Reservoir

artificial lakereservoirsartificialwater reservoirman-made lakeimpoundmentimpoundmentsmanmade lakeartificial lakesservice reservoir
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is, most commonly, an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water.wikipedia
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Dam

earthfilldamsconcrete-face rock-fill dam
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is, most commonly, an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water.
Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability.

Storage tank

storage tankstankstank
Tank reservoirs store these in ground-level, elevated, or buried tanks.
The term can be used for reservoirs (artificial lakes and ponds), and for manufactured containers.

Lake Nasser

Lake NubiaNasser LakeLake Nubia-Nasser
Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel (which were moved before the construction of the Aswan Dam to create Lake Nasser from the Nile in Egypt), the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, and the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto.
Lake Nasser is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.

Llyn Celyn

Tryweryn reservoirTryweryn Valleydam supplying water for cities in England
Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel (which were moved before the construction of the Aswan Dam to create Lake Nasser from the Nile in Egypt), the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, and the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto.
Llyn Celyn is a large reservoir constructed between 1960 and 1965 in the valley of the River Tryweryn in Gwynedd, Wales.

Clywedog Reservoir

Llyn ClywedogClywedogClywedog dam
Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales.
The Clywedog reservoir (Llyn Clywedog) is a reservoir near Llanidloes, Wales on the head-waters of the River Severn.

Capel Celyn

Tryweryn valleyTryweryn
Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel (which were moved before the construction of the Aswan Dam to create Lake Nasser from the Nile in Egypt), the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, and the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto.
The village and other parts of the valley were flooded in 1965 to create a reservoir, Llyn Celyn, in order to supply Liverpool and Wirral with water for industry.

Llwyn-on Reservoir

Llwyn-on
Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Llwyn-on Reservoir is the largest and southernmost of the three reservoirs in the Taf Fawr valley in South Wales.

Coastal reservoir

coastal lakecoastal lakes
As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area.
Coastal reservoir is a type of reservoir to store fresh water on sea coast area near a river delta.

Cantref Reservoir

Cantref
Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Cantref Reservoir is the middle of the three reservoirs in the Taff Fawr valley in Wales.

Aswan Dam

Aswan High DamHigh DamAswan
Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel (which were moved before the construction of the Aswan Dam to create Lake Nasser from the Nile in Egypt), the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, and the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto.
With the greatly increased reservoir storage provided by the High Aswan Dam, the floods could be controlled and the water could be stored for later release over multiple years.

Beacons Reservoir

Beacons
Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Beacons Reservoir (Cronfa'r Bannau) is the northernmost of the three reservoirs in the Taff Fawr valley in South Wales.

Water tower

watertowerwater towersstandpipe
Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers, often as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is relatively flat.
Water towers often operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, which store treated water close to where it will be used.

Plover Cove Reservoir

Plover CovePlover Cove dam
Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore, Qingcaosha in China, and Plover Cove in Hong Kong, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs.
Plover Cove Reservoir, located within Plover Cove Country Park, in the northeastern New Territories, is the largest reservoir in Hong Kong in terms of area, and the second-largest in terms of volume.

River mouth

mouthmouthsriver's mouth
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river.
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean.

Cistern

cisternsAljibewater cisterns
Tank reservoirs for water are also called cisterns.
Modern cisterns range in capacity from a few litres to thousands of cubic metres, effectively forming covered reservoirs.

Drought

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The use of bank-side reservoirs also allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are very low due to drought.

Irrigation

irrigatedirrigateirrigation system
Circa 3000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water.
The Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, and an early canal irrigation system from c.

Puddling (civil engineering)

puddle claypuddlingpuddled
Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: initially these were often made of puddled clay, but this has generally been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay.
Puddling is used in maintaining canals or reservoirs on permeable ground.

Water distribution system

water maindrinking water distribution systemmain
Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to even out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency.
World Health Organization (WHO) uses the term water transmission system for a network of pipes, generally in tree-like structure that is used to convey water from water treatment plants to service reservoirs, and users the term water distribution system for a network of pipes that generally has a loop structure to supply water from the service reservoirs and balancing reservoirs to water consumers.

River Thames

ThamesThames Riverthe Thames
The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee; several large Thames-side reservoirs such as Queen Mary Reservoir can be seen along the approach to London Heathrow Airport.
Water resources consist of groundwater from aquifers and water taken from the Thames and its tributaries, much of it stored in large bank-side reservoirs.

Limnology

limnologistlimnologicallimnologists
However natural limnological processes in temperate climate lakes produce temperature stratification in the water, which tends to partition some elements such as manganese and phosphorus into deep, cold anoxic water during the summer months.
This includes the study of lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, springs, streams, wetlands, and groundwater.

Canal

canalsnavigationsartificial waterway
In most cases, the engineered works will have a series of dams and locks that create reservoirs of low speed current flow.

Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity

run-of-the-riverrun-of-riverrun of river
Run-of-the-river hydro in a steep valley with constant flow needs no reservoir.
Conventional hydro uses reservoirs, which regulate water for flood control and dispatchable electrical power.

Pumped-storage hydroelectricity

pumped-storagepumped storagepumped-storage hydroelectric
Such systems are called pump-storage schemes.
The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation.

Turbidity

turbidNephelometric Turbidity UnitNTU
The water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may substantially reduce many contaminants and almost eliminate any turbidity.
In water bodies such as lakes, rivers and reservoirs, high turbidity levels can reduce the amount of light reaching lower depths, which can inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and consequently affect species which are dependent on them, such as fish and shellfish.