Residency (medicine)

residencyresidentresidentsmedical residencyresident physicianmedical residentchief residentresidenciesmedical residentsresidency training
Residency or postgraduate training is a stage of graduate medical education.wikipedia
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Medical education

medical educatormedical trainingmedicine
Residency or postgraduate training is a stage of graduate medical education.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency, fellowship and continuing medical education).

Podiatrist

Doctor of Podiatric MedicinepodiatristsDPM
It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, or pharmacist (one who holds the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, DO, OD, PharmD, BDS, or BDent; or MB; BS, MBChB, or BMed) who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant.
The preparatory education of most podiatrists includes four years of undergraduate work, followed by four years in an accredited podiatric medical school, followed by a three or four-year hospital-based surgical residency.

William Osler

Sir William OslerOsler Housethe Osler Medical Service
The first formal residency programs were established by Sir William Osler and William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Osler created the first residency program for specialty training of physicians, and he was the first to bring medical students out of the lecture hall for bedside clinical training.

Medical school

medical studentFaculty of Medicinemedical students
Whereas medical school teaches physicians a broad range of medical knowledge, basic clinical skills, and supervised experience practicing medicine in a variety of fields, medical residency gives in-depth training within a specific branch of medicine.
Licensing may also require passing a test, undergoing a criminal background check, checking references, paying a fee, and undergoing several years of postgraduate training.

Medical education in Australia

MChDmedical educationregistrar
In Australia, specialist training is undertaken as a registrar.
In Australia, medical education begins in Medical School; upon graduation it is followed by a period of pre-vocational training including Internship and Residency; thereafter, enrolment into a specialist-vocational training program as a Registrar eventually leads to fellowship qualification and recognition as a fully qualified Specialist Medical Practitioner (such as that of a suitably qualified General Practitioner or Specialist Consultant).

Fellowship (medicine)

fellowshipfellowshipsFellow
Residency training may be followed by fellowship or sub-specialty training.
A Fellowship is the period of medical training, in the United States and Canada, that a physician, dentist, or veterinarian may undertake after completing a specialty training program (residency).

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

D.O.DOosteopathic physician
It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, or pharmacist (one who holds the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, DO, OD, PharmD, BDS, or BDent; or MB; BS, MBChB, or BMed) who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant.
Upon completing medical school, a DO graduate may enter an internship or residency training program, which may be followed by fellowship training.

Attending physician

attendingattendingsattending surgeon
It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, or pharmacist (one who holds the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, DO, OD, PharmD, BDS, or BDent; or MB; BS, MBChB, or BMed) who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant.
In the United States and Canada, an attending physician (also known as an attending, rendering doc, or staff physician) is a physician (M.D. or D.O.) who has completed residency and practices medicine in a clinic or hospital, in the specialty learned during residency.

Doctor of Medicine

M.D.MDmedical degree
It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, or pharmacist (one who holds the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, DO, OD, PharmD, BDS, or BDent; or MB; BS, MBChB, or BMed) who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant.
Typically a doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction.

Physician

doctormedical doctorphysicians
In Argentina, the residency (Spanish, residencia) consists of a three to four years of practical and research activities in the field selected by both the candidate and already graduated medical practitioners.
The vast majority of physicians trained in the United States have a Doctor of Medicine degree, and use the initials M.D. A smaller number attend Osteopathic schools and have a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree and use the initials D.O. After completion of medical school, physicians complete a residency in the specialty in which they will practice.

International medical graduate

foreign medical graduatesforeign medical graduateInternational Medical Graduates
Physicians who have a foreign medical degree may apply for a license through different paths, depending on whether they are licensed in another EU or EEA country or not.
The purpose of ECFMG Certification is to assess the readiness of international medical graduates to enter clinical specialty training programs as resident physicians and fellowship programs in the United States.

Internal medicine

internistGeneral Medicineinternists
The internship is regulated by the National Board of Health and Welfare and regardless of place of employment it is made up of four main postings with a minimum of nine months divided between internal medicine and surgery—with no less than three months in each posting—three months in psychiatry, and six months in general practice.
In North America, this period of postgraduate training is referred to as residency training, followed by an optional fellowship if the internist decides to train in a subspecialty.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, or pharmacist (one who holds the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, DO, OD, PharmD, BDS, or BDent; or MB; BS, MBChB, or BMed) who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant.
It typically involves entry level education at a university medical school, followed by a period of supervised practice or internship, or residency.

Ophthalmology

ophthalmologistophthalmicoculist
Students may be matched to programs very low on their rank list, especially when the highest priorities consist of competitive specialties like radiology, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, otolaryngology, radiation oncology, and urology.
The credentials include a degree in medicine, followed by additional four to five years of ophthalmology residency training.

Cardiothoracic surgery

cardiothoracic surgeonthoracic surgerycardiac surgeon
A cardiac surgery residency typically comprises anywhere from 4 to 6 years (or longer) of training to become a fully qualified surgeon.

Internship (medicine)

internshipinternmedical intern
In Pakistan, after completing MBBS degree and further completing one year house job, doctors can enroll in two types of postgraduate residency programs.
However, most physicians complete a specialty track medical residency over two to seven years, depending on the specialty.

Medical genetics

clinical geneticsmedical geneticistgenomic medicine
Individuals seeking acceptance into clinical genetics training programs must hold an M.D. or D.O. degree (or their equivalent) and have completed a minimum of 24 months of training in an ACGME-accredited residency program in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, or other medical specialty.

Neurosurgery

neurosurgeonbrain surgeryneurosurgical
Students may be matched to programs very low on their rank list, especially when the highest priorities consist of competitive specialties like radiology, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, otolaryngology, radiation oncology, and urology. The posts did not have to be in general medicine: some teaching hospitals had very specialised posts at this level, so it was possible for a new graduate to do neurology plus neurosurgery or orthopaedics plus rheumatology, for one year before having to go onto more broadly based work.
In the United States, a neurosurgeon must generally complete four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, and seven years of residency (PGY-1-7).

Consultant (medicine)

consultantConsultant Physicianconsultants
It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, or pharmacist (one who holds the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, DO, OD, PharmD, BDS, or BDent; or MB; BS, MBChB, or BMed) who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant.

Nephrology

nephrologistrenal medicinekidney disease
In the United States, after medical school adult nephrologists complete a three-year residency in internal medicine followed by a two-year (or longer) fellowship in nephrology.

Specialty (medicine)

medical specialtyspecialtyspecialist
In many jurisdictions, successful completion of such training is a requirement in order to obtain an unrestricted license to practice medicine, and in particular a license to practice a chosen specialty.
After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple-year residency to become a medical specialist.

Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologists
The posts did not have to be in general medicine: some teaching hospitals had very specialised posts at this level, so it was possible for a new graduate to do neurology plus neurosurgery or orthopaedics plus rheumatology, for one year before having to go onto more broadly based work.
Neurologists complete, on average, about 8 years of medical college education and clinical training, which includes obtaining a four-year undergraduate degree, a medical degree (DO or MD), which comprises an additional four years of study, then completing one year of basic clinical training and four years of residency.

Clinical pathology

clinical pathologistclinicalclinical laboratory science
This specialty requires a medical residency.

Hospice and palliative medicine

Hospice & Palliative Care AssociationHospice and palliative carepalliative medicine
To train in the add-on specialty of palliative medicine a physician must first be a specialist in one of the pediatric class specialties, one of the independent class specialties (excluding occupational and environmental medicine, clinical pharmacology, clinical genetics, forensic medicine, and social medicine), one of the internal medicine class specialties, one of the surgical class specialties, one of the neurological class specialties (excluding clinical neurophysiology), and/or one of the psychiatric class specialties.

William Stewart Halsted

William HalstedHalstedWilliam S. Halsted
The first formal residency programs were established by Sir William Osler and William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.