Research design

designhowResearch designs
A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research.wikipedia
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Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research.
Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation, such as: various aspects of academic scandal, including scientific misconduct (such as fraud, fabrication of data and plagiarism), whistleblowing; regulation of research, etc. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research.

Longitudinal study

longitudinal studieslongitudinallongitudinal survey
Longitudinal study
A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).

Hypothesis

hypotheseshypotheticalhypothesized
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.
Research design

Cross-sequential study

Cross-sequential study
A cross-sequential design is a research method that combines both a longitudinal design and a cross-sectional design.

Design of experiments

experimental designdesigndesigned experiment
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.
Research design

Dependent and independent variables

dependent variableindependent variableexplanatory variable
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.

Quantitative research

quantitativequantitative methodsquantitative data
In some cases, these types coincide with quantitative and qualitative research designs respectively, though this need not be the case.

Qualitative research

qualitativequalitative methodsqualitative analysis
In some cases, these types coincide with quantitative and qualitative research designs respectively, though this need not be the case.

Case study

case studiescase study researchcase histories
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. Descriptives (e.g., case-study, naturalistic observation, survey)

Naturalistic observation

naturalisticnaturalnaturalistic methods
Descriptives (e.g., case-study, naturalistic observation, survey)

Survey methodology

surveysurveysstatistical survey
Descriptives (e.g., case-study, naturalistic observation, survey)

Case–control study

case-control studiescase-controlcase-control study
Correlational (e.g., case-control study, observational study)

Observational study

observational studiesobservationalobservational data
Correlational (e.g., case-control study, observational study)

Field experiment

field experimentsfield trialsfield
Semi-experimental (e.g., field experiment, quasi-experiment)

Quasi-experiment

quasi-experimentalquasi-experimentsquasi-experimental design
Semi-experimental (e.g., field experiment, quasi-experiment)

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
Experimental (experiment with random assignment)

Literature review

reviewsreview articlesliterature reviews
Review (literature review, systematic review)

Meta-analysis

meta-analysesmeta analysismeta-analytic
Meta-analytic (meta-analysis)

Sampling (statistics)

samplingrandom samplesample
The choice of how to group participants depends on the research hypothesis and on how the participants are sampled.

Cross-sectional study

cross-sectionalcross-sectional studiescross-sectional analysis
Cross-sectional study

Statistical significance

statistically significantsignificantsignificantly
This probability is known as α-level or the probability of a type I error.

Type I and type II errors

type I errorfalse positivefalse-positive
This probability is known as α-level or the probability of a type I error.