Renin

HyperreninemiaRENblood plasma reninEC 3.4.23.15plasma renin activityREN (gene)
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid) and arterial vasoconstriction.wikipedia
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Renin–angiotensin system

renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systemrenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemrenin angiotensin system
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid) and arterial vasoconstriction. Renin activates the renin–angiotensin system by cleaving angiotensinogen, produced by the liver, to yield angiotensin I, which is further converted into angiotensin II by ACE, the angiotensin–converting enzyme primarily within the capillaries of the lungs.
When renal blood flow is reduced, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys convert the precursor prorenin (already present in the blood) into renin and secrete it directly into circulation.

Aspartic protease

aspartyl proteaseaspartic proteasesaspartic proteinase
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid) and arterial vasoconstriction.
Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins.

Prorenin

Human renin is secreted by at least 2 cellular pathways: a constitutive pathway for the secretion of the precursor prorenin and a regulated pathway for the secretion of mature renin.
Prorenin is a protein that constitutes a precursor for renin, the hormone that activates the renin–angiotensin system, which serves to raise blood pressure.

Juxtaglomerular cell

juxtaglomerular cellsgranular cellsjuxtaglomerular apparatus cells
The juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells, or granular cells) are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

JGAjuxtaglomerularkidney
Renin is produced by juxtaglomerular cells.

Angiotensin

angiotensin IIangiotensin Iangiotensinogen
Renin can also be referred to as a hormone, as it has a receptor, the (pro)renin receptor, also known as the renin receptor and prorenin receptor (see also below), as well as enzymatic activity with which it hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Renin activates the renin–angiotensin system by cleaving angiotensinogen, produced by the liver, to yield angiotensin I, which is further converted into angiotensin II by ACE, the angiotensin–converting enzyme primarily within the capillaries of the lungs.
Angiotensin I (CAS# 11128-99-7), officially called proangiotensin, is formed by the action of renin on angiotensinogen.

Renin receptor

ATP6AP2
Renin can also be referred to as a hormone, as it has a receptor, the (pro)renin receptor, also known as the renin receptor and prorenin receptor (see also below), as well as enzymatic activity with which it hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
The renin receptor binds renin and prorenin.

Macula densa

The juxtaglomerular cells are also stimulated to release renin by signaling from the macula densa.
(2) it increases renin release from the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent and efferent arterioles, which are the major storage sites for renin.

Thirst

Effects of thirstdrowthfeeling thirsty
The RAS also acts on the CNS to increase water intake by stimulating thirst, as well as conserving blood volume, by reducing urinary loss through the secretion of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland.
When these cells detect decreased blood flow due to the low volume they secrete an enzyme called renin.

Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

β 1 β1-adrenergic receptorβ 1 adrenergic receptor
Renin secretion is also stimulated by sympathetic nervous stimulation, mainly through β 1 adrenoreceptor activation.

Renin stability regulatory element (REN-SRE)

regulatory region
The level of renin mRNA appears to be modulated by the binding of HADHB, HuR and CP1 to a regulatory region in the 3' UTR.
The Renin stability regulatory element (REN-SRE) is a cis-acting element identified in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the renin (REN) gene.

Dialysis

kidney dialysisrenal dialysisdialysis machine
This disease is autosomal dominant, meaning that it is characterized by a 50% chance of inheritance and is a slowly progressive chronic kidney disease that leads to the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation.
The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system, producing erythropoietin, calcitriol and renin.

Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
Angiotensin II also acts on the adrenal glands and releases aldosterone, which stimulates the epithelial cells in the distal tubule and collecting ducts of the kidneys to increase re-absorption of sodium, exchanging with potassium to maintain electrochemical neutrality, and water, leading to raised blood volume and raised blood pressure.

Afferent arterioles

afferent arterioleafferent
When renal blood flow is reduced (indicating hypotension) or there is a decrease in sodium or chloride ion concentration, the macula densa of the distal tubule releases prostaglandins (mainly PGI2 and PGE2) and nitric oxide, which cause the juxtaglomerular cells lining the afferent arterioles to release renin, activating the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, to increase blood pressure and increase reabsorption of sodium ions into the bloodstream via aldosterone.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
Renin activates the renin–angiotensin system by cleaving angiotensinogen, produced by the liver, to yield angiotensin I, which is further converted into angiotensin II by ACE, the angiotensin–converting enzyme primarily within the capillaries of the lungs.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
An over-active renin-angiotension system leads to vasoconstriction and retention of sodium and water.
Reduction of blood pressure and sodium concentration in the kidney result in the production of renin, which in turn produces aldosterone and angiotensin, which stimulates the reabsorption of sodium back into the bloodstream.

Renin inhibitor

renin inhibitorsDirect renin inhibitorDiscovery and development of renin inhibitors
Therefore, renin inhibitors can be used for the treatment of hypertension.
They also discovered this substance responsible for higher blood pressure was produced in the renal cortex, and they named it renin.

Juxtaglomerular cell tumor

reninomareninoma (juxtaglomerular cell tumor)
The differential diagnosis of kidney cancer in a young patient with hypertension includes juxtaglomerular cell tumor (reninoma), Wilms' tumor, and renal cell carcinoma, all of which may produce renin.
This tumor typically secretes renin, hence the former name of reninoma.

Renal cell carcinoma

renal cell cancerrenal carcinomakidney cancer
The differential diagnosis of kidney cancer in a young patient with hypertension includes juxtaglomerular cell tumor (reninoma), Wilms' tumor, and renal cell carcinoma, all of which may produce renin.
Other signs and symptom may include haematuria; loin pain; abdominal mass; malaise, which is a general feeling of unwellness; weight loss and/or loss of appetite; anaemia resulting from depression of erythropoietin; erythrocytosis (increased production of red blood cells) due to increased erythropoietin secretion; varicocele, which is seen in males as an enlargement of the pampiniform plexus of veins draining the testis (more often the left testis) hypertension (high blood pressure) resulting from secretion of renin by the tumour; hypercalcemia, which is elevation of calcium levels in the blood; sleep disturbance or night sweats; recurrent fevers; and chronic fatigue.

Plasma renin activity

This is measured by the plasma renin activity (PRA).
Plasma renin activity (PRA), also known as the renin (active) assay or random plasma renin, is a measure of the activity of the plasma enzyme renin, which plays a major role in the body's regulation of blood pressure, thirst, and urine output.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid) and arterial vasoconstriction. The name renin = ren + -in, "kidney" + "compound".
For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol; and synthesize the hormones erythropoietin and renin.

Ren

Ren (disambiguation)rēn
The name renin = ren + -in, "kidney" + "compound".

Robert Tigerstedt

Renin was discovered, characterized, and named in 1898 by Robert Tigerstedt, Professor of Physiology, and his student, Per Bergman, at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.
Robert Adolph Armand Tigerstedt (28 February 1853 – 12 February 1923) was a Finnish-born medical scientist and physiologist who, with his student Per Bergman, discovered renin at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm in 1898.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
Thus, it regulates the body's mean arterial blood pressure.