Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice in 1789
The Doge of Venice, illustrated in the manuscript Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel. Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the 2nd half of the 16th century. Preserved by the Ghent University Library.
The Republic of Venice in 1789
The Venetia c 600 AD
The Venetia c 840 AD
Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000
Procession in St Mark's Square by Gentile Bellini in 1496
Leonardo Loredan, Doge of Venice during the War of the League of Cambrai.
The Venetian fort of Palamidi in Nafplion, Greece, one of many forts that secured Venetian trade routes in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Greater coat of arms of the Republic, with its various possessions and claims, in the aftermath of the Morean War
The Republic of Venice around 1700
Drawing of the Doge's Palace, late 14th century
The governmental structure of the Venetian Republic
The hearing given by the Doge in the Sala del Collegio in Doge's Palace by Francesco Guardi, 1775–80
The Flag of Veneto.
Siege of Tyre (1124) in the Holy Land
Siege of Constantinople (1203)
Voyage of Marco Polo into the Far East during the Pax Mongolica
The Piraeus Lion in Venice, in front of the Venetian Arsenal
Relief of the Venetian Lion on the Landward Gate in Zara (Zadar), capital of the Venetian Dalmatia
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Parenzo (Poreč)
Vicenza, Piazza dei Signori.
Udine, Piazza Libertà.
Piazza delle Erbe, Verona
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Cattaro (Kotor)
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Candia (Heraklion)
Relief of the Venetian Lion in Frangokastello, Crete
Venetian blazon with the Lion of Saint Mark, as frequently found on the New Fortress walls, Corfu.

Sovereign state and maritime republic in parts of present-day Italy (mainly northeastern Italy) which existed for 1100 years from 697 AD until 1797 AD. Centered on the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, it incorporated numerous overseas possessions in modern Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Greece, Albania and Cyprus.

- Republic of Venice

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Country in Southeastern Europe.

Ruins of the ancient city of Doclea
Battle of Vučji Do, 1876
Expansion of Montenegro from 1711 to 1918 within present borders
Royal family of Montenegro: King Nicholas I with his wife, sons, daughters, grandchildren and sons- and daughters-in-law
Captured ships of the Yugoslav Navy, Bay of Kotor 1941
Josip Broz Tito, President of SFR with the socio-political assets of SR Montenegro in the building of the Parliament of Montenegro
Supporters of Montenegrin independence in June 2006 in Cetinje
The controversial 2019 law on religious communities, introduced by the former ruling DPS, proposed the transfer of the majority of religious objects and land owned by the largest religious organization in the country, the SPC, to the Montenegrin state. It sparked a series of massive protests across the country, which led to the first government change in the country's history.
Satellite image of Montenegro and surrounding countries
The Koplje, Sjeverni and Veliki Vrh mountains 2490 m in Prokletije National Park
Lake Biograd in Biogradska Gora National Park, which is a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve
Black Lake in Durmitor National Park, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Lake Skadar National Park is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity.
Parliament of Montenegro
Signing of the protocol on Montenegro's accession to NATO. Montenegro officially became the 29th member of the NATO in 2017
The Mausoleum of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš in Lovćen National Park
Montenegrin army soldiers with NATO allies from United States, Croatia, Albania, Slovenia and North Macedonia during “Immediate Response 2012”, Slunj, Croatia
Municipalities and Statistical regions of Montenegro
A proportional representation of Montenegro exports, 2019
Roads of Montenegro in service and two planned: red – Bar–Boljare highway, blue – Adriatic–Ionian motorway
The Bay of Kotor, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The resort of Sveti Stefan, near the coastal town of Budva
Ethnic structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011
Linguistic structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011
Religious structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011
National Museum of Montenegro
A first edition copy of Gorski vijenac (The Mountain Wreath; 1847)
Foods from Montenegro
Njeguški pršut
Podgorica City Stadium, Montenegro fans with national features
Montenegro, satellite view

From the late 14th century to the late 18th century, large parts of southern Montenegro were ruled by the Venetian Republic and incorporated into Venetian Albania.

Venetian Lagoon

Enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea, in northern Italy, in which the city of Venice is situated.

Aerial view of the Venetian Lagoon, showing many of the islands including Venice itself, center rear, with the bridge to the mainland
The Venetian Lagoon
The island of Torcello seen from the Lagoon at low tide
Venetian lagoon from above
The Venetian Lagoon Islands
San Lazzaro degli Armeni, has been an important center of Armenian culture for around 300 years.

Later, it provided naturally protected conditions for the growth of the Venetian Republic and its maritime empire.

Marco Polo

Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, print from the 18th century
XVI century portrait of Marco Polo
Corte Seconda del Milion is still named after the nickname of Polo, Il Milione
Mosaic of Marco Polo displayed in the Palazzo Doria-Tursi, in Genoa, Italy
Pietro d'Abano, philosopher, doctor and astrologer
San Lorenzo church in the sestiere of Castello (Venice), where Polo was buried. The photo shows the church as is today, after the 1592 rebuilding.
Plaque on Teatro Malibran, which was built upon Marco Polo's house
Statue of Marco Polo in Hangzhou, China
Polo meeting Kublai Khan.
A page from Il Milione, from a manuscript believed to date between 1298–1299.
Kublai Khan's court, from French "Livre des merveilles"
Text of the letter of Pope Innocent IV "to the ruler and people of the Tartars", brought to Güyüg Khan by John de Carpini, 1245
Seal of Güyük Khan using the classical Mongolian script, as found in a letter sent to the Roman Pope Innocent IV in 1246.
Letter from Arghun, Khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate, to Pope Nicholas IV, 1290.
Seal of the Mongol ruler Ghazan in a 1302 letter to Pope Boniface VIII, with an inscription in Chinese seal script
Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus on a Latin edition of Polo's book.
The Fra Mauro map, published c. 1450 by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro.
Italian banknote, issued in 1982, portraying Marco Polo.

Marco Emilio Polo (,, ; c. 1254 – 8 January 1324) was a Venetian merchant, explorer and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295.


Country in Central Europe.

Roman Emona's south wall (reconstruction) in present-day Ljubljana
The Prince's Stone, symbol of the Duchy of Carantania
A depiction of an ancient democratic ritual of Slovene-speaking tribes, which took place on the Prince's Stone in Slovene until 1414
The Ottoman army battling the Habsburgs in present-day Slovenia during the Great Turkish War
The Battles of the Isonzo took place mostly in rugged mountainous areas above the Soča River.
The proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs at Congress Square in Ljubljana on 20 October 1918
The map showing the present territory of Slovenia, with traditional regional boundaries; the Slovene-speaking areas annexed by Italy after WWI are shown in stripes
Partisans fighting for Trieste and Primorje region, 1945
Adolf Hitler and Martin Bormann visiting Maribor in April 1941
Josip Broz Tito and Edvard Kardelj (left) in Dražgoše, Slovenia, 1977.
Slovenian Territorial Defense Units counterattacking the Yugoslav National Army tank who entered Slovenia during the Ten-Day War, 1991
A topographic map of Slovenia
Mount Mangart, in the Julian Alps, is the third-highest peak in Slovenia, after Triglav and Škrlatica.
Solution runnels (also known as rillenkarren) are a karst feature on the Karst Plateau, as in many other karst areas of the world.
Slovenian coast with cliffs
Climate types of Slovenia 1970–2000 and climographs for selected settlements.
Lake Bohinj, largest Slovenian lake, one of the two springs of the Sava River
Olm can be found in the Postojna cave and other caves in the country.
The Carniolan honey bee is native to Slovenia and is a subspecies of the western honey bee.
Modern Lipizzaner grazing
The Government Building and President's Office in Ljubljana
President Borut Pahor
Eurocopter Cougar of the Slovenian Army
Statistical regions: 1. Gorizia, 2. Upper Carniola, 3. Carinthia, 4. Drava, 5. Mura, 6. Central Slovenia, 7. Central Sava, 8. Savinja, 9. Coastal–Karst, 10. Inner Carniola–Karst, 11. Southeast Slovenia, 12. Lower Sava
Since 2007 Slovenia has been part of the Eurozone (dark blue)
GDP per capita development in Slovenia
A proportional representation of Slovenia exports, 2019
Loan-deposit ratio in Slovenia by years – including the 2005–2008 Boom Period
A graphical depiction of Slovenia's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
Postojna Cave
Old town of Piran on Slovenian coast
Lake Bled with its island
Motorways in Slovenia in August 2020
Pendolino ETR 310 tilting train of Slovenian railways in Ljubljana Central train station
The Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport is the biggest international airport in the country
Population density in Slovenia by municipality. The four main urban areas are visible: Ljubljana and Kranj (centre), Maribor (northeast) and the Slovene Istria (southwest).
Front cover of a bilingual passport in Slovene and Italian
The National Shrine Mary Help of Christians at Brezje.
University of Ljubljana administration building
University of Maribor administration building
The Sower (1907), by the Impressionist painter Ivan Grohar, became a metaphor for Slovenes and was a reflection of the transition from a rural to an urban culture.
Potica as part of traditional Slovenian Easter breakfast
The more-than-400-year-old Žametovka vine growing outside the Old Vine House in Maribor, Slovenia. To the right of the vine is a daughter vine taken from a cutting of the old vine.
France Prešeren, best-known Slovenian poet
"Zdravljica" (A Toast; part) with rejection mark from Austrian censorship (due to potential revolutionary content); the music of Zdravljica is now the Slovenian national anthem.
Folk musician Lojze Slak
The industrial group Laibach
The National Theatre in Ljubljana
The sculpture of the poet Valentin Vodnik (1758–1819) was created by Alojz Gangl in 1889 as part of Vodnik Monument, the first Slovene national monument.
Smrekar's illustration of Martin Krpan
Alpine skier Tina Maze, a double Olympic gold medalist and the overall winner of the 2012–13 World Cup season
Postojna Cave
Old town of Piran on Slovenian coast
Lake Bled with its island

Its territory has been part of many different states: the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Republic of Venice, the Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon's First French Empire, the Austrian Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


State with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea, or a seaborne empire.

Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade networks in the Indian Ocean
Territories of the Genoese Republic (economic influence areas shown in pink) around the Mediterranean & Black Sea coasts.
Main trade routes of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires.

Examples of this were the Phoenician states of Tyre, Sidon and Carthage, and the Italian maritime republics of Venice and Genoa of the Mediterranean; the Chola dynasty of India and the Austronesian states of Srivijaya, the Omani Empire and Majapahit of Maritime Southeast Asia.


Island country in the eastern Mediterranean Sea south of the Anatolian Peninsula.

A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
A map showing the division of Cyprus
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Dhekelia Power Station
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
Supreme Court of Justice
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Central Bank of Cyprus
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
Limassol General Hospital
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
2010 population by age and gender
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
Cypriot meze
Cypriot Halloumi
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol

Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878 (de jure until 1914).


Self-Portrait, c. 1567; Museo del Prado, Madrid.
A Man with a Quilted Sleeve, c. 1509, National Gallery, London
Sacred and Profane Love,1514, Galleria Borghese, Rome
Allegory of Profane Love (detail of Sacred and Profane Love)
Assumption of the Virgin, 1516–1518; it took Titian more than two years to complete this painting in the 'Frari' church in Venice. Its dynamic three-tier composition and colour scheme established him as the preeminent painter north of Rome.
Salome with the Head of John the Baptist c. 1515, or Judith; this religious work also functions as an idealized portrait of a beauty, a genre developed by Titian, supposedly often using Venetian courtesans as models. Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome.
Bacchus and Ariadne, c. 1520–1523. National Gallery, London.
Portrait of Federico II Gonzaga, c. 1529. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Pesaro altarpiece, 1521–26, Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice
Equestrian Portrait of Charles V, 1548, Museo del Prado
Venus and Organist and Little Dog, c. 1550. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
The Rape of Europa
Pietà, c. 1576, his last painting. Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice.
Tomb of Titian in Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice
The Allegory of Age Governed by Prudence (c. 1565–1570) is thought to depict (from left) Titian, his son Orazio, and his nephew, Marco Vecellio. National Gallery, London.
Diana and Actaeon
Venus and Adonis
Diana and Callisto
Perseus and Andromeda
The Death of Actaeon
Portrait of a Lady ( 'La Schiavona' ) 1510-12
Noli me tangere, 1511–15, National Gallery London
Portrait of Jacopo Sannazzaro, 1514–18, Royal Collection, UK
Man with a glove, c. 1520, Louvre Museum, Paris
La Bella, c. 1536, Palazzo Pitti, Florence
David and Goliath, 1542–44, S. Maria della Salute, Venice
Pope Paul III and His Grandsons, c. 1546; Museo di Capodimonte, Naples
A monk with a book, c. 1550, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
Altarpiece of James the Greater, 1558, San Lio church, Venice
Danae with a nurse, 1560–65, Prado Museum, Madrid
Annunciation of the Lord, 1559–64, oil on canvas; altar-painting in the San Savator church, Venice
The Entombment, c. 1572, Prado Museum, Madrid

Tiziano Vecelli or Vecellio (c. 1488/90 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian (Venetian) painter during the Renaissance, considered the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.

Fourth Crusade

Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204
The crusaders conquering the City of Zadar, painted by Tintoretto
Dandolo Preaching the Crusade by Gustave Doré
The Crusader attack on Constantinople, from a Venetian manuscript of Geoffrey de Villehardouin's history, c. 1330
Capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). The most infamous action of the Fourth Crusade was the sack of the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople.
Partition of the Byzantine Empire into The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, and Despotate of Epirus after 1204

In exchange for building a dedicated fleet and providing sea transport, the Republic of Venice instructed the Crusaders to pay them for the fleet.

Antonio Vivaldi

Italian Baroque composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher, impresario, and Roman Catholic priest.

Probable portrait of Vivaldi, Antonio Vivaldi signature.svg
The church where Vivaldi was given the supplemental baptismal rites, San Giovanni in Bragora, Sestiere di Castello, Venice
Commemorative plaque beside the Ospedale della Pietà
First edition of Juditha triumphans
Frontispiece of Il teatro alla moda
Caricature by P. L. Ghezzi, Rome (1723)
Antonio Vivaldi (engraving by François Morellon de La Cave, from Michel-Charles Le Cène's edition of Vivaldi's Op. 8, 1725)
Antonio Vivaldi monument at Rooseveltplatz, Vienna, Austria.
Allée Vivaldi, Paris. Named after Antonio Vivaldi.

Born in Venice, the capital of the Venetian Republic, Vivaldi is regarded as one of the greatest Baroque composers.

Doge of Venice

The Doge's Palace complex.
Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century
Gold coin of Bartolomeo Gradenigo (1260–1342): the Doge kneeling before St. Mark.
The Return of the Bucentaur to the Molo on Ascension Day (1730 by Canaletto)
Tomb of Doge Leonardo Loredan in the Basilica of Santi Giovanni e Paolo.

The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia ; Doge di Venezia ; all derived from Latin dux, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice between 726 and 1797.