Renaissance architecture

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto
Palladio's engraving of Bramante's Tempietto
Plan of Bramante's Tempietto in Montorio
The Piazza del Campidoglio
The Romanesque Florence Baptistery was the object of Brunelleschi's studies of perspective
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace.
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles. Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Posthumous portrait by Pontormo.
The Church of the Certosa di Pavia, Lombardy
Scuola Grande di San Marco, Venice
Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Facade of Sant'Agostino, Rome, built in 1483 by Giacomo di Pietrasanta
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
The dome of Florence Cathedral (the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore)
The church of San Lorenzo
Palazzo Medici Riccardi by Michelozzo. Florence, 1444
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, the façade
Façade of Santa Maria Novella, 1456–70
The crossing of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan (1490)
picture above
The Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo.
Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence, by Raphael
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.
Palazzo Te, Mantua
St Peter's Basilica
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library
Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Keystone with a profile of a man, Palazzo Giusti, Verona, Italy
The House of the Blackheads in Riga, Latvia
Royal Summer Palace in Prague is considered the purest Renaissance architecture outside of Italy.
Cathedral of St James, Šibenik
English Renaissance: Hardwick Hall (1590–1597).
French Renaissance: Château de Chambord (1519–39)
Juleum in Helmstedt, Germany (example of Weser Renaissance)
Antwerp City Hall (finished in 1564)
Courtyard of Wawel Castle exemplifies first period of Polish Renaissance
Cloister of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal, (1557–1591), Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.
Nordic Renaissance: Frederiksborg Palace (1602–20)
The Escorial (1563–1584), Madrid
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO WHS.
The large Basilica of San Francisco in Quito, built between 1535 and 1650, a UNESCO World Heritage Site city.

European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

- Renaissance architecture
Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death

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Illustrations of the Classical orders (from left to right): Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite, made in 1728, from Cyclopædia

Classical order

Certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform.

Certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform.

Illustrations of the Classical orders (from left to right): Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite, made in 1728, from Cyclopædia
An illustration of the Five Architectural Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. 18, showing the Tuscan and Doric orders (top row); two versions of the Ionic order (center row); Corinthian and Composite orders (bottom row)
Greek orders with full height
Doric capital of the Parthenon from Athens
Ionic capital from the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court of the British Museum (London)
Corinthian capital of a column from the portico of the Pantheon from Rome
Tuscan capital and entablature, illustration from the 18th century
Composite capital in the former Palace of Justice (Budapest, Hungary)
The Tower of The Five Orders at the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford, completed in 1619, includes Tuscan through Composite orders.
The St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church in Paris presents columns of the three orders : Doric at the ground floor, Ionic at the second floor, Corinthian at the third floor
Corn capital at the Litchfield Villa Prospect Park (Brooklyn) (A.J. Davis, architect)
An illustration of the Five Architectural Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. 18, showing the Tuscan and Doric orders (top row); two versions of the Ionic order (center row); Corinthian and Composite orders (bottom row)

The Giant order was invented by architects in the Renaissance.

Donato Bramante

Donato Bramante

Italian architect and painter.

Italian architect and painter.

Donato Bramante
Tempietto

He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo.

The Doric order of the Parthenon. Triglyphs marked "a", metopes "b", guttae "c" and mutules under the soffit "d".

Doric order

One of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

One of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

The Doric order of the Parthenon. Triglyphs marked "a", metopes "b", guttae "c" and mutules under the soffit "d".
Two early Archaic Doric order Greek temples at Paestum (Italy) with much wider capitals than later
Entry to the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris), with four Doric columns in this photo.
Temple of the Delians, Delos; 19th-century pen-and-wash drawing
The Doric corner conflict
The Roman Doric order from the Theater of Marcellus: triglyphs centered over the end column
The Grange (nearby Northington, England), 1804, Europe's first house designed with all external detail of a Greek temple
Original Doric polychromy
Upper parts, labelled
Three Greek Doric columns
The Five Orders, originally illustrated by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, 1640
thumb|The ruins of the Temple of Poseidon from Sounion (Greece), 444–440 BC
Exterior of the Great Tomb of Lefkadia, circa 300 BC <ref>{{cite book |last1=Fullerton|first1=Mark D.|title=Art & Archaeology of The Roman World|date=2020|publisher=Thames & Hudson|isbn=978-0-500-051931|page=87|language=en}}</ref>
Capital on the Parthenon from Athens
Venus Temple at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli (Italy), detail from the roof
Fragment of an Ancient Roman Doric frieze in Palestrina (Italy)
Temple of Athena, Assos in Turkey
Renaissance marble altar enframement, circa 1530–1550, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Engraving of a Doric entablature from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, 1536, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Engraving of a Doric capital from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, circa 1537, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
The monumental fireplace in the ballroom of the Palace of Fontainebleau (France), with a Doric frieze on it
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Montpellier (France)
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Enkhuizen (the Netherlands)
Capital of a Doric pilaster from Lviv (Ukraine)
Die Sünde, by Franz Stuck, from 1893, in a frame with a pair of engaged Doric columns
Interior of the Metropolitan Museum of Art with Doric columns
The entrance of La Sorbonne from Paris, with a pair of Doric columns and an entablature with triglyphs and empty metopes

The most influential, and perhaps the earliest, use of the Doric in Renaissance architecture was in the circular Tempietto by Donato Bramante (1502 or later), in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome.

The oculus at the top of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome

Oculus

Circular opening in the center of a dome or in a wall.

Circular opening in the center of a dome or in a wall.

The oculus at the top of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome
The Ancient Roman oculus of the Pantheon (Rome, Italy)
Islamic oculus opening into a cupola in the Hasht Behesht (Isfahan, Iran)
Romanesque oculus of the Église Sainte-Anne de Gassicourt (Mantes-la-Jolie, France)
Gothic oculus in the Laon Cathedral (Laon, France)
Renaissance oculus of the Florence Cathedral (Florence, Italy)
Baroque oculus in a dome of the Ravenna Cathedral (Ravenna, Italy)
Rococo oculus in the Parc de Bagatelle (Paris)
Louis XVI round window of the Petit Trianon (Versailles, France), with a festoon-derived ornament at the top
Gothic Revival oculus of the Hannoversche Bank - Haus III on Georgstraße (Hannover, Germany)
19th century Eclectic Classicist oculus of the Opéra-Théâtre de Clermont-Ferrand (Clermont-Ferrand, France)
Beaux-Arts dormer oculus of the Building of Préfecture de Police de Paris (île de la Cité)
Art Nouveau oculus of the Hôtel Élysée Palace (Paris)
Art Deco oculus above a door in Angers (France)

Early examples of the oculus in Renaissance architecture can be seen in Florence Cathedral, in the nave clerestory and topping the crowns of the arcade arches.

Coffered ceiling of the barrel-vaulted nave in the Temple of Jupiter at Diocletian's Palace in Split, Croatia. Built early 4th century.

Barrel vault

Architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance.

Architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance.

Coffered ceiling of the barrel-vaulted nave in the Temple of Jupiter at Diocletian's Palace in Split, Croatia. Built early 4th century.
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the Rose window at one end of the vault.
The Cloisters, New York City
Roman barrel vault at the villa rustica Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.
Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces.
Barrel vault in a mausoleum at the Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Barrel vault in the early 20th century main post office of Toledo, Ohio

However, with the coming of the Renaissance and the Baroque style, and revived interest in art and architecture of antiquity, barrel vaulting was re-introduced on a truly grandiose scale, and employed in the construction of many famous buildings and churches, such as Basilica di Sant'Andrea di Mantova by Leone Battista Alberti, San Giorgio Maggiore by Andrea Palladio, and perhaps most glorious of all, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, where a huge barrel vault spans the 27 m-wide nave.

In Parmigianino's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534–1540), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective.

Mannerism

Style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, spreading by about 1530 and lasting until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style largely replaced it.

Style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, spreading by about 1530 and lasting until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style largely replaced it.

In Parmigianino's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534–1540), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective.
Mannerism role-model: Laocoön and His Sons, an ancient sculpture, rediscovered in 1506; now in the Vatican Museums. The artists of Mannerism greatly admired this piece of sculpture.
Collected figures, ignudi, from Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling
Jacopo Pontormo, Entombment, 1528; Santa Felicità, Florence
English Mannerism: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1546, a rare English Mannerist portrait by a Flemish immigrant
Pietro Francavilla, Apollo Victorious over the Python, 1591. The Walters Art Museum
Joachim Wtewael Perseus and Andromeda, 1616, Louvre, the composition displaying a Vanité of bones and seashells in the foreground and an elaborate academic nude with a palette borrowing from the forefront for Andromeda's cheeks. The Dragon seems of sino-oriental influence.
High Mannerism: Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time by Bronzino, c. 1545; National Gallery, London.
Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592–1594
El Greco, Laocoön (1610–1614), National Gallery of Art
Minerva Dressing (1613) by Lavinia Fontana (1552–1614). Galleria Borghese, Rome.
The Vleeshal in Haarlem, Netherlands
The Town Hall in Zamość, Poland, designed by Bernardo Morando.
Stucco overdoor at Fontainebleau, probably designed by Primaticcio, who painted the oval inset, 1530s or 1540s
Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus with the head of Medusa, 1545–1554
Giambologna, Samson Slaying a Philistine, about 1562
Giambologna, Abduction of a Sabine Woman, completed 1583, Florence, Italy, 13' 6" high, marble
Adriaen de Vries, Mercury and Psyche Northern Mannerist life-size bronze, made in 1593 for Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Venus, c. 125; Marble, Roman; British Museum
Jacopo Pontormo Joseph in Egypt, 1515–1518; Oil on wood; 96 x 109 cm; National Gallery, London
Rosso Fiorentino, Francois I Gallery, Château de Fontainebleau, France
Juno in a niche, engraving by Jacopo Caraglio, probably from a drawing of 1526 by Rosso Fiorentino
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, The Librarian, 1562, Skokloster Castle.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Autumn, 1573, oil on canvas, Louvre Museum, Paris
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Vertumnus the god of seasons, 1591, Skokloster Castle
Bronzino, Portrait of Bia de' Medici, c. 1545
Alessandro Allori, Susanna and the Elders, 1561
El Greco, Baptism, c. 1614
One of the best examples of Mannerist architecture: Palazzo Te in Mantova, designed by Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano, Pallazo Ducale in Mantova
Own house of Giulio Romano in Mantova
Baldassare Peruzzi, Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome
Michelangelo, vestibule of Laurentian Library
St. John's Co-Cathedral in Valletta, Malta
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador, Brazil, built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.<ref>{{citation |contribution=Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia |contribution-url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/309 |title=World Heritage List |url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/ |publisher=UNESCO |location=Paris }}</ref>
The large Basilica of San Francisco, in Quito, Ecuador, built between 1535-1650.

Mannerist architecture was characterized by visual trickery and unexpected elements that challenged the Renaissance norms.

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza

Andrea Palladio

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza
One of the first works by Palladio, Villa Godi (begun 1537)
Hall of the Muses of the Villa Godi (1537–1542)
Villa Piovene (1539)
Villa Pisani, Bagnolo (1542)
Palazzo Thiene (1542–1558), (begun by Giulio Romano, revised and completed by Palladio)
Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza
Ground floor and entrance stairway of the Basilica Palladiana
Upper level loggia of the Basilica Palladiana
Palazzo Chiericati (1550) in Vicenza
Palazzo del Capitaniato (1565–1572)
The front page of I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1642 edition)
Villa Cornaro (begun 1553) combined rustic living and an imposing space for formal entertaining
The Hall of the Four Columns
Plan of the Villa Cornaro
The Villa Barbaro in Maser (begun 1557)
The Nymphaeum of the Villa Barbaro
Detail of the Hall of Olympus, with frescoes by Paolo Veronese
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" (begun 1566)
Palladio's plan of the Villa in I quattro libri dell'architettura, 1570
North facade of Villa Foscari, facing the Brenta Canal
Interior decoration of grotesques on salon ceiling of Villa Foscari
South facade of Villa Foscari, with the large windows that illuminate the main salon
Nave of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1565)
Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Interior of Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Plan by Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi
Facade of the Tempietto Barbaro
Section of the Tempietto Barbaro, drawn by Scamozzi (1783)
Stage with scenery designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi, who completed the theatre after the death of Palladio
Stage and seating of his last work, the Teatro Olimpico (1584)
House of the Director of the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux (1775)
La Rotonde customs barrier, Parc Monceau, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Palladian garden structure at Steinhöfel by David Gilly (1798)
The Queen's House, Greenwich by Inigo Jones (1616–1635)
Chiswick House by Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and William Kent (completed 1729)
Wilton House south front by Inigo Jones (1650)
Palladio Bridge at Wilton House (1736–37)
Stourhead House by Colen Campbell (1721–24), inspired by Villa Capra
Harvard Hall at Harvard University by Thomas Dawes (1766)
Monticello, residence of Thomas Jefferson (1772)
Winning design for the first United States Capitol by Thomas Thornton (1793)
Clarity and harmony. Villa Badoer (1556–1563), an early use by Palladio of the elements of a Roman temple
The Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, (begun 1546) with arched Palladian window and round oculi to the loggia.
A variation of the Palladian or Venetian window, with round oculi, at Villa Pojana (1548–49)
Late Palladio style, Mannerist decoration on the facade of the Palazzo del Capitanio (1565–1572)
Palazzo Strozzi courtyard
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" outside Vicenza
San Francesco della Vigna in Venice
Villa Porto
Villa Valmarana
Villa Emo
Villa Saraceno
Villa Cornaro
Palazzo del Capitaniato, Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, Vicenza

The basic elements of Italian Renaissance architecture, including Doric columns, lintels, cornices, loggias, pediments and domes had already been used in the 15th century or earlier, before Palladio.

Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence.

Ospedale degli Innocenti

Historic building in Florence, Italy.

Historic building in Florence, Italy.

Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence.

It is regarded as a notable example of early Italian Renaissance architecture.

The lantern over the dome of the Florence Baptistery, dated to 1150

Roof lantern

Daylighting architectural element.

Daylighting architectural element.

The lantern over the dome of the Florence Baptistery, dated to 1150
A cupola-shaped lantern on 16th-century Seville Cathedral, Andalusia, Spain
The 6th-century Hagia Sophia's upper dome acts as a roof lantern

Roof lanterns of masonry and glass were used in Renaissance architecture, such as in principal cathedrals.

San Lorenzo, Florence

One of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district, and the burial place of all the principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III.

One of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district, and the burial place of all the principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III.

Interior looking towards the high altar.
The interior columns
The balcony in the basilica
Michelangelo's model
The cruciform basilica with the vast domed apsidal Medici Chapel; in the cloister is the Laurentian Library.
Glory of Florentine Saints on the interior of the dome
Rosso Fiorentino, Marriage of the Virgin.

The Basilica of San Lorenzo is considered a milestone in the development of Renaissance architecture.