Republics of the Soviet Union

Soviet republicsSoviet republicconstituent republicsrepublicunion republicunion republicsrepublicsSSRsoviet socialist republicSoviet Socialist Republics
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union.wikipedia
808 Related Articles

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union.
Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized.

Proto-state

protoproto-statesproto state
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union.
Likewise, the Republics of the Soviet Union, which represented individual administrative units with their own respective national distinctions, have also been described as proto-states.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Russian SFSRSoviet RussiaRSFSR
All of them, with the exception of the Russian Federation (until 1990), had their own local party chapters of the All-Union Communist Party. Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, and, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem. These existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow within the Russian Federation.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; ), previously known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or simply Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR.

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Ukrainian SSRUkraineUkrainian
This allowed for two Soviet Republics, Ukraine and Byelorussia, (as well as the USSR as a whole) to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР ; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР ; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

Byelorussian SSRByelorussiaBelarus
This allowed for two Soviet Republics, Ukraine and Byelorussia, (as well as the USSR as a whole) to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945.
It existed between 1920 and 1922, and from 1922 to 1991 as one of fifteen constituent republics of the USSR, with its own legislation from 1990 to 1991.

Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

Latvian SSRLatviaLatvian
The Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 (as the Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian SSRs) under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, and that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.

Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

EstoniaEstonian SSRSoviet occupation of Estonia
The Baltic states assert that their incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 (as the Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian SSRs) under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was illegal, and that they therefore remained independent countries under Soviet occupation.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Soviet government.

Georgia (country)

GeorgiaGeorgianRepublic of Georgia
All of the former Republics of the Union are now independent countries, with ten of them (all except the Baltic states, Georgia and Ukraine) being very loosely organized under the heading of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

fall of the Soviet Unioncollapse of the Soviet Uniondissolution of the USSR
For most of its history, the USSR was a highly centralized state; the decentralization reforms during the era of Perestroika ("Restructuring") and Glasnost ("Openness") conducted by Mikhail Gorbachev are cited as one of the factors which led to the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

National delimitation in the Soviet Union

national delimitationnational delimitation in Central Asiaconstitutional right to secede
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union (or more formally USSR – the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was established in 1922 as a federation of nationalities, which eventually came to encompass 15 major national territories, each organized as a Union-level republic (Soviet Socialist Republic or SSR).

Belarus

🇧🇾BLRBelarusian
Throughout the Cold War, this right was widely considered to be meaningless; however, the corresponding Article 72 of the 1977 Constitution was used in December 1991 to effectively dissolve the Soviet Union, when Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus seceded from the Union.
The Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (Byelorussian SSR).

Flags of the Soviet Republics

14 other republicsflagflags
Each republic had its own unique set of state symbols: a flag, a coat of arms, and, with the exception of Russia until 1990, an anthem.
The Flags of the Soviet Socialist Republics were all defaced versions of the flag of the Soviet Union, which featured a golden hammer and sickle, (the only exception being the Georgian SSR, which used a red hammer and sickle), and a gold-bordered red star on a red field.

Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic

Armenian SSRArmeniaSoviet Armenia
Armenia (Հայաստան, ; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն; Армянская Советская Социалистическая Республика), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

Federation

federalfederal governmentfederal state
. Constitutionally, the Soviet Union was a federation.
Founded in 1922, the Soviet Union was formally a federation of Soviet republics, autonomous republics and other federal subjects, though in practice highly centralized under the government of the Soviet Union.

Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Georgian SSRGeorgiaSoviet Georgia
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; საქართველოს საბჭოთა სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა; Грузинская Советская Социалистическая Республика), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

1977 Soviet Constitution

1977 ConstitutionSoviet Constitution1977
According to Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, a Union Republic was a sovereign Soviet socialist state that had united with other Soviet Republics in the USSR.
Unlike preceding versions of the Soviet Constitution, the 1977 Constitution introduced an amendment making official the right promised in previous constitutions, of the right of constituent Soviet republics to secede from the Union.

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Azerbaijan SSRAzerbaijanSoviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан / Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы / Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика [АзССР]), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.

Armenia

🇦🇲ArmenianARM
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics.

Russia

🇷🇺RUSRussian
Throughout the Cold War, this right was widely considered to be meaningless; however, the corresponding Article 72 of the 1977 Constitution was used in December 1991 to effectively dissolve the Soviet Union, when Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus seceded from the Union.
Out of the 15 republics that would make up the USSR, the largest in size and over half of the total USSR population was the Russian SFSR, which came to dominate the union for its entire 69-year history.

Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union

Supreme SovietSupreme Soviet of the USSRCentral Executive Committee
These existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy, with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, located in Moscow within the Russian Federation.
The Soviet of Nationalities, represented the ethnic populations as units, with members elected on the basis of 32 deputies from each union republic, 11 from each autonomous republic, five from each autonomous oblast (region), and one from each autonomous okrug (district). The administrative units of the same type would send the same number of members regardless of their size or population.

Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
Throughout the Cold War, this right was widely considered to be meaningless; however, the corresponding Article 72 of the 1977 Constitution was used in December 1991 to effectively dissolve the Soviet Union, when Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus seceded from the Union.
During the opening stages of World War II, the Soviet Union laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc by invading and then annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics, by agreement with Germany in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.

Order of Lenin

Orders of Leninthe Order of LeninLenin Orders
Every republic of the Soviet Union also was awarded with the Order of Lenin.
All fifteen republics of the Soviet Union

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic

Moldavian SSRMoldaviaMoldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика ), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1940 to 1991.

Russians

Russianethnic RussianRussian people
After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union an estimated 25 million Russians began living outside of the Russian Federation, most of them in the former Soviet Republics.

Estonia

🇪🇪ESTEstonian
However, most of the international community did not consider the Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) to have legitimately been part of the USSR.
Over the next two years almost all other Soviet Republics followed the Estonian lead issuing similar declarations.