Republic of Crimea

Prime Minister of the Crimean Regional Government Solomon Krym, 1919
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet "About the transfer of the Crimean Oblast", 1954
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in Crimea: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin.
Diagram showing the merge, short-lived independence, and separation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol that led to the Republic of Crimea becoming a federal subject of Russia.
Simferopol, Crimea, 9 May 2019, the celebration of the Victory Day
Dmitry Medvedev and Crimean PM Aksyonov meeting with students in Simferopol, 31 March 2014
Interior of the Church of the Resurrection of Christ in Yalta.
Commercial Medical Clinic in the Republic of Crimea
Tourists in Crimea in June 2015
The 70 m radio telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory is a part of the Soviet Deep Space Network
Lokomotiv Republican Sports Complex in Simferopol.
Vladimir Putin meeting with representatives of the Crimean Tatars, 16 May 2014
Results of the United Nations General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine in March 2014. Note that Crimea is shown as part of Ukraine.
Natalia Poklonskaya, Prosecutor of the Republic of Crimea, March 2015

De facto federal subject (republic) of Russia.

- Republic of Crimea

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Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

In February and March 2014, Russia invaded and subsequently annexed the Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine.

Russian President Vladimir Putin signs the treaty of accession with Crimean leaders in Moscow, 18 March 2014.
Euromaidan in Kyiv, 11 December 2013
Percentage of people that indicated Russian as their native language in the 2001 Ukraine census. Sevastopol identifies itself as the highest at 90.6% followed immediately by Crimea at 77.0%.
Pro-Russian supporters, 2 March 2014
A pro-Ukrainian demonstration in Simferopol (Ukrainian flag on the left, Crimean Tatar flag on the right) during the Russian military intervention in Crimea, 9 March 2014
Medal of the Russian Defense Ministry "For the return of Crimea" (За возвращение Крыма), 20 February – 18 March 2014
The blockade of military units of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the capture of Crimea by Russia in February–March 2014
"Little green men" and trucks after the seizure of Perevalne military base, 9 March 2014
President Putin with Vladimir Konstantinov, Sergey Aksyonov and Alexey Chaly at the Kremlin, 18 March 2014
Vladimir Putin and his close confidant Arkady Rotenberg before the opening of the Crimean Bridge in May 2018
Russian President Putin meeting with representatives of the Crimean Tatars, 16 May 2014
Concert to mark the fifth anniversary of annexation in Simferopol, Crimea, 18 March 2019
Following Russia's annexation of Crimea, Ukraine blocked the North Crimean Canal, which provided 85% of Crimea's drinking water.
Russian President Vladimir Putin (seated, middle) speaks to the press on 4 March 2014, denouncing the Revolution of Dignity as an "unconstitutional coup", and insisting that Moscow has a right to protect Russians in Ukraine.
Around 100,000 people gathered in Crimean Sevastopol at Victory Day parade
Hotel in Kerch, Crimea, 2015

Russia formally incorporated Crimea as two Russian federal subjects—the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol on 18 March 2014.


Largest city in Crimea and a major port on the Black Sea.

The ruins of the ancient Greek theatre in Chersonesos Taurica
"Soldier and Sailor" Memorial to Heroic Defenders of Sevastopol
The Monument to the Sunken Ships, dedicated to ships scuttled during the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, designed by Amandus Adamson
Sevastopol, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
British Memorial Complex, Sevastopol, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
The Black Sea Fleet Museum
Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001
Satellite image of the Sevastopol area.
Ukrainian Navy artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol
Victory Day in Sevastopol, 9 May 2014
Trolleybuses ZiU-9 in Sevastopol
Sevastopol Artillery Bay view.
The seaside of Sevastopol.
St. Vladimir's Cathedral at 'the city hill'.
Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral.
View of the Northern side.
Old city cemetery.
Main railway station.
The Panorama Museum (The Heroic Defence of Sevastopol during the Crimean War).
The Storming of Sapun-gora of 7 May 1944, the Diorama Museum (World War II).
Entrance to Balaklava bay, 2010.
View of Sevastopol
Ships of the Black Sea Fleet docked in Sevastopol
Nakhimov Square
Palace of Culture
Lunacharsky Theater
Artillery Bay

Both claimants consider the city to be administratively separate from the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea.

Federal subjects of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.

Federal subjects of Russia.
Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange)

The two located on the Crimean Peninsula, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea, are not internationally recognized as part of Russia.


Peninsula in Eastern Europe.

Map of the Crimean Peninsula
The Flag of Crimea (used by both Ukraine as the flag of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by Russia as the flag of the Republic of Crimea)
Ruins of the ancient Greek colony of Chersonesus
Genoese fortress in Sudak, 13th century, Republic of Genoa, originally a fortified Byzantine town, 7th century
The Chersonesus Cathedral, built on the site where Vladimir the Great is believed to have been baptized in 989 CE.
Swallow's Nest, built in 1912 for businessman Baron Pavel von Steingel
The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol during the Crimean War
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in Crimea: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin.
Simferopol's city centre
Tourists in Crimea with Russian flag flying, June 2015
May Day parade in Simferopol, 1 May 2019.
Coastline between Sudak and Novy Svet
Eclizee-Burun Mountain
Following Russia's annexation of Crimea, Ukraine blocked the North Crimean Canal, which provided 85% of Crimea's drinking water.
The Crimean Mountains in the background and Yalta as seen from the Tsar's Path.
Crimea's south coast has a subtropical climate
Map of the historical trade route (shown in purple) connecting Uppsala with Constantinople via Cherson. The major centers of Kievan Rus' – Kyiv itself, Novgorod and Ladoga – arose along this route.
Tourism is an important sector of Crimea's economy
Crimean Bridge
Trolleybus near Alushta
The cableway in Yalta
Boardwalk in Yalta.
Genoese fortress of Caffa.
Mosque and yard in the Khan Palace in Bakhchisaray
Concert to mark the fifth anniversary of annexation in Sevastopol, Crimea, March 2019
The Foros Church near Yalta
Alexander Pushkin in Bakhchisaray Palace. Painting by Grigory Chernetsov
Painting of the Russian squadron in Sevastopol by Ivan Aivazovsky (1846)
The grave of Russian poet and artist Maximilian Voloshin
People at the Kazantip music festival in 2007
Bakhchisaray Palace
Dulber Palace in Koreiz
Vorontsov Palace
Livadia Palace
Catholic church in Yalta
St. Vladimir's Cathedral, dedicated to the Heroes of Sevastopol (Crimean War).

The Republic of Crimea declared its independence from Ukraine following a disputed referendum supporting reunification.


The city in 1856, by Carlo Bossoli.
OT-34, monument of World War II
The Simferopol Reservoir provides clean drinking water to the city.
Simferopol's city centre
The Crimean Trolleybus runs from Simferopol to Yalta.

Simferopol is the second-largest city in Crimea and the capital of both the Republic of Crimea, a de facto federal subject of Russia, and the internationally recognized Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a de jure administrative division of Ukraine.

Autonomous Republic of Crimea

De jure autonomous republic of Ukraine encompassing most of Crimea that was annexed by Russia in 2014.

Geopolitics of Crimea, March 2014.
Ukrainian military base at Perevalne surrounded by Russian troops without military rank insignia or cockade on 9 March 2014.
Map of Crimea with major cities

Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

Ukrainian hryvnia

The hryvnia, hryvna (гривня, : грн hrn; sign: ₴; code: UAH), has been the national currency of Ukraine since 2 September 1996.

Hryvnia currency sign
Kyiv hryvnia in 11–12 century, reproduction by the National Bank of Ukraine
1917 100 karbovanets of the Ukrainian National Republic with 3 languages: Ukrainian, Polish and Yiddish

On 18 March 2014, following its annexation by Russia, the de-facto occupation administration of occupied Republic of Crimea announced that the hryvnia was to be dropped as the region's currency in April 2014.

Moscow Time

Time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg.

Time zones of the world

In the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, disputed regions of Crimea between Russia and Ukraine, the Moscow Time is also observed, as well as in the separatist territories of the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic, which since 2014 control part of the Ukrainian Donetsk Oblast and Luhansk Oblast.

Constitution of Russia

For previous constitutions, see Russian constitution (disambiguation).

In miniature book version.
Dmitry Medvedev takes the presidential oath with his right hand resting on the Constitution, 7 May 2008.

On 21 March 2014, Federal Constitutional Law No. 6 «On the Adoption of the Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation and the Formation of New Subjects within the Russian Federation - the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol» was adopted.

Republics of Russia

Divided into 85 federal subjects, 22 of which are republics .

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on the incorporation of Tuva into the Soviet Union as an autonomous oblast, 11 October 1944. Tuva would not become an ASSR until 1961.
Killed civilians on a truck in Chechnya during the battle of Grozny, January 1995.
Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev shaking hands after signing an agreement to grant Tatarstan devolved powers in 1994. During the 1990s the republics had significant autonomy.
A billboard in Tiraspol, Transnistria, with Soviet symbolism. Nostalgia for the Soviet Union and Russian influence remain common in Transnistria, which has made repeated requests to join Russia.

The peninsula subsequently became the Republic of Crimea, the 22nd republic of Russia.