Republic of Venice

VenetianVeniceVenetian RepublicVenetiansVenetiaSerenissimaMost Serene Republic of VeniceVenice RepublicRepublicLa Serenissima
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic (Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice; Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in what is now northeastern Italy.wikipedia
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Venice

VenetianVenice, ItalyVenezia
Centered on the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, the republic grew into a trading power during the Middle Ages and strengthened this position in the Renaissance.
The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice for a millennium and more, from 697 to 1797.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
Centered on the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, the republic grew into a trading power during the Middle Ages and strengthened this position in the Renaissance.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, and finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy.

Fourth Crusade

CrusadersCrusaderFourth
The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade.
In late 1202, financial issues led to the Crusader army sacking Zara, which was then brought under Venetian control.

Doge of Venice

DogeDoges of VeniceDoges
The republic was ruled by the Doge, who was elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament.
The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia ; Doge di Venezia ; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice between 726 and 1797.

Venetian language

VenetianVenetian dialectvec
Citizens spoke the still-surviving Venetian language, although publishing in (Florentine) Italian became the norm during the Renaissance.
The language enjoyed substantial prestige in the days of the Venetian Republic, when it attained the status of a lingua franca in the Mediterranean.

Antonio Vivaldi

VivaldiAntonio Lucio VivaldiA. Vivaldi
The city was also the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello.
Born in Venice, the capital of the Venetian Republic, he is regarded as one of the greatest Baroque composers, and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe.

Adriatic Sea

AdriaticAdriatic coastThe Adriatic
Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea.
In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire.

Marco Polo

MarcoPoloPolo, Marco
The city was also the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello.
Marco Polo was born around 1254 in Venice, capital of the Venetian Republic.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic (Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice; Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in what is now northeastern Italy.
The four most prominent maritime republics were Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi; the others were Ancona, Gaeta, Noli, and Ragusa.

Great Council of Venice

Great CouncilMaggior ConsiglioGrand Council
The republic was ruled by the Doge, who was elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament.
The Great Council of Venice or Major Council (Maggior Consiglio; Mazor Consegio), originally the Consilium Sapientium (Latin for "Council of Wise Men"), was a political organ of the Republic of Venice between 1172 and 1797 and met in a special large hall of the Palazzo Ducale.

Venetian Province

AustriaAustriansVenetia
In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and then French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, and the Ionian French departments of Greece.
The Venetian Province (Provincia Veneta, Provinz Venedig) was the name of the territory of former Republic of Venice ceded by the French First Republic to the Habsburg Monarchy under the terms of the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio that ended the War of the First Coalition.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The city state suffered defeats from the navy of the Ottoman Empire.
The important port city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387 and sacked.

Patriarch of Venice

Patriarchal Seminary of VeniceVenicePatriarchate of Venice
However, Venice perceived Rome as an enemy and maintained high levels of religious and ideological independence personified by the Patriarch of Venice and a highly-developed independent publishing industry that served as a haven from Roman Catholic censorship for many centuries.
In the last centuries of the Republic of Venice (to 1797), exceptionally among Catholic bishops, the patriarch was elected by the Venetian Senate, who always chose a member of one of the hereditary patrician families of the city, and usually a layman who was only ordained to take up the patriarchate.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastWestern Mediterranean
It dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia.
Oriental goods, like silk and spices, were carried from Egypt to ports like Venice and Constantinople by sailors and Jewish merchants.

John the Deacon (Venetian chronicler)

John the DeaconJohn, deacon of Venice
Tradition, however, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
undefined 940–45 – died after 1018) was a Venetian deacon, secretary to the doge of Venice and a chronicler.

City-state

city statecity-statescity states
The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire.
Historical city-states included Sumerian cities such as Uruk and Ur; Ancient Egyptian city-states, such as Thebes and Memphis; the Phoenician cities (such as Tyre and Sidon); the five Philistine city-states; the Berber city-states of the Garamantes; the city-states of ancient Greece (the poleis such as Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth); the Roman Republic (which grew from a city-state into a great power); the Mayan and other cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica (including cities such as Chichen Itza, Tikal, Copán and Monte Albán); the central Asian cities along the Silk Road; the city-states of the Swahili coast; Venice; Ragusa; states of the medieval Russian lands such as Novgorod and Pskov; and many others.

Agnello Participazio

AgnelloAgnello ParticiacoAngelo Participazio
Though Heraclean by birth, Agnello, the first Participazio doge, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, canals, bulwarks, fortifications, and stone buildings.
Agnello Participazio (Latin: Agnellus Particiacus) was the tenth traditional and eighth (historical) doge of the Duchy of Venetia from 811 to 827.

French rule in the Ionian Islands (1797–1799)

French departments of GreececampaignFrench rule in the Ionian Islands
In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and then French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, and the Ionian French departments of Greece.
At the end of the 18th century, the Ionian Islands (Corfu, Zakynthos, Cephalonia, Lefkada, Ithaca, and Kythira) along with a handful of exclaves on the Epirote mainland, namely the coastal towns of Parga, Preveza, Vonitsa, and Butrint, were the sole remaining overseas possessions of the once mighty Republic of Venice in the East.

Northern Italy

northernNorthern ItalianNorth
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic (Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice; Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in what is now northeastern Italy.
In the end a balance of power was reached in 1454 with the Peace of Lodi and Northern Italy ended up divided between a small number of regional states, the most powerful were the Duchies of Savoy, Milan, Mantua, Ferrara and the Republics of Genoa and Venice, which had begun to extend its influence in the mainland from the 14th century onwards.

Cisalpine Republic

CisalpineNorthern ItalyRepubblica Cisalpina
In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and then French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, and the Ionian French departments of Greece.
Austria acknowledged the new entity in the Treaty of Campoformio of 17 October, gaining in exchange what remained of the Venetian Republic.

Most Serene Republic

Most SereneSerene RepublicSerenissima
It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia, Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta, or Repùblica de Venesia) and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics".

Narentines

PaganiaNarentinePaganija
Tradonico secured the sea by fighting Narentine and Saracen pirates. In 1000, Pietro II Orseolo sent a fleet of 6 ships to defeat the Narentine pirates from Dalmatia.
The tribe were fierce enemies of the Republic of Venice, having attacked Venetian merchants and clergy passing on the Adriatic, and even raided close to Venice itself, as well as defeated the Doge several times.

Domenico Selvo

Domenico Selvo, Doge of Venice
In 1084, Domenico Selvo personally led a fleet against the Normans, but he was defeated and lost nine great galleys, the largest and most heavily armed ships in the Venetian war fleet.
During his reign as Doge, his domestic policies, the alliances that he forged, and the battles that the Venetian military won and lost laid the foundations for much of the subsequent foreign and domestic policy of the Republic of Venice.

Eraclea

HeracleaHeracliaEraclea square
Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea.
From its founding until 742 AD, the Republic of Venice had its capital based in Eraclea.

Dalmatia

Dalmatian coastDalmatianDalmatian Islands
In 1000, Pietro II Orseolo sent a fleet of 6 ships to defeat the Narentine pirates from Dalmatia.
The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice, which controlled most of Dalmatia between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa (1358–1808) in the south.