Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of governmentrepublicanrepublican governmentConstitutionalrepublican systemcommonwealthCumhuriyetdemocrat
A republic (res publica, meaning “public affair”) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.wikipedia
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Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocratically
The primary positions of power within a republic are attained, through democracy, oligarchy, autocracy, or a mix thereof, rather than being unalterably occupied.
Republics, though often associated with democracy because of the shared principle of rule by consent of the governed, are not necessarily democracies, as republicanism does not specify how the people are to rule.

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
As such it has become the opposing form of government to a monarchy and has therefore no monarch as head of state. In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy.
In terms of protocol: the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy; or the president, in the case of a republic.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
As such it has become the opposing form of government to a monarchy and has therefore no monarch as head of state.
In recent centuries, many states have abolished the monarchy and become republics (however see, e.g., United Arab Emirates).

Monarchy

kingdommonarchieskingdoms
As such it has become the opposing form of government to a monarchy and has therefore no monarch as head of state.
The republican form of government has been established as the opposing and main alternative to monarchy.

Mixed government

Mixedmixed constitutionmixed monarchy
The primary positions of power within a republic are attained, through democracy, oligarchy, autocracy, or a mix thereof, rather than being unalterably occupied.
The idea was popularized during classical antiquity in order to describe the stability, the innovation and the success of the republic as a form of government developed under the Roman constitution.

Representative democracy

elected representativerepresentative democraticparliamentary democracy
In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy.
Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, France is a unitary semi-presidential republic, and the United States is a federal presidential republic.

Commonwealth

British CommonwealthCommonwealth of NationsCommonwealth citizens
In subsequent centuries, the English word "commonwealth" came to be used as a translation of res publica, and its use in English was comparable to how the Romans used the term res publica.
Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic".

Oliver Cromwell

CromwellCromwellianOliver
Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word republic was also in common use.
He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland "and of the dominions thereto belonging" from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology.
Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France.

List of forms of government

form of government
A republic (res publica, meaning “public affair”) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

Res publica

rei publicaeRespublicarepublican ideals
To describe non-monarchical states writers, most importantly Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin phrase res publica.
It is the root of the word 'republic', and the word 'commonwealth' has traditionally been used as a synonym for it; however translations vary widely according to the context.

The Protectorate

ProtectorateLord ProtectorCommonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word republic was also in common use.
Since 1649 and prior to the Protectorate, England, Ireland and later Scotland had been governed as a republic by the Council of State and the Rump Parliament.

Cursus honorum

political careerpolitical career trackcareer
This constitution was characterized by a Senate composed of wealthy aristocrats and wielding significant influence; several popular assemblies of all free citizens, possessing the power to elect magistrates and pass laws; and a series of magistracies with varying types of civil and political authority.
In the early Roman Republic, 24 men at the age of around 20 were elected by the Tribal Assembly to serve as commanders on a rotating basis; each commander retained six tribunes on his staff.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
Nevertheless, there are a number of states of the classical era that are today still called republics.
The Etruscans apparently lost power in the area by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the Italic tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power.

Vaishali (ancient city)

VaishaliVesaliVesāli
Early "republics" or gaṇa sangha, such as Mallas, centered in the city of Kusinagara, and the Vajji (or Vriji) confederation, centered in the city of Vaishali, existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE.
It was the capital city of the Vajjian Confederacy of (Vrijji mahajanapada), considered one of the first examples of a republic around the 6th century BCE.

Politeia

Polity (Aristotle)πολιτείαpolity
The term originates from the Latin translation of Greek word politeia.
Specific translations of this second meaning as constitutional democracy or republic are at least anachronistic, and in most instances contentious and/or inaccurate.

Dutch Revolt

Dutch War of IndependenceDutch rebelsEighty Years' War
During the Dutch Revolt (beginning in 1566), the Dutch Republic emerged from rejection of Spanish Habsburg rule.
This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, the United Provinces.

Vajji

VrijiVajji confederationVrijji
Early "republics" or gaṇa sangha, such as Mallas, centered in the city of Kusinagara, and the Vajji (or Vriji) confederation, centered in the city of Vaishali, existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE.
The Vajji state is indicated to have been a republic.

Republic of Genoa

GenoeseGenoaGenoan
The two most powerful were the Republic of Venice and its rival the Republic of Genoa.
The Adorno, Campofregoso, and other smaller merchant families fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city.

Gaṇa sangha

GanasanghaGana sanghaganapati
Early "republics" or gaṇa sangha, such as Mallas, centered in the city of Kusinagara, and the Vajji (or Vriji) confederation, centered in the city of Vaishali, existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE.
Gana-Sangha (Sanskrit: गणसङ्घ) or Gana-Rajya (Sanskrit: गणराज्य), refers to a type of republic or oligarchy in ancient India.

Charles I of England

Charles IKing Charles IKing Charles
Spearheaded by the Puritans and funded by the merchants of London, the revolt was a success, and King Charles I was executed.
The monarchy was abolished and the Commonwealth of England was established as a republic.

Arwad

ArvadAradusRuad
Arwad has been cited as one of the earliest known examples of a republic, in which the people, rather than a monarch, are described as sovereign.
The city has been cited as one of the first known examples of a republic in the Levant region, in which the people, rather than a monarch, are described as sovereign.

Early modern Europe

early modern periodearly modernearly modern era
Along with these initial republican revolts, early modern Europe also saw a great increase in monarchical power.
Capitalist economies began to develop in a nascent form, first in the northern Italian republics such as Genoa and Venice as well as in the cities of the Low Countries, and later in France, Germany and England.

Federal republic

federalunionconstitutional republicanism
The Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, created a relatively strong federal republic to replace the relatively weak confederation under the first attempt at a national government with the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union ratified in 1781.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
The French Revolution was also not republican at its outset.
Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.