Renin–angiotensin system

renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systemrenin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemrenin angiotensin systemrenin-angiotensin systemRAASrenin-angiotensinrenin–angiotensin pathwayfluid balance medicationsreninrenin - angiotensin - aldosterone system
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS), or renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as systemic vascular resistance.wikipedia
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Renin

HyperreninemiaRENblood plasma renin
When renal blood flow is reduced, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys convert the precursor prorenin (already present in the blood) into renin and secrete it directly into circulation.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid) and arterial vasoconstriction.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

angiotensin converting enzymeACEpeptidyl-dipeptidase a
Angiotensin I is subsequently converted to angiotensin II by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) found on the surface of vascular endothelial cells, predominantly those of the lungs.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS), or renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as systemic vascular resistance.

Adrenal cortex

adrenocorticalcortexadrenocortical cells
Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.

Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
Aldosterone is part of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.

Juxtaglomerular cell

juxtaglomerular cellsgranular cellsjuxtaglomerular apparatus cells
When renal blood flow is reduced, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys convert the precursor prorenin (already present in the blood) into renin and secrete it directly into circulation. It can also be activated by a decrease in the filtrate sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration or a decreased filtrate flow rate that will stimulate the macula densa to signal the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin.
In synthesizing renin, they play a critical role in the renin–angiotensin system and thus in autoregulation of the kidney.

Sodium in biology

sodiumserum sodiumDietary sodium
Aldosterone causes the renal tubules to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water into the blood, while at the same time causing the excretion of potassium (to maintain electrolyte balance).
The renin–angiotensin system and the atrial natriuretic peptide indirectly regulate the amount of signal transduction in the human central nervous system, which depends on sodium ion motion across the nerve cell membrane, in all nerves.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
When renal blood flow is reduced, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys convert the precursor prorenin (already present in the blood) into renin and secrete it directly into circulation. Locally expressed renin–angiotensin systems have been found in a number of tissues, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, the heart, vasculature and nervous system, and have a variety of functions, including local cardiovascular regulation, in association or independently of the systemic renin–angiotensin system, as well as non-cardiovascular functions.
Renin is the first in a series of important chemical messengers that make up the renin–angiotensin system.

Angiotensin

angiotensin IIangiotensin Iangiotensinogen
Angiotensin I is subsequently converted to angiotensin II by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) found on the surface of vascular endothelial cells, predominantly those of the lungs. Plasma renin then carries out the conversion of angiotensinogen, released by the liver, to angiotensin I.
It is part of the renin–angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
These drugs are one of the primary ways to control high blood pressure, heart failure, kidney failure, and harmful effects of diabetes.
Most evidence implicates either disturbances in the kidneys' salt and water handling (particularly abnormalities in the intrarenal renin–angiotensin system) or abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous system.

Macula densa

It can also be activated by a decrease in the filtrate sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration or a decreased filtrate flow rate that will stimulate the macula densa to signal the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin.
The release of renin is an essential component of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and volume.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
These drugs are one of the primary ways to control high blood pressure, heart failure, kidney failure, and harmful effects of diabetes.
Over time these increases in workload, which are mediated by long-term activation of neurohormonal systems such as the renin–angiotensin system, leads to fibrosis, dilation, and structural changes in the shape of the left ventricle from elliptical to spherical.

Zona glomerulosa

cells
In response to increased potassium levels, renin or decreased blood flow to the kidneys, cells of the zona glomerulosa produce and secrete the mineralocorticoid aldosterone into the blood as part of the renin–angiotensin system.

Autoregulation

autoregulatoryautoregulation circuitrenal autoregulation
''Further information: Autoregulation
In the opposite case, juxtaglomerular cells are stimulated to release more renin, which stimulates the renin–angiotensin system, producing angiotensin I which is converted by Angio-Tensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II.

Atrial natriuretic peptide

atrial natriuretic factorANPAtriopeptin
These effects directly act together to increase blood pressure and are opposed by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).
There are three volume regulating systems: two salt saving systems, the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and the renal sympathetic system (RSS); and the salt excreting natriuretic peptide (NP) hormone system.

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

angiotensin II receptor antagonistangiotensin receptor blockersangiotensin receptor blocker
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT 1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.

ACE inhibitor

ACE inhibitorsangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitorangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
They inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme, an important component of the renin–angiotensin system.

Renin inhibitor

renin inhibitorsDirect renin inhibitorDiscovery and development of renin inhibitors
These drugs inhibit the first and rate-limiting step of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), namely the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

Thirst

Effects of thirstdrowthfeeling thirsty
Hypovolemia leads to activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and is detected by cells in the kidney.

Angiotensin II receptor

angiotensin receptorAng II receptorsangiotensin II AT 1 receptors
They are important in the renin–angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin II.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS), or renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as systemic vascular resistance.
However, this varies with the individual and is highly dependent on autonomic nervous system response and the renin–angiotensin system.

Afferent arterioles

afferent arterioleafferent
When renal blood flow is reduced (indicating hypotension) or there is a decrease in sodium or chloride ion concentration, the macula densa of the distal tubule releases prostaglandins (mainly PGI2 and PGE2) and nitric oxide, which cause the juxtaglomerular cells lining the afferent arterioles to release renin, activating the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, to increase blood pressure and increase reabsorption of sodium ions into the bloodstream via aldosterone.

Glomerulus (kidney)

glomerulusglomeruliglomerular
These juxtaglomerular cells play a major role in the renin–angiotensin system, which helps regulate blood volume and pressure.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
Locally expressed renin–angiotensin systems have been found in a number of tissues, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, the heart, vasculature and nervous system, and have a variety of functions, including local cardiovascular regulation, in association or independently of the systemic renin–angiotensin system, as well as non-cardiovascular functions.
Mineralocorticoid secretion is regulated mainly by the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), the concentration of potassium, and to a lesser extent the concentration of ACTH.