# Research design

**designhowResearch designs**

A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research.wikipedia

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### Research

**researcherresearchersoriginal research**

A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research.

Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation, such as: various aspects of academic scandal, including scientific misconduct (such as fraud, fabrication of data and plagiarism), whistleblowing; regulation of research, etc. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research.

### Longitudinal study

**longitudinal studieslongitudinallongitudinal survey**

Longitudinal study

A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).

### Hypothesis

**hypotheseshypotheticalhypothesized**

The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.

Research design

### Cross-sequential study

Cross-sequential study

A cross-sequential design is a research method that combines both a longitudinal design and a cross-sectional design.

### Design of experiments

**experimental designdesigndesigned experiment**

The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.

Research design

### Research question

Research question

Research design

### Dependent and independent variables

**dependent variableindependent variableexplanatory variable**

The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.

### Quantitative research

**quantitativequantitative methodsquantitative data**

In some cases, these types coincide with quantitative and qualitative research designs respectively, though this need not be the case.

### Qualitative research

**qualitativequalitative methodsqualitative analysis**

In some cases, these types coincide with quantitative and qualitative research designs respectively, though this need not be the case.

### Case study

**case studiescase study researchcase histories**

The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. Descriptives (e.g., case-study, naturalistic observation, survey)

### Naturalistic observation

**naturalisticnaturalnaturalistic methods**

Descriptives (e.g., case-study, naturalistic observation, survey)

### Survey methodology

**surveysurveysstatistical survey**

Descriptives (e.g., case-study, naturalistic observation, survey)

### Case–control study

**case-control studiescase-controlcase-control study**

Correlational (e.g., case-control study, observational study)

### Observational study

**observational studiesobservationalobservational data**

Correlational (e.g., case-control study, observational study)

### Field experiment

**field experimentsfield trialsfield**

Semi-experimental (e.g., field experiment, quasi-experiment)

### Quasi-experiment

**quasi-experimentalquasi-experimentsquasi-experimental design**

Semi-experimental (e.g., field experiment, quasi-experiment)

### Experiment

**experimentalexperimentationexperiments**

Experimental (experiment with random assignment)

### Literature review

**reviewsreview articlesliterature reviews**

Review (literature review, systematic review)

### Systematic review

**systematic reviewsreviewsystematic literature review**

Review (literature review, systematic review)

### Meta-analysis

**meta-analysesmeta analysismeta-analytic**

Meta-analytic (meta-analysis)

### Sampling (statistics)

**samplingrandom samplesample**

The choice of how to group participants depends on the research hypothesis and on how the participants are sampled.

### Cohort study

**cohort studiescohortcohorts**

Cohort study

### Cross-sectional study

**cross-sectionalcross-sectional studiescross-sectional analysis**

Cross-sectional study

### Statistical significance

**statistically significantsignificantsignificantly**

This probability is known as α-level or the probability of a type I error.

### Type I and type II errors

**type I errorfalse positivefalse-positive**

This probability is known as α-level or the probability of a type I error.