Reproduction

reproductiveprocreationreproducebreedingprocreatereproducingreproductive strategypropagationprocreativeBiological reproduction
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".wikipedia
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Asexual reproduction

asexualasexuallyreproduce asexually
There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction.
One popular definition is that organisms are open systems that maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, have a life cycle, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, reproduce and evolve.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosis, a specialized type of cell division.
All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gametes, which contain half the number of chromosomes of normal cells and are created by meiosis, with typically a male fertilizing a female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote.
A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction.

Sporogenesis

spore formationform sporesSporocyte
Other ways of asexual reproduction include parthenogenesis, fragmentation and spore formation that involves only mitosis.
The term is also used to refer to the process of reproduction via spores.

Seed

seedsseed coatkernel
Parthenogenesis is the growth and development of embryo or seed without fertilization by a male.
The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras (invertebrates of the order Hydroidea) and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding.
In addition, viral genetic material may occasionally integrate into the germline of the host organisms, by which they can be passed on vertically to the offspring of the host for many generations.

Biological process

biological processesbiologicalprocess
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosis, a specialized type of cell division.

Egg cell

ovumovaegg
In these anisogamous species, the two sexes are referred to as male (producing sperm or microspores) and female (producing ova or megaspores). Allogamy is the fertilization of the combination of gametes from two parents, generally the ovum from one individual with the spermatozoa of another.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

Cell division

divisiondaughter cellcellular division
Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosis, a specialized type of cell division.
For simple unicellular microorganisms such as the amoeba, one cell division is equivalent to reproduction – an entire new organism is created.

Allogamy

allogamouscross-fertilizationcross-pollination
Allogamy is the fertilization of the combination of gametes from two parents, generally the ovum from one individual with the spermatozoa of another.
"Allogamy" (cross-fertilization) is a term used in the field of biological reproduction describing the fertilization of an ovum from one individual with the spermatozoa of another.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes.
Horizontal gene transfer refers to the transfer of genetic material through a mechanism other than reproduction.

Sexual reproduction

sexuallysexualreproduce sexually
There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.

Male

malesmasculine
Parthenogenesis is the growth and development of embryo or seed without fertilization by a male. In these anisogamous species, the two sexes are referred to as male (producing sperm or microspores) and female (producing ova or megaspores).
During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Which strategy is favoured by evolution depends on a variety of circumstances.
These characteristics are the expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offspring during reproduction.

Sexual maturity

sexually maturemature sexuallymaturity
Some animals, such as the human and northern gannet, do not reach sexual maturity for many years after birth and even then produce few offspring.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.

Fungus

Fungifungalnecrotrophic
A few types of organisms, such as many fungi and the ciliate Paramecium aurelia, have more than two "sexes", called syngens.
The major phyla (sometimes called divisions) of fungi have been classified mainly on the basis of characteristics of their sexual reproductive structures.

Self-replication

self-replicatingreplicationreplicate
Being nothing more than a bit of RNA or DNA in a protein capsule, they have no metabolism and can only replicate with the assistance of a hijacked cell's metabolic machinery.
During cell division, DNA is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction.

Vertebrate

Vertebratavertebratesvertebral
Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some species, including lower plants (where it is called apomixis), invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, aphids, some bees and parasitic wasps), and vertebrates (e.g.
The mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) produces both eggs and sperm by meiosis and routinely reproduces by self-fertilisation.

Female

femalesfeminine
In these anisogamous species, the two sexes are referred to as male (producing sperm or microspores) and female (producing ova or megaspores).
During reproduction, the male contributes either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while the female always contributes an X egg.

R/K selection theory

K-selectedr-selectedr-strategists
These two main strategies are known as K-selection (few offspring) and r-selection (many offspring).
In unstable or unpredictable environments, r-selection predominates due to the ability to reproduce rapidly.

Reproductive system

reproductive tractreproductivegenital system
However, there is a great diversity of physical adaptations as well as reproductive strategies in every group of vertebrates.

Abiogenesis

origin of lifeorigins of lifeformation
The biological study of how the origin of life produced reproducing organisms from non-reproducing elements is called abiogenesis.
These droplets would "grow" by fusion with other droplets, and "reproduce" through fission into daughter droplets, and so have a primitive metabolism in which factors that promote "cell integrity" survive, and those that do not become extinct.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
Some animals, such as the human and northern gannet, do not reach sexual maturity for many years after birth and even then produce few offspring.
For humans, sexuality has important social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds and hierarchies among individuals, besides ensuring biological reproduction.

Self-pollination

self-pollinatingself-pollinateself-pollinated
The term "autogamy" is sometimes substituted for autogamous pollination (not necessarily leading to successful fertilization) and describes self-pollination within the same flower, distinguished from geitonogamous pollination, transfer of pollen to a different flower on the same flowering plant, or within a single monoecious Gymnosperm plant.