Kardzali Reservoir in Bulgaria is a reservoir in the Rhodope Mountains.
Lake Osceola on campus of the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida, May 2006
Lake Vyrnwy Reservoir. The dam spans the Vyrnwy Valley and was the first large stone dam built in the United Kingdom.
The East Branch Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply system, is formed by impounding the eastern tributary of the Croton River.
Cherokee Reservoir in Tennessee. It was formed after the impounding of the Holston River Valley by the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1941 as a part of the New Deal's efforts to bring electricity to the Tennessee Valley.
Aerial view of Plover Cove coastal reservoir.
The Queen Mother Reservoir in Berkshire, England is an example of a bank-side reservoir; its water is pumped from the River Thames.
Gibson Reservoir, Montana
Hydroelectric dam in cross section.
Bankstown Reservoir in Sydney.
Recreational-only Kupferbach reservoir near Aachen/Germany.
Spillway of Llyn Brianne dam in Wales.
Water level marker in a reservoir
Brushes Clough Reservoir, located above Shaw and Crompton, England.
A Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) perched on a buoy at Farmoor Reservoir, Oxfordshire. As reservoirs may contain stocks of fish, numerous water-bird species may rely on reservoirs and form habitats near them.
Liptovská Mara in Slovakia (built in 1975) – an example of an artificial lake which significantly changed the local microclimate.
Lake Volta from space (April 1993).
Lake Kariba from space.

Most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake created using a dam to store fresh water.

- Reservoir

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Lake Nasser

View from Abu Simbel
Satellite image of Lake Nasser
Panoramic view of Lake Nasser
Panoramic view of Lake Nasser at dawn
View of Abu Simbel from Lake Nasser

Lake Nasser (بحيرة ناصر Boħēret Nāṣer, ) is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.

River mouth

Aerial picture of the Ebro river's mouth as it enters into the Mediterranean Sea by the Ebro's delta.
Aerial picture of the Kinburn Spit.

A river mouth is where a river flows into a larger body of water, such as another river, a lake/reservoir, a bay/gulf, a sea, or an ocean.


Barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water or underground streams.

Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, Arizona, USA
Lake Vyrnwy Dam, Wales, finished in 1888
Karapuzha Dam, an earthen dam in the Indian state of Kerala
Imatrankoski Dam on the Vuoksi River in Imatra, Finland
Small dam near Groningen, Netherlands
Afsluitdijk with the Wadden Sea (a part of the North Sea) on the left and the IJsselmeer on the right in the Netherlands
The Roman dam at Cornalvo in Spain has been in use for almost two millennia.
Remains of the Band-e Kaisar dam, built by the Romans in the 3rd century AD
An engraving of the Rideau Canal locks at Bytown
Masonry arch wall, Parramatta, New South Wales, the first engineered dam built in Australia
The Hoover Dam by Ansel Adams, 1942
Gordon Dam, Tasmania, is an arch dam.
Daniel-Johnson Dam, Quebec, is a multiple-arch buttress dam.
The Grand Coulee Dam is an example of a solid gravity dam.
The Hoover Dam is an example of an arch-gravity dam.
The Koshi Barrage of Nepal
Gathright Dam in Virginia is a rock-fill embankment dam.
Redridge Steel Dam, built 1905, Michigan
A timber crib dam in Michigan, 1978
A cofferdam during the construction of locks at the Montgomery Point Lock and Dam
Hydraulic turbine and electric generator
Hydroelectric dam in cross section
Spillway on Llyn Brianne dam, Wales, soon after first fill
The discharge of Takato Dam
Wood and garbage accumulation due to a dam
South Fork Dam failure and resulting flood that destroyed Johnstown in Pennsylvania in 1889
International special sign for works and installations containing dangerous forces

Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability.

Aswan Dam

World's largest embankment dam, which was built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.

Egyptian President Nasser and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev at the ceremony to divert the Nile during the construction of the Aswan High Dam on 14 May 1964. At this occasion Khrushchev called it "the eighth wonder of the world".
Gamal Abdel Nasser observing the construction of the dam, 1963
A view from the vantage point in the middle of High Dam towards the monument of Arab-Soviet Friendship (Lotus Flower) by architects Piotr Pavlov, Juri Omeltchenko and sculptor Nikolay Vechkanov
A central pylon of the monument to Arab-Soviet Friendship. The memorial commemorates the completion of the Aswan High Dam. The coat of arms of the Soviet Union is on the left and the coat of arms of Egypt is on the right.
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert
Water balances
Main irrigation systems (schematically)
The Egyptian countryside benefited from the Aswan High Dam through improved irrigation as well as electrification, as shown here in Al Bayadiyah, south of Luxor.
Power pylons at the power plant of the Aswan High Dam.
Power plant of the Aswan High Dam, with the dam itself in the background.
A picture of the old Wadi Halfa town that was flooded by Lake Nasser.
View of New Wadi Halfa, a settlement created on the shore of Lake Nasser to house part of the resettled population from the Old Wadi Halfa town.
The statue of Ramses the Great at the Great Temple of Abu Simbel is reassembled after having been moved in 1967 to save it from being flooded.
Lake Nasser behind the Aswan dam displaced more than 100,000 people and traps significant amounts of sediment.
Skin vesicles: a symptom of schistosomiasis. A more common symptom is blood in the urine.
The catch of sardines in the Mediterranean off the Egyptian coast declined after the Aswan Dam was completed, but the exact reasons for the decline are still disputed.

With the greatly increased reservoir storage provided by the High Aswan Dam, the floods could be controlled and the water could be stored for later release over multiple years.

Water tower

Elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a distribution system for potable water, and to provide emergency storage for fire protection.

A water tower in Mondeville, Calvados, France
Beaumont St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad Water Tank (1875, restored 2012), Beaumont, Kansas, US
Disused sphere-shaped railway water tower in Trier, Germany
Shooter's Hill water tower is a local landmark in London, United Kingdom. Water towers are common around London suburbs.
Ross Barnett Reservoir water tower in Mississippi
Tower with local high school mascot, a Tiger (Centerville, Texas)
Rooftop water towers on apartment buildings on East 57th Street in New York City
Paul Bunyan's Bobber Water Tower in Pequot Lakes, Minnesota
East Bay Township Water Tower near Traverse City, Michigan
Eindhoven Water Towers
Mechelen-Zuid water tower, one of the tallest in the world
Bankstown Reservoir was built on reinforced concrete piers, which is one of the oldest of this type in the Sydney region.
Friedrichsplatz's Water Tower, Mannheim
Neogothic water tower in Malbork, Poland, from 1905
The House in the Clouds in Thorpeness functioned as the town's water tower from 1923 until 1977.
Louisville Water Tower, one of the few remaining standpipe water towers in the United States. It was completed in 1860.
Water tower in Rybnik, Poland
Water tower in Viljandi, Estonia
Water tower in Tesoma, Tampere, Finland
Water tower in Szprotawa, built 1867 by a company J&A Aird from Berlin
The Warner Bros. Water Tower in Burbank, California.
The mushroom-shaped concrete water tower of Roihuvuori in Helsinki, Finland was built in the 1970s. It is 52 m high and can hold around 12000 m3 of water.

Water towers often operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, which store treated water close to where it will be used.

Fresh water

Any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids.

Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1400 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1.4 trillion tonnes (235000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 8 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest man-made object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.
A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth. Only 3% of the Earth's water is fresh water. Most of it is in icecaps and glaciers (69%) and groundwater (30%), while all lakes, rivers and swamps combined only account for a small fraction (0.3%) of the Earth's total freshwater reserves.

Fresh water is replenished through the process of the water cycle, in which water from seas, lakes, forests, land, rivers and reservoirs evaporates, forms clouds, and returns inland as precipitation.

Bank (geography)

Land alongside a body of water.

Diagram of a river's left and right banks
A sloping sandy point bar (close side) and the vegetation-stabilized cut bank (far side) on the Namoi River in New South Wales, Australia. These two constitute the banks of the river.
A man-made lake in Keukenhof with grass banks
An eastern bank of the Pielisjoki in Joensuu, Finland

The shoreline of ponds, swamps, estuaries, reservoirs, or lakes are also of interest in limnology and are sometimes referred to as banks.

Llyn Celyn

Tree stumps exposed by low water level of reservoir
Llyn Celyn during the extended hot spell of summer 2018, showing low water levels.
Protests at the official opening of Llyn Celyn
Tryweryn memorial chapel at Llyn Celyn
The old B4391 road, disappearing into the western end of Llyn Celyn, August 1965.

Llyn Celyn is a reservoir constructed between 1960 and 1965 in the valley of the River Tryweryn in Gwynedd, Wales.


Cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.

Turbidity standards of 5, 50, and 500 NTU
Turbid creek water caused by heavy rains.
Turbidimeters used at a water purification plant to measure turbidity (in NTU) of raw water and clear water after filtration.

In water bodies such as lakes, rivers and reservoirs, high turbidity levels can reduce the amount of light reaching lower depths, which can inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and consequently affect species which are dependent on them, such as fish and shellfish.


Agricultural process of applying controlled amounts of water to land to assist in the production of crops, as well as to grow landscape plants and lawns, where it may be known as watering.

Irrigation of agricultural fields in Andalusia, Spain. Irrigation canal on the left.
Animal-powered irrigation, Upper Egypt, ca. 1846
Young engineers restoring and developing the old Mughal irrigation system in 1847 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II in Indian subcontinent
Inside a karez tunnel at Turpan, Xinjiang, China
Share of agricultural land which is irrigated (2015)
Basin flood irrigation of wheat
Residential flood irrigation in Phoenix, Arizona, US
Drip irrigation – a dripper in action
Drip irrigation layout and its parts
Crop sprinklers near Rio Vista, California, US
A traveling sprinkler at Millets Farm Centre, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
A small center pivot system from beginning to end
Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler
Center pivot with drop sprinklers
Wheel line irrigation system in Idaho, US, 2001
Center pivot irrigation
An impact sprinkler watering a lawn, an example of a hose-end sprinkler
Irrigation is underway by pump-enabled extraction directly from the Gumti, seen in the background, in Comilla, Bangladesh.
Grapes in Petrolina, Brazil only made possible in this semi arid area by drip irrigation
Overirrigation because of poor distribution uniformity in the furrows. Potato plants were oppressed and turned yellow
upright|thumb|The hub of a center-pivot irrigation system
thumb|Leaks in micro-irrigation drip lines
thumb|Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville, New York, United States
thumb|Irrigation in Tamil Nadu, India
thumb|upright|Irrigation ditch in Montour County, Pennsylvania, USA
thumb|Water gardens in Sigiriya, Sri Lanka

The Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, and an early canal irrigation system from c. undefined 2600 BCE.