Renal function

glomerular filtration ratekidney functioncreatinine clearanceglomerular filtrationGFRestimated glomerular filtration ratekidney function testseGFRkidneyCockcroft-Gault formula
Renal function is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.wikipedia
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Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
Staging of chronic kidney disease is based on categories of GFR as well as albuminuria and cause of kidney disease.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months to years.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Renal function is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time.
Renal physiology is the study of kidney function.

Renal physiology

tubular secretionhyperosmolalitykidney function
Renal function is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
A global assessment of renal function is often ascertained by estimating the rate of filtration, called the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Nephrotoxicity

nephrotoxicnephrotoxinKidney damage
Hence, a more accurate glomerular filtration rate or its approximation using creatinine clearance is measured whenever renal disease is suspected or careful dosing of nephrotoxic drugs is required.
It is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medications, on renal function.

Creatinine

serum creatininenormal kidney functioncreatinin
Creatinine clearance rate (C Cr or CrCl) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure for approximating the GFR. Most physicians use plasma concentrations of waste substances such as creatinine and urea (U), as well as various electrolytes (E), to determine renal function.
Creatinine is removed from the blood chiefly by the kidneys, primarily by glomerular filtration, but also by proximal tubular secretion.

Filtration fraction

Compare to filtration fraction.
In renal physiology, the filtration fraction is the ratio of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to the renal plasma flow (RPF).

Glomerulus (kidney)

glomerulusglomeruliglomerular
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time.
The rate at which blood is filtered through all of the glomeruli, and thus the measure of the overall kidney function, is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Urea

carbamideBosch–Meiser urea processCO(NH 2 ) 2
Most physicians use plasma concentrations of waste substances such as creatinine and urea (U), as well as various electrolytes (E), to determine renal function.
It is used as a marker of renal function, though it is inferior to other markers such as creatinine because blood urea levels are influenced by other factors such as diet and dehydration.

Inulin

(2,1-beta-D-fructosyl) n F12 Inulin
The GFR can be determined by injecting inulin or the inulin-analog sinistrin into the plasma.
Using inulin to measure kidney function is the "gold standard" for comparison with other means of estimating glomerular filtration rate.

Blood urea nitrogen

BUNblood ureablood urea concentration
However, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in the plasma will not exceed normal ranges until 60% of total kidney function is lost.
The main causes of an increase in BUN are: high protein diet, decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (suggestive of renal failure), decrease in blood volume (hypovolemia), congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, fever, and increased catabolism.

Albuminuria

macroalbuminuriaalbuminAlbumin Excretion Rate
Staging of chronic kidney disease is based on categories of GFR as well as albuminuria and cause of kidney disease.
Recent international guidelines ( KDIGO 2012) reclassified chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on cause, glomerular filtration rate category, and albuminuria category (A1, A2, A3).

Electrolyte

electrolyteselectrolyticionic solution
Most physicians use plasma concentrations of waste substances such as creatinine and urea (U), as well as various electrolytes (E), to determine renal function.
The interpretation of these values is somewhat meaningless without analysis of the clinical history and is often impossible without parallel measurements of renal function.

Efferent arteriole

efferent arteriolesefferentefferent blood stream
The hydrostatic pressure within the glomerular capillaries is determined by the pressure difference between the fluid entering immediately from the afferent arteriole and leaving through the efferent arteriole.
They play an important role in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate despite fluctuations in blood pressure.

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EDTAcalcium disodium EDTAdisodium EDTA
Measurement of renal or plasma clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA is widely used in Europe but not available in the United States, where 99m Tc-DTPA may be used instead.
In evaluating kidney function, the chromium(III) complex [Cr(edta)] − (as radioactive chromium-51 ( 51 Cr)) is administered intravenously and its filtration into the urine is monitored.

Cystatin C

CST3Cystatin 3
One of these is cystatin C, a ubiquitous protein secreted by most cells in the body (it is an inhibitor of cysteine protease).
Cystatin C or cystatin 3 (formerly gamma trace, post-gamma-globulin, or neuroendocrine basic polypeptide), a protein encoded by the CST3 gene, is mainly used as a biomarker of kidney function.

Bowman's capsule

Bowman capsuleBowman's spaceParietal epithelial cell
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time.
Measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a diagnostic test of kidney function.

Technetium-99m

99m TcTc-99m99m
GFR can be accurately measured using radioactive substances, in particular chromium-51 and technetium-99m.
Imaging to measure renal function is done by attaching 99m Tc to mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG3); this procedure is known as a MAG3 scan.

Sinistrin

polyfructosan
The GFR can be determined by injecting inulin or the inulin-analog sinistrin into the plasma.
An important measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Body surface area

body surfacebody surface area (BSA)body surfaces
To allow comparison of results between people of different sizes, the C Cr is often corrected for the body surface area (BSA) and expressed compared to the average sized man as mL/min/1.73 m 2.

Clearance (pharmacology)

clearanceclearedelimination
Clearance is a function of 1) glomerular filtration, 2) secretion from the peritubular capillaries to the nephron, and 3) reabsorption from the nephron back to the peritubular capillaries.

Tubuloglomerular feedback

Tubuloglomerular feedback is one of several mechanisms the kidney uses to regulate glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Urinary system

urinary tracturinaryrenal system
Hematuria may be caused by glomerular disease or by a disease along the urinary tract.
The amount of filtrate produced every minute is called the glomerular filtration rate or GFR and amounts to 180 litres per day.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Diagnosis of chronic failure is based on a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 or the need for renal replacement therapy.

Cirrhosis

cirrhosis of the liverliver cirrhosisliver fibrosis
Creatinine-based equations should be used with caution in cachectic patients and patients with cirrhosis.
The hepatorenal syndrome is defined as a urine sodium less than 10 mmol/L and a serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl (or 24 hour creatinine clearance less than 40 ml/min) after a trial of volume expansion without diuretics.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
The most important items in a physical examination are signs of vasculitis, lupus erythematosus, diabetes, endocarditis and hypertension.
Serum creatinine alone may overestimate glomerular filtration rate and recent guidelines advocate the use of predictive equations such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).