Renewable energy

renewablesrenewable energiesrenewablerenewable energy sourcesrenewable electricityrenewable powerrenewable sourcesrenewable sourcecarbon-freeclean energy
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.wikipedia
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Renewable resource

renewablerenewable sourcesrenewable energy sources
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Another type of renewable resources is renewable energy resources.

Wind power

wind energywindwind-power
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Wind power is a sustainable and renewable energy, and has a much smaller impact on the environment compared to burning fossil fuels.

Tidal power

tidal energytidaltides
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Among sources of renewable energy, tidal energy has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability.

100% renewable energy

The Energy Imperative: 100 Percent Renewable Now100 percent renewable100% of its net power from renewables
Some places and at least two countries, Iceland and Norway, generate all their electricity using renewable energy already, and many other countries have the set a goal to reach 100% renewable energy in the future.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change there are few fundamental technological limits to integrating a portfolio of renewable energy technologies to meet most of total global energy demand.

Energy security and renewable technology

energy securityrenewable technologiesworld energy security
Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.
The environmental benefits of renewable energy technologies are widely recognised, but the contribution that they can make to energy security is less well known.

Renewable energy in developing countries

developing countriesRenewable energy
While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human development.
Most developing countries have abundant renewable energy resources, including solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, and biomass, as well as the ability to manufacture the relatively labor-intensive systems that harness these.

REN21

Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st CenturyRenewable Energy Policy Network(REN21)Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21)
Based on REN21's 2017 report, renewables contributed 19.3% to humans' global energy consumption and 24.5% to their generation of electricity in 2015 and 2016, respectively.
REN21 (Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century) is a think tank and global multi-stakeholder network which is focused on renewable energy policy.

Efficient energy use

energy efficiencyenergy efficientenergy-efficient
Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable energy policy and are high priorities in the sustainable energy hierarchy.

International Renewable Energy Agency

IRENAStatute of the International Renewable Energy AgencyInternational Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
, however, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency, renewables overall share in the energy mix (including power, heat and transport) needs to grow six times faster, in order to keep the rise in average global temperatures "well below" 2.0 C-change during the present century, compared to pre-industrial levels.
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation mandated to facilitate cooperation, advance knowledge, and promote the adoption and sustainable use of renewable energy.

Water heating

water heaterhot waterwater heaters
Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
Electricity to heat water may also come from any other electrical source, such as nuclear power or renewable energy.

Climate change mitigation

mitigationMitigation of global warmingclimate protection
Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.
These include nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as biomass, hydroelectricity, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, ocean energy, and; the use of carbon sinks, and carbon capture and storage.

Biogas

sewage gasbio-gasbiomethane
Over 44 million households use biogas made in household-scale digesters for lighting and/or cooking, and more than 166 million households rely on a new generation of more-efficient biomass cookstoves.
Biogas is a renewable energy source.

Renewable heat

Renewable heat is an application of renewable energy and it refers to the renewable generation of heat, rather than electrical power (e.g. replacing a fossil fuel boiler using concentrating solar thermal to feed radiators).

Electric boat

electric ferrysolar boatelectric launch
However, indirectly solar-charged vehicles are widespread and solar boats are available commercially.
Since the energy crises of the 1970s, interest in this quiet and potentially renewable marine energy source has been increasing steadily, especially as more efficient solar cells have become available, for the first time making possible motorboats with an infinite range like sailboats.

Solar power

solarsolar-poweredsolar power plant
Solar power may be also used to provide power for communications or controls or other auxiliary functions.
Solar PV is rapidly becoming an inexpensive, low-carbon technology to harness renewable energy from the Sun.

Fossil fuel

fossil fuelsoil and gasOil & Gas
Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to fossil fuels, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries' energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".
A global movement towards the generation of low-carbon renewable energy is underway to help reduce global greenhouse-gas emissions.

List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources

List of countries by renewable electricity productionList of countries by electricity production from renewable sourcesixth largest producer of wind power
For countries having the largest percentage of electricity from renewables, the top 50 are primarily hydroelectric.
This article is a list of countries by electricity generation from renewable sources every year.

Capacity factor

plant load factorNet Capacity FactorPLF
Typically, full load hours of wind turbines vary between 16 and 57 percent annually, but might be higher in particularly favorable offshore sites.
The capacity factor is defined for any electricity producing installation, such as a fuel consuming power plant or one using renewable energy, such as wind or the sun.

Ocean thermal energy conversion

ocean temperature differencesOTECocean thermal energy
Ocean thermal energy conversion, which uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer surface waters, currently has no economic feasibility.
Among ocean energy sources, OTEC is one of the continuously available renewable energy resources that could contribute to base-load power supply.

Solar energy

solarsolar-poweredsolar powered
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, concentrated solar power (CSP), concentrator photovoltaics (CPV), solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.
It is an important source of renewable energy and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power.

Electricity generation

power generationelectricitygeneration
Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
Hydroelectric plants, nuclear power plants, thermal power plants and renewable sources have their own pros and cons, and selection is based upon the local power requirement and the fluctuations in demand.

Growth of photovoltaics

fast-growingfast-growing PV marketworld's leading installer
Solar PV has turned into a multi-billion, fast-growing industry, continues to improve its cost-effectiveness, and has the most potential of any renewable technologies together with CSP.
When solar PV systems were first recognized as a promising renewable energy technology, subsidy programs, such as feed-in tariffs, were implemented by a number of governments in order to provide economic incentives for investments.

Sustainability

sustainableenvironmental sustainabilityunsustainable
In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries' energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".
Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions (e.g., ecovillages, eco-municipalities and sustainable cities), reappraising economic sectors (permaculture, green building, sustainable agriculture), or work practices (sustainable architecture), using science to develop new technologies (green technologies, renewable energy and sustainable fission and fusion power), or designing systems in a flexible and reversible manner, and adjusting individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources.

Renewable thermal energy

Low Temperature Geothermal refers to the use of the outer crust of the earth as a Thermal Battery to facilitate Renewable thermal energy for heating and cooling buildings, and other refrigeration and industrial uses.
A Thermal Battery used in this mode is a Renewable Energy source as the energy extracted in the winter will be restored to the GHEX the next summer in a continually repeating cycle.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries' energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared". Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with the continuing fall in the costs of some renewable energy equipment, such as wind turbines and solar panels, are driving increased use of renewables.
There is a large potential for future reductions in emissions by a combination of activities, including energy conservation and increased energy efficiency; the use of low-carbon energy technologies, such as renewable energy, nuclear energy, and carbon capture and storage; decarbonizing buildings and transport; and enhancing carbon sinks through, for example, reforestation and preventing deforestation.