simonetta Vespucci) by Sandro Botticelli
View of Florence, birthplace of the Renaissance
Coluccio Salutati
A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494
Pieter Bruegel's The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) reflects the social upheaval and terror that followed the plague that devastated medieval Europe.
Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts (Portrait by Vasari)
Pico della Mirandola, writer of the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance".
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490) demonstrates the effect writers of Antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius' De architectura (1st century BC), Leonardo tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man. (Museum Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)
Anonymous portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus (c. 1580)
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, father of accounting, painted by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).
The world map by Pietro Coppo, Venice, 1520
Alexander VI, a Borgia Pope infamous for his corruption
Adoration of the Magi and Solomon adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours (1546) by Giulio Clovio marks the end of the Italian Renaissance of illuminated manuscript together with the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.
Leonardo Bruni
"What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god!" – from William Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Château de Chambord (1519–1547), one of the most famous examples of Renaissance architecture
Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer, 1519
Erasmus of Rotterdam in 1523, as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger
São Pedro Papa, 1530–1535, by Grão Vasco Fernandes. A pinnacle piece from when the Portuguese Renaissance had considerable external influence.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin
Theotokos and The Child, the late-17th-century Russian icon by Karp Zolotaryov, with notably realistic depiction of faces and clothing.
The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, by Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo
A cover of the Lives of the Artists by Giorgio Vasari
Painting of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, an event in the French Wars of Religion, by François Dubois

Period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity.

- Renaissance
Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.

199 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Middle Ages

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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.

Florence

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City in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region.

City in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region.

View of Florence by Hartmann Schedel, published in 1493
Julius Caesar established Florence in 59 BC.
The Goth King Totila razes the walls of Florence during the Gothic War: illumination from the Chigi manuscript of Villani's Cronica.
The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte
Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the Uffizi Gallery
Girolamo Savonarola being burnt at the stake in 1498. The brooding Palazzo Vecchio is at centre right.
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and his family. Leopold was, from 1765 to 1790, the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Porte Sante cemetery, burial place of notable figures of Florentine history
1/5 Mahratta Light Infantry, Florence, 28 August 1944
Florence with snow cover in December 2009
Seats in the Florence City Council
(2019–2024)
Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore
Palazzo Vecchio
1835 City Map of Florence, still largely in the confines of its medieval city centre
Ponte Vecchio, which spans the Arno river
Florence in the evening --Same picture as above. The same picture--
Palazzo Pitti
Ponte Santa Trinita with the Oltrarno district
The city of Florence as seen from the hill of Fiesole
Florence Duomo as seen from Michelangelo hill
Piazzale degli Uffizi
Palazzo Pitti on Boboli Gardens' side
The façade of the Cathedral
Piazza della Repubblica
Panorama composite, overview of Firenze, taken from the Giardino Bardini viewpoint
Replica of David and other statues, Piazza della Signoria
Tourists flock to the Fontana del Porcellino.
Tourists and restaurant in the Piazza del Duomo
Fiaschi of basic Chianti
Botticelli's Venus, stored in the Uffizi
Sculptures in the Loggia dei Lanzi
Michelangelo's David
The Uffizi are the 10th most visited art museum in the world.
The Palazzo della Signoria, better known as the Palazzo Vecchio (English: The Old Palace)
Brunelleschi's dome
The introduction of the Decameron (1350–1353) by Giovanni Boccaccio
The Teatro della Pergola
Florentine steak in Florence
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
A display of proboscideans in the Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze, or the Natural History Museum of Florence
Luxury boutiques along Florence's prestigious Via de' Tornabuoni
Calcio Storico
Stadio Artemio Franchi
Rectorate's auditorium of University of Florence
Tramway Sirio in Florence
Route map of the tramway
Florence Airport
Mobikes at Parco delle Cascine, Florence
Dante Alighieri
Lorenzo de' Medici
Amerigo Vespucci
Niccolò Machiavelli
The traditional boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
The 5 administrative boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the Uffizi Gallery

It is considered by many academics to have been the birthplace of the Renaissance, becoming a major artistic, cultural, commercial, political, economic and financial center.

Italy

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Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, and art.

Portrait by Daniele da Volterra, c. undefined 1545

Michelangelo

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Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance.

Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance.

Portrait by Daniele da Volterra, c. undefined 1545
The Madonna of the Steps (1490–1492)
Pietà, St Peter's Basilica (1498–99)
The Statue of David, completed by Michelangelo in 1504, is one of the most renowned works of the Renaissance.
Tomb of Julius II, 1505–1545
Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; the work took approximately four years to complete (1508–1512)
The Last Judgment (1534–1541)
The dome of St Peter's Basilica
Ignudo fresco from 1509 on the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Michelangelo, drawn from sight by Francisco de Holanda in the late 1530s.
The Punishment of Tityus, gift to Tommaso dei Cavalieri, c. 1532
The Sistine Chapel Ceiling (1508–1512)
Tomb of Michelangelo (1578) by Giorgio Vasari in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.
The Taddei Tondo (1502)
Madonna and Child. Bruges, Belgium (1504)
The Doni Tondo (1504–1506)
Angel by Michelangelo, early work (1494–95)
Bacchus by Michelangelo, early work (1496–1497)
Dying Slave, Louvre (1513)
Atlas Slave (1530–1534)
The Drunkenness of Noah
The Deluge (detail)
The Creation of Adam (1510)
The First Day of Creation
Studies for The Libyan Sibyl
 The Libyan Sibyl (1511)
The Prophet Jeremiah (1511)
Ignudo
Battle of the Centaurs (1492)
Copy of the lost Battle of Cascina by Bastiano da Sangallo
The Last Judgment, detail of the Redeemed. (see whole image above)
The Crucifixion of St. Peter
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library has Mannerist features which challenge the Classical order of Brunelleschi's adjacent church.
Michelangelo's redesign of the ancient Capitoline Hill included a complex spiralling pavement with a star at its centre.
Michelangelo's design for St Peter's is both massive and contained, with the corners between the apsidal arms of the Greek Cross filled by square projections.
The exterior is surrounded by a giant order of pilasters supporting a continuous cornice. Four small cupolas cluster around the dome.
Design for a window in the Palazzo Farnese.
Second design for wall tomb of Pope Julius II
Self-portrait of the artist as Nicodemus
Statue of Victory (1534), Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
The Pietà of Vittoria Colonna (c. 1540)
The Rondanini Pietà (1552–1564)
The Doni Tondo (1504–1506)
Drawing showing Tommaso dei Cavalieri by Michelangelo

The Renaissance, a renewal of Classical scholarship and the arts, had its first flowering in Florence.

Frontispiece depicting Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio with the arms of the Medici-Toledo family on top.

Renaissance humanism

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Revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

Revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

Frontispiece depicting Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio with the arms of the Medici-Toledo family on top.

During the Renaissance period most humanists were Christians, so their concern was to "purify and renew Christianity", not to do away with it.

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century

Early modern period

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The early modern period of modern history spans the period after the Late Middle Ages of the post-classical era (c.

The early modern period of modern history spans the period after the Late Middle Ages of the post-classical era (c.

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century
A Japanese depiction of a Portuguese trading carrack. Advances in shipbuilding technology during the Late Middle Ages would pave the way for the global European presence characteristic of the early modern period.
Cishou Temple Pagoda, built in 1576: the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period.
A painting depecting the Qing Chinese celebrating a victory over the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan. This work was a collaboration between Chinese and European painters.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa, c. 1830 by Hokusai, an example of art flourishing in the Edo Period
Map of the Gunpowder Empires, the Mughal Empire being the orange one.
The Mughal ambassador Khan'Alam in 1618 negotiating with Shah Abbas the Great of Iran.
Robert Clive and Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, 1757 by Francis Hayman
Ottoman Empire 1481–1683
Ferdinand Pauwels – Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door
Gutenberg reviewing a press proof (a colored engraving created probably in the 19th century)
15th century Hanging Houses in Cuenca, Spain from the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period.
Battle of Vienna, 12 September 1683
Bourgeoisie takes more and more importance throughout the modern era.
Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army.
The Cantino planisphere (1502), the oldest surviving Portuguese nautical chart showing the results of the explorations of Vasco da Gama to India, Columbus to Central America, Gaspar Corte-Real to Newfoundland and Pedro Álvares Cabral to Brazil. The meridian of Tordesillas, separating the Portuguese and Spanish halves of the world is also depicted
Axum and Adal circa 1500.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia
World Colonization of 1492 (Early Modern World), 1550, 1660, 1754 (Age of Enlightenment), 1822 (Industrial revolution), 1885 (European Hegemony), 1914 (World War I era), 1938 (World War II era), 1959 (Cold War era) and 1974, 2008 (Recent history).
Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
Model for the Three Superior Planets and Venus from Georg von Peuerbach, Theoricae novae planetarum.
"If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it." An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie; Truth (center) is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right, Philosophy and Reason
Engraved world map (including magnetic declination lines) by Leonhard Euler from his school atlas "Geographischer Atlas bestehend in 44 Land-Charten" first published 1753 in Berlin
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830). The French Revolution inspired a wave of revolutions across Europe. Liberalism and Nationalism were popular ideas that challenged Absolute Monarchies in the 19th century.
Gold fueled European exploration of the Americas. Explorers reported Native Americans in Central America, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia were to have had large amounts.
Silver, valued as a precious metal, has been used to make expensive ornaments, fine jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (silverware), and currency coins.
Spices were among the most luxurious products, the most common being black pepper, cinnamon (and the cheaper alternative cassia), cumin, nutmeg, ginger and cloves.

1800). Although the chronological limits of this period are open to debate, the timeframe is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Renaissance period in Europe and Timurid Central Asia, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, the end of the Crusades, the Age of Discovery (especially the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492 but also Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India in 1498), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789, or Napoleon's rise to power.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence

Italian Renaissance

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Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence
Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), lord of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca. Malatesta was a capable condottiere, following the tradition of his family. He was hired by the Venetians to fight against the Turks (unsuccessfully) in 1465, and was the patron of Leone Battista Alberti, whose Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini is one of the first entirely classical buildings of the Renaissance.
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici by Jacopo Pontormo
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance Man
Giulio Clovio, Adoration of the Magi and Solomon Adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours, 1546
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), the author of The Prince and prototypical Renaissance man. Detail from a portrait by Santi di Tito.
Petrarch, from the Cycle of Famous Men and Women. ca. 1450. Detached fresco. 247 x. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Artist: Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla (ca. 1423–1457).
Detail of The Last Judgment, 1536–1541, by Michelangelo
David by Donatello
Bramante's Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502
Claudio Monteverdi by Bernardo Strozzi

During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering.

Republic of Florence

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Medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.

Medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.

The Florentine Republic in 1548
Italy in 1084, showing the Marquisate of Tuscany.
The Florentine Republic in 1548
Front and back of a Florentine florin
The growth of Florence from 1300 to 1500
The Italian Peninsula in 1499.
Coat of arms of the House of Medici
Cosimo de' Medici, founder of the House of Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
Girolamo Savonarola
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Leo X (center) and Cardinal Giulio de' Medici (left)
Alessandro de' Medici
Cosimo I de' Medici
Leo X (center) and Cardinal Giulio de' Medici (left)

During the Republican period, Florence was also the birthplace of the Renaissance, which is considered a fervent period of European cultural, artistic, political and economic “rebirth”.

Self-portrait by Vasari

Giorgio Vasari

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Self-portrait by Vasari
Six Tuscan Poets by Giorgio Vasari, c. 1544, from left to right: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Francesco Petrarca, Giovanni Boccaccio, Dante Alighieri, and Guido Cavalcanti
The Garden of Gethsemane by Giorgio Vasari
The Uffizi Loggia
A cover of the Lives
Alessandro de Medici resting
Pieta
Bird catchers
Holy Family, with Andrea del Sarto
Last Supper
Entombment
Temptations of St. Jerome
St. Luke painting the Virgin
Annunciation
Justice
The Prophet Elisha
Interior of the dome of Florence Cathedral
Cosimo studies the taking of Siena
Apotheosis of Cosimo I
Defeat of the Venetians in Casentino
Giorgio Vasari with drawings by Filippino Lippi, Botticelli, and Raffaellino del Garbo
Giorgio Vasari with drawings by Filippino Lippi, Botticelli, and Raffaellino del Garbo
Uffizi colonnade and loggia
Loggia of Vasari in Arezzo
Pietro in Montorio, Rome
Tomb of Michelangelo
Sala dei Cento Giorni - Giorgio Vasari - 1547 - Palazzo della Cancelleria
Villa Giulia - Court - Vasari - Vignola
Part of Loggia del Mercato Vecchio, Florence, just prior to its demolition in the 1880s

Giorgio Vasari (, also, ; 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, engineer, writer, and historian, best known for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing, and the basis for biographies of several Renaissance artists, including Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.

Petrarch portrait by Altichiero

Petrarch

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Scholar and poet of early Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

Scholar and poet of early Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

Petrarch portrait by Altichiero
Petrarch portrait by Altichiero
Santa Maria della Pieve in Arezzo
La Casa del Petrarca (birthplace) at Vicolo dell'Orto, 28 in Arezzo
Summit of Mont Ventoux
Petrarch's Arquà house near Padua where he retired to spend his last years
Original lyrics by Petrarch, found in 1985 in Erfurt
Petrarch's Virgil (title page) (c. 1336)
Illuminated manuscript by Simone Martini, 29 x 20 cm Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan.
The Triumph of Death, or The 3 Fates. Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels, c. 1510–1520). Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos, who spin, draw out and cut the thread of life, represent Death in this tapestry, as they triumph over the fallen body of Chastity. This is the third subject in Petrarch's poem "The Triumphs". First, Love triumphs; then Love is overcome by Chastity, Chastity by Death, Death by Fame, Fame by Time and Time by Eternity
Petrarch revived the work and letters of the ancient Roman Senator Marcus Tullius Cicero
Laura de Noves
Dante Alighieri, detail from a Luca Signorelli fresco in the chapel of San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto.
Statue of Petrarch on the Uffizi Palace, in Florence
Petrarch's tomb at Arquà Petrarca

Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian Renaissance and the founding of Renaissance humanism.