Research

researcherresearchersoriginal researchstudyresearch projectresearch ethicsacademic researchresearch methodsstudiesstudent researcher
Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.wikipedia
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Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
The process of contemplative and rational thinking often is associated with such processes like observational study, research.

Research and development

R&DResearch & DevelopmentR & D
The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge.
Research and development constitutes the first stage of development of a potential new service or the production process.

Metascience

Meta-researchEvidence-based researchevidence-based
There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.
It is also known as "research on research" and "the science of science", as it uses research methods to study how research is done and where improvements can be made.

Academic journal

journaljournalsacademic journals
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and usually established by means of peer review. Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. The Society for Artistic Research (SAR) publishes the triannual Journal for Artistic Research (JAR), an international, online, open access, and peer-reviewed journal for the identification, publication, and dissemination of artistic research and its methodologies, from all arts disciplines and it runs the Research Catalogue (RC), a searchable, documentary database of artistic research, to which anyone can contribute.
Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews.

John W. Creswell

Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
He has written numerous journal articles and 27 books on mixed methods research, research methods, and qualitative research.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.
Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies.

Academic authorship

authoracademic articlesacademic authors
In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
In academic publishing, authorship of a work is claimed by those making intellectual contributions to the completion of the research described in the work.

Practitioner research

There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.
Practitioner research refers to research and/or workplace research such as evaluation performed by individuals who also work in a professional field as opposed to being full-time academic researchers.

Hypothesis

hypotheseshypotheticalhypothesized
The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis.
A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research, in a process beginning with an educated guess or thought.

Empirical research

empiricalempirical studiesempirical method
The researcher(s) then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.

Postgraduate education

postgraduategraduate studentpost-graduate
Graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation.
Both master's and doctoral programs may be done by coursework or research or a combination of the two, depending on the subject and faculty.

Exploratory research

exploratory
Exploratory research is a research conducted for a problem that has not been studied more clearly, intended to establish priorities, develop operational definitions and improve the final research design.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.
The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry.

Research design

designhowResearch designs
Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation.
A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the problem research.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
See Scientific method.
Philosophy of science looks at the underpinning logic of the scientific method, at what separates science from non-science, and the ethic that is implicit in science.

Declaration of Helsinki

Helsinki DeclarationHelsinki Committeeethical
Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research, the most notable Code being the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.
It is widely regarded as the cornerstone document on human research ethics.

Human subject research

human experimentationhuman experimentsguinea pig
Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation.
The Declaration of Helsinki is widely regarded as the cornerstone document on human research ethics.

Primary source

primary sourcesprimaryprimary documents
This material is of a primary source character.

Outline of academic disciplines

academic disciplineacademic disciplinesList of academic disciplines
Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge, taught and researched as part of higher education.

Giaco Schiesser

For a survey of the central problematics of today's Artistic Research, see Giaco Schiesser.
In these capacities he has been contributing substantially to the conception, implementation and realisation of new BA and MA Fine Arts curricula and, within the most recent years to the conception of artistic (practice based) Ph.D. programmes and the problematics of Artistic Research as well as to the problematics of authorship, of psychoanalysis and of Bob Dylan as DJ.

Open access

open-accessopen access journalopen-access journal
The Society for Artistic Research (SAR) publishes the triannual Journal for Artistic Research (JAR), an international, online, open access, and peer-reviewed journal for the identification, publication, and dissemination of artistic research and its methodologies, from all arts disciplines and it runs the Research Catalogue (RC), a searchable, documentary database of artistic research, to which anyone can contribute.
Open access (OA) is a mechanism by which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers.

Research-intensive cluster

research-intensiveResearch-intensive clusters research-intensive
Research-intensive clusters (RICs) are regions with a high density of research-oriented organizations.

List of psychological research methods

psychological methodsPsychological research methodsResearch Methods
A wide range of research methods are used in psychology.

Internet research

online
Internet research is the practice of using Internet information, especially free information on the World Wide Web, or Internet-based resources (like Internet discussion forum) in research.

Reproducibility

reproduciblereplicabilityreproduce
Among the finding of meta-research is a low rates of reproducibility across a large number of fields.
The term reproducible research refers to the idea that the ultimate product of academic research is the paper along with the laboratory notebooks and full computational environment used to produce the results in the paper such as the code, data, etc. that can be used to reproduce the results and create new work based on the research.