A report on Renaissance architecture

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto
Palladio's engraving of Bramante's Tempietto
Plan of Bramante's Tempietto in Montorio
The Piazza del Campidoglio
The Romanesque Florence Baptistery was the object of Brunelleschi's studies of perspective
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace.
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles. Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Posthumous portrait by Pontormo.
The Church of the Certosa di Pavia, Lombardy
Scuola Grande di San Marco, Venice
Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Facade of Sant'Agostino, Rome, built in 1483 by Giacomo di Pietrasanta
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
The dome of Florence Cathedral (the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore)
The church of San Lorenzo
Palazzo Medici Riccardi by Michelozzo. Florence, 1444
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, the façade
Façade of Santa Maria Novella, 1456–70
The crossing of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan (1490)
picture above
The Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo.
Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence, by Raphael
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.
Palazzo Te, Mantua
St Peter's Basilica
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library
Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Keystone with a profile of a man, Palazzo Giusti, Verona, Italy
The House of the Blackheads in Riga, Latvia
Royal Summer Palace in Prague is considered the purest Renaissance architecture outside of Italy.
Cathedral of St James, Šibenik
English Renaissance: Hardwick Hall (1590–1597).
French Renaissance: Château de Chambord (1519–39)
Juleum in Helmstedt, Germany (example of Weser Renaissance)
Antwerp City Hall (finished in 1564)
Courtyard of Wawel Castle exemplifies first period of Polish Renaissance
Cloister of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal, (1557–1591), Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.
Nordic Renaissance: Frederiksborg Palace (1602–20)
The Escorial (1563–1584), Madrid
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO WHS.
The large Basilica of San Francisco in Quito, built between 1535 and 1650, a UNESCO World Heritage Site city.

European architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

- Renaissance architecture
Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death

76 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence

Italian Renaissance

8 links

Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence
Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), lord of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca. Malatesta was a capable condottiere, following the tradition of his family. He was hired by the Venetians to fight against the Turks (unsuccessfully) in 1465, and was the patron of Leone Battista Alberti, whose Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini is one of the first entirely classical buildings of the Renaissance.
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici by Jacopo Pontormo
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance Man
Giulio Clovio, Adoration of the Magi and Solomon Adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours, 1546
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), the author of The Prince and prototypical Renaissance man. Detail from a portrait by Santi di Tito.
Petrarch, from the Cycle of Famous Men and Women. ca. 1450. Detached fresco. 247 x. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Artist: Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla (ca. 1423–1457).
Detail of The Last Judgment, 1536–1541, by Michelangelo
David by Donatello
Bramante's Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502
Claudio Monteverdi by Bernardo Strozzi

The Italian Renaissance has a reputation for its achievements in painting, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, philosophy, science, technology, and exploration.

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza

Andrea Palladio

9 links

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza
One of the first works by Palladio, Villa Godi (begun 1537)
Hall of the Muses of the Villa Godi (1537–1542)
Villa Piovene (1539)
Villa Pisani, Bagnolo (1542)
Palazzo Thiene (1542–1558), (begun by Giulio Romano, revised and completed by Palladio)
Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza
Ground floor and entrance stairway of the Basilica Palladiana
Upper level loggia of the Basilica Palladiana
Palazzo Chiericati (1550) in Vicenza
Palazzo del Capitaniato (1565–1572)
The front page of I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1642 edition)
Villa Cornaro (begun 1553) combined rustic living and an imposing space for formal entertaining
The Hall of the Four Columns
Plan of the Villa Cornaro
The Villa Barbaro in Maser (begun 1557)
The Nymphaeum of the Villa Barbaro
Detail of the Hall of Olympus, with frescoes by Paolo Veronese
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" (begun 1566)
Palladio's plan of the Villa in I quattro libri dell'architettura, 1570
North facade of Villa Foscari, facing the Brenta Canal
Interior decoration of grotesques on salon ceiling of Villa Foscari
South facade of Villa Foscari, with the large windows that illuminate the main salon
Nave of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1565)
Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Interior of Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Plan by Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi
Facade of the Tempietto Barbaro
Section of the Tempietto Barbaro, drawn by Scamozzi (1783)
Stage with scenery designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi, who completed the theatre after the death of Palladio
Stage and seating of his last work, the Teatro Olimpico (1584)
House of the Director of the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux (1775)
La Rotonde customs barrier, Parc Monceau, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Palladian garden structure at Steinhöfel by David Gilly (1798)
The Queen's House, Greenwich by Inigo Jones (1616–1635)
Chiswick House by Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and William Kent (completed 1729)
Wilton House south front by Inigo Jones (1650)
Palladio Bridge at Wilton House (1736–37)
Stourhead House by Colen Campbell (1721–24), inspired by Villa Capra
Harvard Hall at Harvard University by Thomas Dawes (1766)
Monticello, residence of Thomas Jefferson (1772)
Winning design for the first United States Capitol by Thomas Thornton (1793)
Clarity and harmony. Villa Badoer (1556–1563), an early use by Palladio of the elements of a Roman temple
The Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, (begun 1546) with arched Palladian window and round oculi to the loggia.
A variation of the Palladian or Venetian window, with round oculi, at Villa Pojana (1548–49)
Late Palladio style, Mannerist decoration on the facade of the Palazzo del Capitanio (1565–1572)
Palazzo Strozzi courtyard
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" outside Vicenza
San Francesco della Vigna in Venice
Villa Porto
Villa Valmarana
Villa Emo
Villa Saraceno
Villa Cornaro
Palazzo del Capitaniato, Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, Vicenza

The basic elements of Italian Renaissance architecture, including Doric columns, lintels, cornices, loggias, pediments and domes had already been used in the 15th century or earlier, before Palladio.

Pointed arches in the Tower of the church of San Salvador, Teruel

Gothic architecture

5 links

Architectural style that was prevalent in Europe from the late 12th to the 16th century, during the High and Late Middle Ages, surviving into the 17th and 18th centuries in some areas.

Architectural style that was prevalent in Europe from the late 12th to the 16th century, during the High and Late Middle Ages, surviving into the 17th and 18th centuries in some areas.

Pointed arches in the Tower of the church of San Salvador, Teruel
Early Gothic triple elevationSens Cathedral (1135–1164)
High Gothic flying buttressesMetz Cathedral (1220–)
High Gothic west front, Reims Cathedral (1211–)
Strasbourg Cathedral (1275–1486), a facade entirely covered in sculpture and tracery
Flamboyant Gothic east end,Prague Cathedral (1344–)
Perpendicular Gothic east end, Henry VII Chapel (c. 1503–12)
Flamboyant, Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes, west front
Structure of an early six-part Gothic rib vault. (Drawing by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc)
Crossing vault, Seville Cathedral
Rouen Cathedral from the south west – façade towers 12th–15th century, the flamboyant tower to the 15th century, spire rebuilt in 16th century
Oxen sculpture in High Gothic towers of Laon Cathedral (13th century)
Beauvais Cathedral, south transept (consecrated 1272)
Plate tracery, Lincoln Cathedral "Dean's Eye" rose window (c.1225)
Plan of a Gothic cathedral
Notre-Dame de Paris – deep portals, a rose window, balance of horizontal and vertical elements. Early Gothic.
Grotesque of Selby Abbey (14th century)
Windows of Sainte-Chapelle (13th century)
Medieval Louvre in early 15th century
Plateresque façade, University of Salamanca (late 15th century)
Donjon of the Château de Vincennes, (1337–)
Thistle Chapel at Edinburgh's High Kirk (completed 1910)
Early Gothic: Abbey church of Saint-Denis, west façade (1135–40)
Early Gothic: Nave of Sens Cathedral (1135–1176)
Early English; choir of Canterbury Cathedral (1174–80)
Notre-Dame de Paris nave (rebuilt 1180–1220)
High Gothic; Chartres Cathedral choir (1210-1250)
Rayonnant: Sainte-Chapelle upper level (1238-1248)
Rayonnant- Angel's Choir of Lincoln Cathedral (14th c.)
Perpendicular Gothic; Choir of York Minister (1361-1405)
Flamboyant; "Butter Tower" of Rouen Cathedral (1488-1506)
Eastern end of Wells Cathedral (begun 1175)
West front of Reims Cathedral, pointed arches within arches (1211–1275)
Lancet windows of transept of Salisbury Cathedral (1220–1258)
Pointed arches in the arcades, triforium, and clerestory of Lincoln Cathedral (1185–1311)
A detail of the windows and galleries of the west front of Strasbourg Cathedral (1215–1439)
Early six-part rib vaults in Sens Cathedral (1135–1164)
Rib vaults of choir of Canterbury Cathedral (1174–77)
Stronger four-part rib vaults in nave of Reims Cathedral (1211–1275)
Salisbury Cathedral – rectangular four-part vault over a single bay (1220–1258)
Lierne vaults of Gloucester Cathedral (Perpendicular Gothic)
Skeleton-vault in aisle of Bristol Cathedral (c. 1311–1340)
Lincoln Cathedral – quadripartite form, with tierceron ribs and ridge rib with carved bosses.
Bremen Cathedral – north aisle, a reticular (net) vault with intersecting ribs.
Church of the Assumption, St Marein, Austria – star vault with intersecting lierne ribs.
Salamanca Cathedral, Spain Flamboyant S-shaped and circular lierne ribs. (16th–18th century)
Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse – palm tree vault (1275–1292)
Peterborough Cathedral, retrochoir – intersecting fan vaults
"Rococo Gothic" vaults of Vladislav Hall of Prague Castle (1493)
Early Gothic – Alternating columns and piers, Sens Cathedral (12th century)
High Gothic – Clustered columns of Reims Cathedral (13th century)
Early English Gothic – Clustered columns in Salisbury Cathedral (13th century)
Perpendicular Gothic – columns without interruption from floor to the vaults. Canterbury Cathedral nave (late 14th century)
Canterbury Cathedral with simple wall buttresses and flying buttresses (rebuilt into Gothic 1174–1177)
East end of Lincoln Cathedral, with wall buttress, and chapter house with flying buttresses. (1185–1311)
Flying buttresses of Notre Dame de Paris (c. 1230)
Buttresses of Amiens Cathedral with pinnacles to give them added weight (1220–1266)
Section of Reims Cathedral showing the three levels of each buttress (1211–1275)
Decorated buttresses of Cologne Cathedral (1248–1573)
Abbaye aux Hommes, Caen (tall west towers added in the 13th century)
Towers of Chartres Cathedral; Flamboyant Gothic on left, early Gothic on the right.
The 13th century flèche of Notre Dame, recreated in the 19th c, destroyed by fire in 2019, now being restored
Salisbury Cathedral tower and spire over the crossing (1320)
West towers of York Minster, in the Perpendicular Gothic style.
The perpendicular west towers of Beverley Minster (c. 1400)
Crossing tower of Canterbury Cathedral (1493–1505)
Cologne Cathedral towers (begun 13th century, completed 20th century
Tower of Ulm Minster (begun 1377, completed 19th century)
Tower of Freiburg Minster (begun 1340) noted for its lacelike openwork spire
Prague Cathedral (begun 1344)
The Giralda, the bell tower of Seville Cathedral (1401–1506)
West towers of Burgos Cathedral (1444–1540)
Giotto's Campanile of Florence Cathedral (1334–1359)
Lancet Gothic, Ripon Minster west front (begun 1160)
Plate tracery, Chartres Cathedral clerestory (1194–1220)
Geometrical Decorated Gothic, Ripon Minster east window
Rayonnant rose window, Strasbourg Cathedral west front
Flamboyant rose window, Amiens Cathedral west front
Curvilinear window, Limoges Cathedral nave
Perpendicular four-centred arch, King's College Chapel, Cambridge west front
Early bar tracery in Soissons Cathedral (13th century)
Bar-tracery, Lincoln Cathedral east window
Blind tracery, Tours Cathedral (16th century)
Noyon Cathedral nave showing the four early Gothic levels (late 12h century)
Three-part elevation of Wells Cathedral (begun 1176)
Nave of Lincoln Cathedral (begun 1185) showing three levels; arcade (bottom); tribune (middle) and clerestory (top).
Three-part elevation of Chartres Cathedral, with larger clerestory windows.
Nave of Amiens Cathedral, looking west (1220–1270)
Nave of Strasbourg Cathedral (mid-13th century), looking east
The medieval east end of Cologne Cathedral (begun 1248)
Wells Cathedral (1176–1450). Early English Gothic. The facade was a Great Wall of sculpture.
Amiens Cathedral, (13th century). Vertical emphasis. High Gothic.
Salisbury Cathedral – wide sculptured screen, lancet windows, turrets with pinnacles. (1220–1258)
Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula in Brussels, a towered highly decorated facade
Flamboyant facade of Notre-Dame de l'Épine (1405–1527) with openwork towers
Orvieto Cathedral (1310–), with polychrome mosaics
High Gothic Chevet of Amiens Cathedral, with chapels between the buttresses (13th century)
Ambulatory and Chapels of the chevet of Notre Dame de Paris (14th century)
The Henry VII Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey (begun 1503)
Ely Cathedral – square east end: Early English chancel (left) and Decorated Lady Chapel (right)
Interior of the Ely Cathedral Lady Chapel (14th century)
Monsters and devils tempting Christians - South portal of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
Gallery of Kings and Saints on the facade of Wells Cathedral (13th century)
Amiens Cathedral, tympanum detail – "Christ in majesty" (13th century)
Illumination of portals of Amiens Cathedral to show how it may have appeared with original colors
West portal Annunciation group at Reims Cathedral with smiling angel at left (13th century)
More naturalistic later Gothic. Temptation of the foolish Virgins, Strasbourg Cathedral.
Sculpture from facade of Siena Cathedral by Nino Pisano (14th century)
Gargoyle of Amiens Cathedral (13rh century)
A stryx at Notre-Dame de Paris (19th century copy)
Labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
Labyrinth with Chartres pattern at Amiens Cathedral
Abbey of Saint-Denis, Abbot Suger represented at feet of Virgin Mary (12th century)
Detail of the Apocalypse window, Bourges Cathedral, early 13th century
Thomas Becket figure from Canterbury Cathedral (13th century)
Glass of Sainte-Chapelle depicting a baptism (13th century), now in Cluny Museum
Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes (14th century)
Windows of King's College Chapel, Cambridge (1446–1451)
The Visitation window (1480) from Ulm Minster, by Peter Hemmel of Andlau. Late Gothic with fine shading and painted details.
Late Gothic grisaille glass and painted figures, depicting Saint Nicholas (France, 1500–1510), Cluny Museum
Detail of the Late Gothic stained glass of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, (1531)
Notre Dame de Laon west window (13th century)
South rose window of Notre Dame de Paris (13th century)
South rose window of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
West rose window of Reims Cathedral (13th century)
Grand rose of Strasbourg Cathedral (14th century)
Orvieto Cathedral rose window (14th c.)
Palais de la Cité (1119–) and Sainte-Chapelle (1238–48), Paris
Hall of men-at-arms, Conciergerie of the Palais de la Cité
Façade of the Palais des Papes, Avignon (1252–1364)
The Doge's Palace, Venice (1340–1442)
Palace of the Kings of Navarre, Olite (1269–1512)
Great Gatehouse at Hampton Court Palace, London (1522)
Hildesheim Town Hall, Germany (13/14th c.)
Bell tower of the Hotel de Ville of Douai, France (14th c.)
Brussels' Town Hall (15th century)
Belfry of Bruges in Bruges, Belgium (13th c. (lower stages), 15th c. (upper stages)
Silk Exchange, Valencia (1482–1548)
Gallery of Palau de la Generalitat, Barcelona (1403)
Middelburg Town Hall, Netherlands (1520)
Town Hall Gouda, Netherlands (1459)
Mob Quad of Merton College, Oxford University (1288–1378)
Balliol College, Oxford, front quad, with decorative battlements (1431)
Fan vaults and glass walls of King's College Chapel, Cambridge (1508–1515)
Gothic oriel window, Karolinum, Charles University, Prague (c.1380)
Cloister, Collegium Maius, Kraków (late 15th century)
Restored outer walls of the medieval city of Carcassonne (13th–14th century)
Malbork Castle in Poland (13th century)
Alcazar of Segovia (12th–13th centuries)
Hohenzollern Castle (1454–1461) in Baden-Württemberg, southern Germany
Romanesque Worms Synagogue from the 11th century with Gothic windows (after 1355)
Scolanova Synagogue, Trani, Apulia (1247)
Old New Synagogue, Prague (c. 1270)
Main portal of the Old New Synagogue, Prague (c. 1270)
Old Synagogue, Erfurt (c. 1270)
Late Gothic vaulting of Pinkas Synagogue, Prague (1535)
Renaissance interior of the Old Synagogue in Kraków using Gothic vaults (1570)
The mihrab of the Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque of Famagusta is located on a side chapel.
The carpet pattern marks the ranks for the faithful to pray towards Mecca (obliquely on the right) in the Selimiye Mosque of Northern Nicosia.
A minaret has been added to the Fethija mosque of Bihać.
Arap Mosque
The transition from Romanesque to Gothic styles is visible at the Durham Cathedral in England, (1093-1104. Early Gothic rib vaults are combined with round arches and other Romanesque features.
The south transept of Lessay Abbey in Normandy (1064–1178)
Cefalu Cathedral built in Norman Sicily (1131–1267)
Nave of Monreale Cathedral in Norman Sicily (1172–1267)
Al-Ukhaidir Fortress (completed 775 AD), Iraq
Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem
Vaulted central dome of Cordoba Mosque-Cathedral, Spain (784–987 A.D.). Ribs decorate the Pendentives which support the dome.
Cupola of Odzun Basilica in Armenia, supported by squinch vaulting, an early form of pendentive. (8th century)
Delal Bridge, Iraq
Arches at Al-Raqqah, Syria
The Armenian cathedral of Ani, completed in the early 11th century.
Tom Tower, Christ Church, Oxford, (1681–82), designed by Christopher Wren.
Strawberry Hill House, Twickenham (begun 1749, completed in 1776), designed for Horace Walpole.
Guildhall, London, main entrance (completed 1788) designed by George Dance
Elizabeth Tower (Big Ben) (completed in 1859) and the Houses of Parliament in London (1840–1876)
Ohel David Synagogue, Pune (completed 1867)
Frere Hall, Karachi, (completed 1865)
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, (completed 1878)
Palazzo del Governatore, Rhodes (1927) designed by Florestano Di Fausto
St. John's Cathedral ('s-Hertogenbosch)
Monastery of Batalha in Portugal
Grote Kerk (Breda)
alt=|Duke University's Chapel Interior (Star vault with intersecting lierne ribs)
alt=|Duke University Chapel is an ecumenical Christian chapel and the center of religion at Duke University, and has connections to the United Methodist Church.

It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.

St. Peter's Basilica

5 links

View from the Tiber on Ponte Sant'Angelo and the Basilica. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
St. Peter and the Apostles on the Facade of St. Peter's Basilica
Bishops at the Second Vatican Council in 1962
Crepuscular rays are seen in St. Peter's Basilica at certain times each day.
An early interpretation of the relative locations of the circus, and the medieval and current Basilicas of St. Peter.
One possible modern interpretation
Maarten van Heemskerck - Santa Maria della Febbre, Vatican Obelisk, Saint Peter's Basilica in construction (1532)
A conjectural view of the Old St. Peter's Basilica by H. W. Brewer, 1891
Bramante's plan
Raphael's plan
Michelangelo's plan
Bramante's dome
Sangallo's design
St. Peter's Basilica from Castel Sant'Angelo showing the dome rising behind Maderno's façade.
1506 medal by Cristoforo Foppa depicting Bramante's design, including the four flanking smaller domes
The engraving by Stefan du Pérac was published in 1569, five years after the death of Michelangelo
The dome was brought to completion by Giacomo della Porta and Fontana.
Architectural details of the central part looking upward into the dome
Michelangelo's plan extended with Maderno's nave and narthex
Maderno's façade, with the statues of Saint Peter (left) and Saint Paul (right) flanking the entrance stairs
The narthex
Maderno's nave, looking towards the chancel
The apse with St. Peter's Cathedra supported by four Doctors of the Church
The altar with Bernini's baldacchino
Bernini's Cathedra Petri and Gloria
St. Peter's Basilica and the piazza at night
One of the two fountains which form the axis of the piazza.
Evening aerial view of the piazza and facade
View of Rome from the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica
Air vents for the crypt in St. Peter's Basilica
Cardinals at Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica two days before a papal conclave, 16 April 2005.
The inauguration of Pope Francis in 2013
Silhouette of St. Peter's Basilica at sundown (view from Castel Sant'Angelo).
alt= A marble statue showing a matronly woman in a sweeping cloak supporting a cross which stands beside her and presenting a set of nails to the viewer with her left hand|Saint Helena
alt= This statue shows a Roman soldier, with a cloak furling around him, gazing upward while he supports a long spear with his right hand and throws out his other hand in amazement.|Saint Longinus
alt= This statue shows an elderly man, bare-chested, and draped, looking up despairingly as he supports a large cross, arranged diagonally.|Saint Andrew
alt= This statue shows the saint as a young woman, who, with a sweeping dramatic gesture, displays a cloth on which there is an image of the face of Jesus.|Saint Veronica
alt= A pair of bronze doors divided into sixteen panels containing reliefs depicting scenes mainly from the life of Jesus and stories that he told.|The Holy Door is opened only for great celebrations.
alt= A large memorial set in a niche. The marble figure of a kneeling pope is surrounded by allegoric marble figures, and sculptured drapery surfaced with patterned red stone.|The tomb of Alexander VII, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1671–1678.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Docs/seminarians4.htm|website=saintpetersbasilica.org|title=The Seminarian GuidesNorth American College, Rome|access-date=29 July 2009}}</ref>
alt= Peter is shown as a bearded man in draped garment like a toga. He is seated on a chair made of marble, and has his right hand raised in a gesture of blessing while in his left hand he holds two large keys. Behind the statue, the wall is patterned in mosaic to resemble red and gold brocade cloth.|The bronze statue of Saint Peter holding the keys of heaven, attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio.
alt= This marble statue shows the Virgin Mary seated, mourning over the lifeless body of Jesus which is supported across her knees.|The Pietà by Michelangelo, 1498–1499, is in the north aisle.

The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican (Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply Saint Peter's Basilica (Basilica Sancti Petri), is a church built in the Renaissance style located in Vatican City, the papal enclave that is within the city of Rome, Italy.

The Doric order of the Parthenon. Triglyphs marked "a", metopes "b", guttae "c" and mutules under the soffit "d".

Doric order

8 links

One of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

One of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

The Doric order of the Parthenon. Triglyphs marked "a", metopes "b", guttae "c" and mutules under the soffit "d".
Two early Archaic Doric order Greek temples at Paestum (Italy) with much wider capitals than later
Entry to the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris), with four Doric columns in this photo.
Temple of the Delians, Delos; 19th-century pen-and-wash drawing
The Doric corner conflict
The Roman Doric order from the Theater of Marcellus: triglyphs centered over the end column
The Grange (nearby Northington, England), 1804, Europe's first house designed with all external detail of a Greek temple
Original Doric polychromy
Upper parts, labelled
Three Greek Doric columns
The Five Orders, originally illustrated by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, 1640
thumb|The ruins of the Temple of Poseidon from Sounion (Greece), 444–440 BC
Exterior of the Great Tomb of Lefkadia, circa 300 BC <ref>{{cite book |last1=Fullerton|first1=Mark D.|title=Art & Archaeology of The Roman World|date=2020|publisher=Thames & Hudson|isbn=978-0-500-051931|page=87|language=en}}</ref>
Capital on the Parthenon from Athens
Venus Temple at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli (Italy), detail from the roof
Fragment of an Ancient Roman Doric frieze in Palestrina (Italy)
Temple of Athena, Assos in Turkey
Renaissance marble altar enframement, circa 1530–1550, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Engraving of a Doric entablature from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, 1536, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Engraving of a Doric capital from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, circa 1537, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
The monumental fireplace in the ballroom of the Palace of Fontainebleau (France), with a Doric frieze on it
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Montpellier (France)
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Enkhuizen (the Netherlands)
Capital of a Doric pilaster from Lviv (Ukraine)
Die Sünde, by Franz Stuck, from 1893, in a frame with a pair of engaged Doric columns
Interior of the Metropolitan Museum of Art with Doric columns
The entrance of La Sorbonne from Paris, with a pair of Doric columns and an entablature with triglyphs and empty metopes

The most influential, and perhaps the earliest, use of the Doric in Renaissance architecture was in the circular Tempietto by Donato Bramante (1502 or later), in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome.

Rome

7 links

Capital city of Italy.

Capital city of Italy.

Roman representation of the god Tiber, Capitoline Hill in Rome
Capitoline Wolf, a sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus
The Ancient-Imperial-Roman palaces of the Palatine, a series of palaces located in the Palatine Hill, express power and wealth of emperors from Augustus until the 4th century.
The Imperial fora belong to a series of monumental fora (public squares) constructed in Rome by the emperors. Also seen in the image is Trajan's Market.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, approximately 6.5 e6km2 of land surface.
The Roman Forum are the remains of those buildings that during most of Ancient Rome's time represented the political, legal, religious and economic centre of the city and the neuralgic centre of all the Roman civilisation.
Trajan's Column, triumphal column and place where the relics of Emperor Trajan are placed.
The Pyramid of Cestius and the Aurelian Walls
15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of Rome (410) by the Visigothic king Alaric I
Detail view on an illustration by Raphael portraying the crowning of Charlemagne in Old Saint Peter's Basilica, on 25 December 800
Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario Cartaro (from 1575) shows the city's primary monuments.
Castel Sant'Angelo or Hadrian's Mausoleum, is a Roman monument radically altered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance built in 134 AD and crowned with 16th and 17th-century statues.
Fontana della Barcaccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1629
Carnival in Rome, c. 1650
A View of the Piazza Navona, Rome, Hendrik Frans van Lint, c. 1730
Bombardment of Rome by Allied planes, 1943
The municipi of Rome
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
The Palazzo del Quirinale, now seat of the President of the Italian Republic
Satellite image of Rome
Aerial view of part of Rome's Centro Storico
Stone pines in the Villa Doria Pamphili
The Esquilino rione
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, one of the four papal major basilicas and has numerous architectural styles, built between the 4th century and 1743
St. Peter's Basilica at night from Via della Conciliazione in Rome
The Pantheon, built as a temple dedicated to "all the gods of the past, present and future"
The Colosseum is still today the largest amphitheater in the world. It was used for gladiator shows and other public events (hunting shows, recreations of famous battles and dramas based on classical mythology).
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument
The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana in EUR district
The Temple of Aesculapius, in the Villa Borghese gardens
The Trevi Fountain. Construction began during the time of Ancient Rome and was completed in 1762 by a design of Nicola Salvi.
Fontana dei Fiumi by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1648
Flaminio Obelisk, Piazza del Popolo
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II at sunset
The Vatican Caves, the place where many popes are buried
Rome chamber of commerce in the ancient Temple of Hadrian
The Sapienza University of Rome, founded in 1303
Biblioteca Casanatense
National Central Library
The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma at the Piazza Beniamino Gigli
The Spanish Steps
Ostia Lido beach
The Vatican Museums are the 3rd most visited art museum in the world.
Via Condotti
Spaghetti alla carbonara, a typical Roman dish
Concia di zucchine, an example of Roman-Jewish cuisine
Sepulchral inscription for Tiberius Claudius Tiberinus, a Plebeian and professional declaimer of poetry. 1st century AD, Museo Nazionale Romano
Stadio Olimpico, home of A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, is one of the largest in Europe, with a capacity of over 70,000.
Stadio dei Marmi
Rome–Fiumicino Airport was the tenth busiest airport in Europe in 2016.
Port of Civitavecchia
Roma Metrorail and Underground map, 2016
Conca d'Oro metro station
FAO headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo
WFP headquarters in Rome
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the Square Samuel-Paty in Paris
Column dedicated to Paris in 1956 near the Baths of Diocletian
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734

Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo.

Santa Susanna, Rome

Baroque architecture

3 links

Highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy in the early 17th century and gradually spread across Europe.

Highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy in the early 17th century and gradually spread across Europe.

Santa Susanna, Rome
Chapel of Les Invalides, Jules Hardouin-Mansart (completed 1708)
Greenwich Hospital by Sir Christopher Wren (1694)
The Zwinger in Dresden by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (1697–1716)
Upper Belvedere Palace in Vienna (1721–23)
Troja Palace, Prague (1679–1691)
St. George's Cathedral of Timișoara by Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach
Interior of the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Vilnius (1668–1701)
Church of Santa Engrácia, Lisbon (now National Pantheon of Portugal; begun 1681)
Interior of the Basilica and Convent of Nossa Senhora do Carmo in Recife, Brazil, built between 1665 and 1767
Church of Our Saviour, Copenhagen (1682–1747)
Smolny Convent
The Mariinskyi Palace in Kyiv (1744–1752)
Facade of the Church of the Gesù Rome (consecrated 1584)
Interior view of Dome of the Church of the Gesù by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, and Giacomo della Porta
Corpus Christi Church, Nesvizh in Belarus (1586 and 1593)
Facade of Santa Susanna, Rome by Carlo Maderno (1603)
Saints Peter and Paul Church, Kraków, Poland by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni (1605–1619)
The Church of St-Gervais-et-St-Protais, the first Paris church with a façade in the new Baroque style (1616–20)
The Luxembourg Palace by Salomon de Brosse (1615–1624)
Basilica of Bom Jesus. A World Heritage Site built in Baroque style and completed in 1604 AD. It has the body of St Francis Xavier.
Baldaquin by Bernini in the Basilica of Saint Peter, Rome (1623–34)
Fresco on ceiling of the grand salon of Barberini Palace in Rome, by Pietro da Cortona (1633–1639)
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane by Francesco Borromini (1634–1646)
The interior of the dome of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane by Francesco Borromini (1638–1641)
Church of Santi Luca e Martina, in Rome, by Pietro da Cortona (1635–50)
Santa Maria della Salute by Baldassare Longhena in Venice (1630–31).
Pavillon de l’Horloge of the Louvre Palace by Jacques Lemercier (1624–1645)
Chapel of the Sorbonne by Jacques Lemercier (1626–35)
Château de Maisons by François Mansart (1630–1651)
The Basilica of Superga near Turin by Filippo Juvarra (1717–1731)
Interior of the Basilica of Superga by Filippo Juvarra
The Palazzo Carignano, now the Museum of the Italian Renaissance, Turin
Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles by Jules Hardouin-Mansart (begun 1678–1686)
Chapel of the Palace of Versailles begun by Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1699 to 1710)
Salon of the Hôtel de Soubise in Paris (1735–40) by Germain Boffrand
West facade of Saint Paul's Cathedral by Christopher Wren (1675–1702)
Castle Howard, North Yorkshire by John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor (1699–1712)
Blenheim Palace by John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor
Interior of the church of the Abbey of Melk by Jakob Prandtauer (1702–1736)
Library of the Clementinum, the Jesuit university in Prague (1722)
Karlskirche, Vienna by Fischer von Erlach (consecrated 1737)
Kaisersaal of Würzburg Residence by Balthasar Neumann (1749–51)
Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers by Balthasar Neumann (1743–1772)
Royal Palace of Gödöllő (Hungary) by András Mayerhoffer (1730s–1785)
Late Baroque facade, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (1738–1750)
Palacio de San Telmo in Seville by Leonardo de Figueroa (1682–1895)
Retable in the Sagrario Chapel of Segovia Cathedral (1686) by Jose Benito de Churriguera, the earliest architect of the Churrigueresque style
Church of Saint Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto, Brazil, built between 1765 and 1775, by Brazilian Aleijadinho
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Mexico City, built between 1571 and 1813, by several architects
Cathedral Basilica of Zacatecas in Mexico, built between 1729 and 1772, an example of the Churrigueresque style
Havana Cathedral, Cuba, built between 1748 and 1777<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.filepicker.io/api/file/iSxgoQ8ETD27Ws4jydTm|title=Modern architecture in Cuba and Contemporary Preservation Challenges|author=Belmont Freeman|work=Columbia University|date=23 June 2018}}</ref>
High altar of the Iglesia de El Sagrario, Quito, church built between 1617 and 1747 by Spaniard José Jaime Ortiz. It is a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
Complete facade of the Iglesia y Convento de San Francisco, Quito, built between 1550 and 1680
Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús, Cusco, Peru, built between 1576 and 1668, by Jean-Baptiste Gilles and Diego Martínez de Oviedo.
Panorama of the facade of the Basilica and Convent of San Francisco, Lima, built between 1657 and 1672 by the Portuguese Constantino de Vasconcellos and the Liman Manuel Escobar, is a World Heritage City by UNESCO
Mission Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña in Texas, built between 1711 and 1731
Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo in San Antonio, built between 1760 and 1782.
Decorative cartouche designed for the Palazzo Barberini by Filippo Juvarra (1711)
Ceiling of the Farnese Gallery by Annibale Carracci (1597–1704)
Illusionistic painting on the ceiling of the Jesuit church in Vienna by Andrea Pozzo (1703)
Grand staircase of the Würzburg Residence (1720–1780)
Trompe-l'œil effect on the ceiling of the Church of the Gesu, Rome, by Giovanni Battista Gaulli (completed 1679)
Baroque garden at Vaux-le-Vicomte. The parterre, designed to be viewed from above from the Chateau windows and terrace, was an extension of the interior architecture and design
Cruciform plan of a high Baroque Church, Santi Luca e Martina in Rome by Pietro da Cortona (1639–1669)
Floor plan of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1658–1661) showing the entrance (below), altar (top) and radiating chapels
Plan of the Late Baroque Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers by Balthasar Neumann, constructed between 1743 and 1772. The altar is in an oval in the center.
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane by Francesco Borromini (1634–1646)
The Basilica of Superga near Turin by Filippo Juvarra (1717–1731)

Baroque architects took the basic elements of Renaissance architecture, including domes and colonnades, and made them higher, grander, more decorated, and more dramatic.

Naples

4 links

Regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017.

Regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017.

Mount Echia, the place where the polis of Parthenope arose
The Columns of the Temple of Castor and Pollux incorporated into the facade of San Paolo Maggiore
A scene featuring the siren Parthenope, the mythological founder of Naples
The Gothic Battle of Mons Lactarius on Vesuvius, painted by Alexander Zick
271x271px
The Castel Nuovo, a.k.a. Maschio Angioino, a seat of medieval kings of Naples, Aragon and Spain
French troops and artillery entering Naples in 1495, during the Italian War of 1494–98
Onofrio Palumbo's portrait of the 17th-century revolutionary leader Masaniello
Departure of Charles III of Spain from Naples, 1759
Naples depicted during the ephemeral Parthenopean Republic
Entrance of Garibaldi into Naples on 7 September 1860
Allied bombardment of Naples, 1943
Royal Palace of Naples
The Egg Castle
National Archaeological Museum
National Museum of Capodimonte
Naples Cathedral
Church of Gesù Nuovo
Hanging gardens of the Certosa di San Martino
Interior of the Church of Girolamini
Inside Galleria Umberto I
Underground Naples
Villa Comunale
Aselmeyer Castle, built by Lamont Young in the Neo-Gothic style
One of the city's various examples of Liberty Napoletano
The Gulf of Naples
The Palazzo Donn'Anna and Bagno Donn'Anna beach in Posillipo
Urban density in central Naples
Main building of the University of Naples Federico II
Palazzo San Giacomo, the city hall
Palazzo delle Poste in Naples, Gino Franzi, 1936. The masterpiece of modernism, marble and diorite.
Directional center of Naples
The port of Naples
Naples International Airport
The square of Piazza Garibaldi at Napoli Centrale under renovation
Dante Station of the Naples Metro
A Romantic painting by Salvatore Fergola showing the 1839 inauguration of the Naples-Portici railway line
Neapolitan pizza. Pizza was invented in Naples.
Sfogliatelle, a popular Neapolitan pastry dish
An 1813 depiction of the Piedigrotta festival
262x262px
244x244px
281x281px
The interior of the Teatro San Carlo
Tarantella in Napoli, a 1903 postcard
Neapolitan mandolin
Totò, a famous Neapolitan actor
The Stadio San Paolo

The most prominent forms of architecture visible in present-day Naples are the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque styles.

Coffered ceiling of the barrel-vaulted nave in the Temple of Jupiter at Diocletian's Palace in Split, Croatia. Built early 4th century.

Barrel vault

4 links

Architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance.

Architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance.

Coffered ceiling of the barrel-vaulted nave in the Temple of Jupiter at Diocletian's Palace in Split, Croatia. Built early 4th century.
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the Rose window at one end of the vault.
The Cloisters, New York City
Roman barrel vault at the villa rustica Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.
Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces.
Barrel vault in a mausoleum at the Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Barrel vault in the early 20th century main post office of Toledo, Ohio

However, with the coming of the Renaissance and the Baroque style, and revived interest in art and architecture of antiquity, barrel vaulting was re-introduced on a truly grandiose scale, and employed in the construction of many famous buildings and churches, such as Basilica di Sant'Andrea di Mantova by Leone Battista Alberti, San Giorgio Maggiore by Andrea Palladio, and perhaps most glorious of all, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, where a huge barrel vault spans the 27 m-wide nave.

Entablatures at Caesarea Maritima

Entablature

4 links

Superstructure of moldings and bands which lies horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals.

Superstructure of moldings and bands which lies horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals.

Entablatures at Caesarea Maritima
Entablature at the Temple of Venus Genetrix, Rome
Entablature of the Doric order
Entablature of the Ionic order
Entablature of the Corinthian order

In Roman and Renaissance interpretations, it is usually approximately a quarter of the height of the column.