Repartimiento

repartimientosrepartimento
The Repartimiento (Spanish, "distribution, partition, or division") was a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.wikipedia
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Unfree labour

forced laborforced labourunfree labor
The Repartimiento (Spanish, "distribution, partition, or division") was a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.
Examples are the Repartimiento system in the Spanish Empire, or the work of Indigenous Australians in northern Australia on sheep or cattle stations (ranches), from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century.

Mit'a

mitaforced labormit'a system
In concept it was similar to other tribute-labor systems, such as the mita of the Inca Empire or the corvée of Ancien Régime France: the natives were forced to do low-paid or unpaid labor for a certain number of weeks or months each year on Spanish-owned farms, mines, workshops (obrajes), and public projects.

Viceroyalty of Peru

PeruViceroy of PeruViceroyalty of Perú
However, it created slavery-like conditions in certain areas, most notoriously in silver mines of 16th century Peru.
By the end of the 16th century the quasi-private encomienda had been replaced by the repartimiento system (known in Peru by the Quechua term, mita), which was controlled by local crown officials.

Encomienda

encomenderoencomenderosencomiendas
With the New Laws of 1542, the repartimiento was instated to substitute the encomienda system that had come to be seen as abusive and promoting unethical behavior.
The encomienda system was generally replaced by the crown-managed repartimiento system throughout Spanish America after mid-sixteenth century.

Corregidor (position)

corregidorcorregidoresalcalde mayor
The one in charge of doing the reparto ("distribution") of workers was the Alcalde Mayor (local magistrate) of the city.
As the encomiendas were phased out, corregidores oversaw most of the local repartimientos.

Hacienda

haciendashacendadoestate
The diminution of the number of natives in the Americas due to European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance, as well as to desertion from the work fields, led to the substitution of the encomienda system and the creation of privately owned farms and haciendas.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
The Repartimiento (Spanish, "distribution, partition, or division") was a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.

Spanish East Indies

SpanishPhilippinesSpanish Philippines
The Repartimiento (Spanish, "distribution, partition, or division") was a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.

Tribute

tributarytributestributary system
In concept it was similar to other tribute-labor systems, such as the mita of the Inca Empire or the corvée of Ancien Régime France: the natives were forced to do low-paid or unpaid labor for a certain number of weeks or months each year on Spanish-owned farms, mines, workshops (obrajes), and public projects.

Inca Empire

IncaIncasIncan
In concept it was similar to other tribute-labor systems, such as the mita of the Inca Empire or the corvée of Ancien Régime France: the natives were forced to do low-paid or unpaid labor for a certain number of weeks or months each year on Spanish-owned farms, mines, workshops (obrajes), and public projects.

Corvée

corveecorvee laborcorvée labor
In concept it was similar to other tribute-labor systems, such as the mita of the Inca Empire or the corvée of Ancien Régime France: the natives were forced to do low-paid or unpaid labor for a certain number of weeks or months each year on Spanish-owned farms, mines, workshops (obrajes), and public projects.

Ancien Régime

ancien regimeOld RegimeAncien Régime in France
In concept it was similar to other tribute-labor systems, such as the mita of the Inca Empire or the corvée of Ancien Régime France: the natives were forced to do low-paid or unpaid labor for a certain number of weeks or months each year on Spanish-owned farms, mines, workshops (obrajes), and public projects.

New Laws

New Laws of 1542Leyes Nuevasa law which would have abolished colonial slavery
With the New Laws of 1542, the repartimiento was instated to substitute the encomienda system that had come to be seen as abusive and promoting unethical behavior.

Slavery

slaveslavesenslaved
However, it created slavery-like conditions in certain areas, most notoriously in silver mines of 16th century Peru. The repartimiento was not slavery, in that the worker is not owned outright—being free in various respects other than in the dispensation of his or her labor—and the work was intermittent.

New Spain

Viceroyalty of New SpainSpanishNueva España
The repartimiento, for the most part, replaced the encomienda throughout the Viceroyalty of New Spain by the beginning of the 17th century.

Quechuan languages

QuechuaQuechua languageQuechuan
In Peru encomiendas lasted longer, and the Quechua word mita frequently was used for repartimiento.

Conquistador

conquistadorsconquistadoresSpanish conquistadors
In practice, a conquistador, or later a Spanish settler or official, would be given and supervised a number of indigenous workers, who would labor in farms or mines, or in the case of the Philippines might also be assigned to the ship yards constructing the Manila galleons.

Manila galleon

Manila galleonsManila-Acapulco GalleonGalleon Trade
In practice, a conquistador, or later a Spanish settler or official, would be given and supervised a number of indigenous workers, who would labor in farms or mines, or in the case of the Philippines might also be assigned to the ship yards constructing the Manila galleons.

Smallpox

small poxvariolaVariola virus
The diminution of the number of natives in the Americas due to European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance, as well as to desertion from the work fields, led to the substitution of the encomienda system and the creation of privately owned farms and haciendas.

Influenza

fluhuman fluthe flu
The diminution of the number of natives in the Americas due to European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance, as well as to desertion from the work fields, led to the substitution of the encomienda system and the creation of privately owned farms and haciendas.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
The diminution of the number of natives in the Americas due to European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance, as well as to desertion from the work fields, led to the substitution of the encomienda system and the creation of privately owned farms and haciendas.

Typhus

typhus fevergaol fevercamp fever
The diminution of the number of natives in the Americas due to European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance, as well as to desertion from the work fields, led to the substitution of the encomienda system and the creation of privately owned farms and haciendas.

Wage labour

wage laborlaborlabour
Some looked for wage labor; others signed contracts (asientos) for six months to a year, during which time the worker was required to be paid a salary (something the Spanish Crown did not enforce or support), and provided living quarters as well as religious services.