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Cosimo de' Medici

Cosimo de MediciCosimo the ElderCosimo
The Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434 under Cosimo de' Medici.
Cosimo de' Medici was born in Florence to Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici and his wife Piccarda Bueri on 10 April 1389.

Signoria of Florence

SignoriaFlorentine governmentDodici Buonomini
The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence.
The Signoria (Italian: "lordship") was the government of the medieval and Renaissance Republic of Florence, between 1250 and 1532.

War of the League of Cognac

Treaty of CambraiLeague of CognacPeace of Barcelona
Florence repudiated Medici authority for a second time in 1527, during the War of the League of Cognac.
The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Spain—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including the Kingdom of France, Pope Clement VII, the Republic of Venice, the Kingdom of England, the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Florence.

University of Florence

FlorenceUniversità di FirenzeUniversità degli Studi di Firenze
According to a study carried out by Enrico Faini of the University of Florence, there were about fifteen old aristocratic families who moved to Florence between 1000 and 1100: Amidei; Ardinghi; Brunelleschi; Buondelmonti; Caponsacchi; Donati; Fifanti; Gherardini of Montagliari; Guidi; Nerli; Porcelli; Sacchetti; Scolari; Uberti; and Visdomini.
The first university in Florence was the Studium Generale, which was established by the Florentine Republic in 1321.

Gherardini family

Gherardini of MontagliariHouse of GherardiniOtho Gherandini
According to a study carried out by Enrico Faini of the University of Florence, there were about fifteen old aristocratic families who moved to Florence between 1000 and 1100: Amidei; Ardinghi; Brunelleschi; Buondelmonti; Caponsacchi; Donati; Fifanti; Gherardini of Montagliari; Guidi; Nerli; Porcelli; Sacchetti; Scolari; Uberti; and Visdomini.
Originating from the feudal tradition, it was one of the founding families of the Republic of Florence.

Florence

FlorentineFlorence, ItalyFirenze
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina, or Repubblica di Firenze), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
Originally called the Palazzo della Signoria, after the Signoria of Florence, the ruling body of the Republic of Florence, it was also given several other names: Palazzo del Popolo, Palazzo dei Priori, and Palazzo Ducale, in accordance with the varying use of the palace during its long history.

Battle of Montaperti

MontapertiMontaperti in 1260
The Guelphs lost the reins of power after Florence suffered a catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Montaperti against Siena in 1260.
The Battle of Montaperti was fought on 4 September 1260 between Florence and Siena in Tuscany as part of the conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines.

Palazzo Vecchio

Palazzo della SignoriaSalone dei CinquecentoPalace of the Signoria
The Florentine economy reached a zenith in the latter half of the 13th century, and its success was reflected by the building of the famed Palazzo della Signoria, designed by Arnolfo di Cambio.
Originally called the Palazzo della Signoria, after the Signoria of Florence, the ruling body of the Republic of Florence, this building was also known by several other names: Palazzo del Popolo, Palazzo dei Priori, and Palazzo Ducale, in accordance with the varying use of the palace during its long history.

Guelphs and Ghibellines

GhibellineGuelphGhibellines
The precarious peace that existed at the beginning of the century was destroyed in 1216 when two factions, known as the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, began to war.
Smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti, 1260.

War of the Eight Saints

Cesena BloodbathWar of Eight SaintsEight Saints
The war with Avignon papacy strained the regime.
The War of the Eight Saints (1375–1378) was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence that contributed to the end of the Avignon Papacy.

House of Medici

MediciMedici familyMedicis
The Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434 under Cosimo de' Medici.
The House of Medici ( or, ) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

Dante Alighieri

DanteDante’sDantean
While the banks perished, Florentine literature flourished, and Florence was home to some of the greatest writers in Italian history: Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio.
Dante was born in Florence, Republic of Florence, present-day Italy.

Ordinances of Justice

new city ordinances were passed
In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted, which effectively became the constitution of the republic of Florence throughout the Italian Renaissance.
The Ordinances of Justice were a series of statutory laws enacted in the Republic of Florence of northern Italy between the years 1293 and 1295.

Frederick of Antioch

The Ghibellines, who had ruled the city under Frederick of Antioch since 1244, were deposed in 1250 by the Guelphs.
In Florence, the chief city of Tuscany, internal conflict between the Guelph and Ghibelline parties allowed the emperor to install Frederick as imperial podestà there (February 1246).

Florin

florinsgold florinsgold florin
Their primarily mercantile orientation soon became evident in one of their earliest achievements: the introduction of a new coin, the florin, in 1252.
The "fiorino d'oro" of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities since the seventh century to play a significant commercial role.

Donatello

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi(DonatelloAr
He employed Donatello, Brunelleschi, and Michelozzo.
Born in Florence, he studied classical sculpture and used this to develop a complete Renaissance style in sculpture, whose periods in Rome, Padua and Siena introduced to other parts of Italy a long and productive career.

Rabodo

Before the death of Matilda of Tuscany in 1115, the city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany founded in 846 AD The city did not submit readily to her successor Rabodo (r.
Rabodo disputed the jurisdictional claims of the commune of Florence and established an alliance with the city's rivals, the Alberti counts.

Wars in Lombardy

conflictconstantly at warFirst War in Lombardy
Foreign relations, both as a backdrop to Cosimo's rise to power and during first twenty years of his rule, were dominated by the Wars in Lombardy.
They were Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States and Naples.

Battle of Anghiari

The Battle of Anghiaribattle between Florence and MilanBattle of Anghiari (1440)
Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan invaded Florence twice in the 1430s, and again in 1440, but his army was finally defeated in the battle of Anghiari.
The Battle of Anghiari was fought on 29 June 1440, between the forces of Milan and those of the Italian League led by the Republic of Florence in the course of the Wars in Lombardy.

Lorenzo de' Medici

Lorenzo the MagnificentLorenzo de MediciLorenzo il Magnifico
Lorenzo the Magnificent was Piero's eldest son by his wife Lucrezia Tornabuoni.
Lorenzo de' Medici (, 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.

Michelangelo

Michelangelo BuonarrotiMichael AngeloMichelangelo Buonarotti
He patronised Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Botticelli, among others.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known best as simply Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

Treaty of Lodi

Peace of Lodipeace
Eventually, the Peace of Lodi recognized Venetian and Florentine territorial gains and the legitimacy of the Sforza rule in Milan.
The Treaty of Lodi, or Peace of Lodi, was a peace agreement between Milan, Naples and Florence that was signed on 9 April 1454 at Lodi in Lombardy, on the banks of the Adda.

Republic of Lucca

LuccaMost Serene Republic of LuccaLucca, Republic of
He played a prominent role in the government of Florence until his exile in 1433, after a disastrous war with Tuscany's neighbour, the Republic of Lucca.
Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328.

Pisa

Pisa, ItalyPisanPisans
Pisa and Siena as well as a number of smaller cities submitted to Gian Galeazzo, while Lucca withdrew from the anti-Visconti league, with Bologna remaining the only major ally.
Always Ghibelline, Pisa tried to build up its power in the course of the 14th century, and even managed to defeat Florence in the Battle of Montecatini (1315), under the command of Uguccione della Faggiuola.

Pope Leo X

Leo XGiovanni de' MediciGiovanni
Giovanni de' Medici (later Pope Leo X) re-conquered the republic in 1512.
Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family of Florence, Giovanni was the second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of the Florentine Republic, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489.