Research and development

R&Dresearch & developmentdevelopmenttechnology developmentresearchR & DResearch and Development (R&D)research, developmentindustrial researchresearch and technology development
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.wikipedia
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Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
Research and development constitutes the first stage of development of a potential new service or the production process.
The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge.

Applied science

applied researchapplied sciencesapplied
R&D activities differ from institution to institution, with two primary models of an R&D department either staffed by engineers and tasked with directly developing new products, or staffed with industrial scientists and tasked with applied research in scientific or technological fields, which may facilitate future product development.
The OECD's Frascati Manual describes applied research as one of the three forms of research, along with basic research & experimental development.

R&D intensity

In the United States, a typical ratio of research and development for an industrial company is about 3.5% of revenues; this measure is called "R&D intensity".
Research and development intensity or simply R&D intensity, is generally defined as expenditures by a firm on its research and development (R&D) divided by the firm's sales.

Biotechnology

biotechbiotechnologicalbiotechnologies
Anything over 15% is remarkable, and usually gains a reputation for being a high technology company such as engineering company Ericsson 24.9%, or Allergan a biotech company, tops the spending table with 43.4% investment Such companies are often seen as credit risks because their spending ratios are so unusual.
Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation and production from any living organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).

Engineer

engineersconsulting engineerIr.
R&D activities differ from institution to institution, with two primary models of an R&D department either staffed by engineers and tasked with directly developing new products, or staffed with industrial scientists and tasked with applied research in scientific or technological fields, which may facilitate future product development.

Global R&D management

Global R&D management is the discipline of designing and leading R&D processes globally, across cultural and lingual settings, and the transfer of knowledge across international corporate networks.
Global R&D management is the discipline of designing and leading R&D processes globally, i.e. across borders, in multi-cultural and multi-lingual settings, and cutting across multiple time zones.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
In the context of commerce, "research and development" normally refers to future-oriented, longer-term activities in science or technology, using similar techniques to scientific research but directed toward desired outcomes and with broad forecasts of commercial yield.
In the OECD, around two-thirds of research and development in scientific and technical fields is carried out by industry, and 20% and 10% respectively by universities and government.

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
Some common measures include: budgets, numbers of patents or on rates of peer-reviewed publications.
1) Patents provide incentives for economically efficient research and development (R&D). A study conducted annually by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) shows that the 2,000 largest global companies invested more than 430 billion euros in 2008 in their R&D departments. If the investments can be considered as inputs of R&D, real products and patents are the outputs. Based on these groups, a project named Corporate Invention Board, had measured and analyzed the patent portfolios to produce an original picture of their technological profiles. Supporters of patents argue that without patent protection, R&D spending would be significantly less or eliminated altogether, limiting the possibility of technological advances or breakthroughs. Corporations would be much more conservative about the R&D investments they made, as third parties would be free to exploit any developments. This second justification is closely related to the basic ideas underlying traditional property rights. Specifically, "[t]he patent internalizes the externality by giving the [inventor] a property right over its invention." A 2008 study by Yi Quan of Kellogg School of Management showed that countries instituting patent protection on pharmaceuticals did not necessarily have an increase in domestic pharmaceutical innovation. Only countries with "higher levels of economic development, educational attainment, and economic freedom" showed an increase. There also appeared to be an optimal level of patent protection that increased domestic innovation.

List of countries by research and development spending

25th highest ratio in the world25th-highest ratio in the worldexpenditure on research and development
List of countries by research and development spending
This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

Basic research

basicbasic sciencefundamental research
Basic research
The two aims are often coordinated in research and development.

Neglected tropical disease research and development

research and development
Neglected Tropical Disease Research and Development
Research and development yielding safe, effective drugs and vaccines for their treatment and prevention has been recognized as a global health priority.

Europe 2020

Digital AgendaEuropean Semesterseven flagship initiatives
A notable example is the European environmental research and innovation policy, based on the Europe 2020 strategy which will run from 2014 to 2020, a multidisciplinary effort to provide safe, economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions along the entire value chain of human activities.
To achieve the target of investing 3% of GDP in R&D in particular by improving the conditions for R&D investment by the private sector, and develop a new indicator to track innovation.

Science of science policy

Science of Science and Innovation Policy
Science of science policy
This scientific basis can be used to help government, and society in general, make better R&D management decisions by establishing a scientifically rigorous, quantitative basis from which policy makers and researchers may assess the impacts of the nation’s scientific and engineering enterprise, improve their understanding of its dynamics, and assess the likely outcomes.

Innovation

pioneerinnovativeinnovator
Innovation
Innovation by businesses is achieved in many ways, with much attention now given to formal research and development (R&D) for "breakthrough innovations".

Science policy

policyscienceresearch policy
Science policy
The programs that are funded are often divided into four basic categories: basic research, applied research, development, and facilities and equipment.

Technology demonstration

tech demotechnology demonstratordemo
Demonstration
Research and development

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

New product development

product developmentdevelopmentdeveloping
R&D activities differ from institution to institution, with two primary models of an R&D department either staffed by engineers and tasked with directly developing new products, or staffed with industrial scientists and tasked with applied research in scientific or technological fields, which may facilitate future product development.

Return on investment

ROIreturnreturns
R&D differs from the vast majority of corporate activities in that it is not intended to yield immediate profit, and generally carries greater risk and an uncertain return on investment.

Strategic alliance

strategic alliancesalliancestrategic ally
Without an R&D program, a firm must rely on strategic alliances, acquisitions, and networks to tap into the innovations of others.

Mergers and acquisitions

mergermergedM&A
Without an R&D program, a firm must rely on strategic alliances, acquisitions, and networks to tap into the innovations of others.

Marketing

marketedmarketermarketing campaign
A system driven by marketing is one that puts the customer needs first, and produces goods that are known to sell.

Market research

researchmarketmarket surveys
Market research is carried out, which establishes the needs of consumers and the potential niche market of a new product.