Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean RenaissanceRenaissance periodRenaissance eraRenaissance EuropeRenaissance-eraItalian RenaissanceRenaissance styleHigh Renaissance
The Renaissance was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries.wikipedia
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Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
The Renaissance was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries.
It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.

History of Europe

European historyModern European historyEurope
The Renaissance was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries.
Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology.

Modernity

modernmodern societymodern life
The Renaissance was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of the Renaissance—in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

Renaissance Latin

Humanist LatinLatinRenaissance
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting; and gradual but widespread educational reform.
Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement.

Polymath

Renaissance manpolyhistorHomo Universalis
Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".
[[File:Leonardo da Vinci - presumed self-portrait - WGA12798.jpg|thumb|Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath of the Renaissance era.

Florence

FlorentineFlorence, ItalyFirenze
The Renaissance began in the 14th century in Florence, Italy.
It is considered by many academics the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages."

Petrarch

Francesco PetrarcaPetrarcaFrancesco Petrarch
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting; and gradual but widespread educational reform.
Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian Renaissance and the founding of Renaissance humanism.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
The Renaissance began in the 14th century in Florence, Italy.
The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration and art.

Republic of Venice

VenetianVeniceVenetian Republic
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, and finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy.
Centered on the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, the republic grew into a trading power during the Middle Ages and strengthened this position in the Renaissance.

Rome

Rome, ItalyRomanRoma
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, and finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy.
Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all popes since Nicholas V (1447–1455) pursued a coherent architectural and urban programme over four hundred years, aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world.

Early modern period

early moderncolonial eraearly modern era
The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the Middle Ages.
1800) and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Renaissance period in Europe, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, and the Age of Discovery (especially the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492 but also with Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India in 1498) and ending around the French Revolution in 1789.

Renaissance music

RenaissancemusicRenaissance composer
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in art, architecture, philosophy, literature, music, science and technology, politics, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.

History of science in the Renaissance

scienceRenaissance scienceRenaissance scientists
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in art, architecture, philosophy, literature, music, science and technology, politics, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering.

Renaissance technology

technologyRenaissanceartist-engineers of the time
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in art, architecture, philosophy, literature, music, science and technology, politics, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
Renaissance technology was the set of European artifacts and inventions which spread through the Renaissance period, roughly the 14th century through the 16th century.

Renaissance literature

RenaissanceliteratureRenaissance poetry
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in art, architecture, philosophy, literature, music, science and technology, politics, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
Renaissance literature refers to European literature which was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance.

Oil painting

Oil on canvasoiloils
Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete.
The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in Northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced the use of tempera paints in the majority of Europe.

Filippo Brunelleschi

Brunelleschibrunelleschian
Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point is 1401, when the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral (Ghiberti won).
Filippo Brunelleschi (, ; 1377 – 15 April 1446), considered to be a founding father of Renaissance architecture, was an Italian architect and designer, recognized to be the first modern engineer, planner, and sole construction supervisor.

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Ghiberti
Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point is 1401, when the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral (Ghiberti won).
Lorenzo Ghiberti (, ; 1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians, especially of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties". Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary, historical, and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople (1453) generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe as the Renaissance, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary, historical, and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople (1453) generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance.

Renaissance philosophy

philosophyRenaissanceRenaissance philosophers
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in art, architecture, philosophy, literature, music, science and technology, politics, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
This article reviews both the changes in context and content of Renaissance philosophy and its remarkable continuities with the past.

Movable type

moveable typeinvention of the printing presstype
Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the very first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
The printing press may be regarded as one of the key factors fostering the Renaissance and due to its effectiveness, its use spread around the globe.

Periodization

periodperiodisationhistorical epochs
The Renaissance was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries.
Other labels such as Renaissance have strongly positive characteristics.

Perspective (graphical)

perspectiveforeshorteninglinear perspective
Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete.
Various early Renaissance works depict perspective lines with an implied convergence, albeit without a unifying vanishing point.

Jules Michelet

MicheletMichelet, Jules
Jules Michelet defined the 16th-century Renaissance in France as a period in Europe's cultural history that represented a break from the Middle Ages, creating a modern understanding of humanity and its place in the world.
In his 1855 work, Histoire de France (History of France), Jules Michelet was the first historian to use and define the word Renaissance ('Re-birth' in French), as a period in Europe's cultural history that represented a drastic break from the Middle Ages (which he loathed), creating a modern understanding of humanity and its place in the world.