Research stations in Antarctica

Map shows the location of permanent Antarctic Research stations
Countries that have one or more stations in Antarctica
Shows the location of Antarctic research stations and their proximity to other continents
"Omond House", the first permanent base, built in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition
View of Chile's Captain Arturo Prat Base, established in 1947

Multiple governments have set up permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed.

- Research stations in Antarctica

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Research station

Research stations are facilities where scientific investigation, collection, analysis and experimentation occurs.

Czech Arctic Research Station
A wooden Bothnian Bay Research Station of the University of Oulu in Marjaniemi, Hailuoto, Finland
Kuroshima Research Station in Kuroshima, Okinawa.
International Space Station (ISS)
Halley VI Antarctic Research Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica

Similarly, stations in Antarctica are built to ensure that they are well insulated against the sub-zero temperatures of the exterior landscape with many redevelopments being required over the years to overcome issues associated with snowdrifts, accessibility and rusting.

McMurdo Station

Nuclear reactor commemorative plaque
The supply ship MV American Tern during cargo operations at McMurdo Station during Operation Deep Freeze 2007. The square building in the foreground is Discovery Hut.
McMurdo Station from above.
McMurdo Station in November 2003.
A 10K-AT "All Terrain" forklift moves a loaded cargo-sled as part of an Operation Deep Freeze resupply mission
Ivan the Terra Bus.
This 1983 image of USNS Southern Cross at McMurdo Station shows cargo operations on a floating ice pier. Such piers have been in use since 1973.
being led by the Russian icebreaker to McMurdo Station during Operation Deep Freeze 2006. Mount Erebus is visible in the background.
Byrd Historic Monument
Annotated view over the Station, also showing Scott Base and the McMurdo Ice Shelf

McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research station on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand–claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica.

Antarctic Treaty System

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.

Flag of the Antarctic Treaty System
A satellite composite image of Antarctica
Disposal of waste by simply dumping it at the shoreline, as pictured at the Russian Bellingshausen Station on King George Island in 1992, is no longer permitted by the Protocol on Environmental Protection
Map of research stations and territorial claims in Antarctica (2002)
This 1959 cover commemorated the opening of the Wilkes post office in the Australian Antarctic Territory.

These countries had established over 55 Antarctic research stations for the IGY, and the subsequent promulgation of the treaty was seen as a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific cooperation that had been achieved.

Antarctic

Polar region around Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.

The Antarctic region with the Antarctic Convergence and the 60th parallel south
The Antarctic Plate
The Antarctic (without its periphery, a composite satellite image)
Anthony de la Roché's and other early voyages in the Southern Ocean
At the Port of Ushuaia, Argentina there is the Antarctic Unit
Moubray Bay and Mount Herschel, Eastern Antarctica
The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, the geographic South Pole is signposted in the background
Ushuaia, Argentina is the most active gateway to Antarctica
Grytviken Museum in South Georgia

The Antarctic region had no indigenous population when first discovered, and its present inhabitants comprise a few thousand transient scientific and other personnel working on tours of duty at the several dozen research stations maintained by various countries.

Hope Bay

5 km long and 3 km wide, indenting the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening on Antarctic Sound.

Map of Trinity Peninsula and associated islands, showing Hope Bay (A)
Esperanza Base, Hope Bay, January, 2016

Elichiribehety Station better known in English by its Spanish acronym ECARE is an Uruguay summer research station in Antarctica, established by the Uruguayan Antarctic Institute on December 22, 1997 on the Antarctic Peninsula.

Vostok Station

Location of Vostok in Antarctica
Ice cores at Vostok, with a portion of the station behind
Panoramic photo of Vostok Station showing the layout of the camp. The striped building on the left is the power station while the striped building on the right is where researchers sleep and take meals. The building in the background with the red- and white-striped ball on top is the meteorology building. Caves were dug into the ice sheet for storage, keeping cores at an ideal -55 C year-round. (Credit: Todd Sowers LDEO, Columbia University, Palisades, New York.)
420,000 years of ice core data from Vostok, Antarctica, research station. Current period is at left. From bottom to top: insolation at 65°N due to Milankovitch cycles (connected to 18O); 18O isotope of oxygen; levels of methane (CH4); relative temperature; levels of carbon dioxide (CO2).

Vostok Station (ста́нция Восто́к,, meaning "Station East") is a Russian research station in inland Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica.

Kunlun Station (Antarctica)

Southernmost of four Chinese research stations in Antarctica.

When it is occupied during the summer, it is the second-southernmost research base in Antarctica, behind only the American Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station at the geographical South Pole.

Human

Humans (Homo sapiens) are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism and large, complex brains.

Reconstruction of Lucy, the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton found
Overview map of the peopling of the world by early human migration during the Upper Paleolithic, following to the Southern Dispersal paradigm.
Routes taken by barbarian invaders of the Roman Empire during the Migration Period
Humans and their domesticated animals represent 96% of all mammalian biomass on earth, whereas all wild mammals represent only 4%.
Basic anatomical features of female and male humans. These models have had body hair and male facial hair removed and head hair trimmed. The female model is wearing red nail polish on her toenails and a ring.
A graphical representation of the standard human karyotype, including both the male (XY) and female (XX) sex chromosomes.
A 10 mm human embryo at 5 weeks
Humans living in Bali, Indonesia, preparing a meal.
Changes in the number and order of genes (A-D) create genetic diversity within and between population
A Libyan, a Nubian, a Syrian, and an Egyptian, drawing by an unknown artist after a mural of the tomb of Seti I.
Drawing of the human brain, showing several important structures
Illustration of grief from Charles Darwin's 1872 book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Parents can display familial love for their children
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian
The SCMaglev, the fastest train in the world clocking in at 375 mph as of 2015
Shango, the Orisha of fire, lightning, and thunder, in the Yoruba religion, depicted on horseback
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. China circa 700.
Humans often live in family-based social structures.
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City, which houses one of the world's largest political organizations
The Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue)

Since the early 20th century, there has been continuous human presence in Antarctica through research stations and, since 2000, in space through habitation on the International Space Station.

Argentine Antarctica

Area of Antarctica claimed by Argentina as part of its national territory.

Otto Nordenskjöld (right) with José María Sobral (left) in Snow Hill Island, circa 1903.
DNA-IAA emblem
Omond House, Laurie Island, circa 1903.
The Orcadas Base in 1996
Caterpillar tractor from the first Argentine expedition that reached the South Pole in 1965.
Esperanza Base in 2012.
Watercraft in Hope Bay, Antarctica.
The flag of Tierra del Fuego
Argentine bases on Antarctica (permanent bases in red).
The icebreaker Almirante Irizar, the principal supply line for Argentine bases in Antarctica since 1978.
Groussac hut on Petermann Island.
Children, teenagers and teachers of the school of Esperanza Base.
Antarctic office in Ushuaia.

Argentina has six permanent Antarctic Stations and seven Summer Stations.

U.S. territorial sovereignty

Any extent of region under the sovereign jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, including all waters .

Original copy of the Constitution.

American research stations in Antarctica—Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, McMurdo Station, and Palmer Station—are under U.S. jurisdiction but are held without sovereignty per the Antarctic Treaty.