Resource Description Framework

RDFResource Description Framework (RDF)RDF feedRDF triples RDFobjectRDF (Resource Description Framework)RDF dataRDF extractorRDF graphs
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model.wikipedia
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Web resource

resourceelectronic resourceselectronic resource
It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax notations and data serialization formats. It is based on the idea of making statements about resources (in particular web resources) in expressions of the form subject – predicate – object, known as triples. The subject of an RDF statement is either a uniform resource identifier (URI) or a blank node, both of which denote resources.
In the Semantic Web, web resources and their semantic properties are described using the Resource Description Framework.

Semantic triple

triplesRDF tripleRDF triples
It is based on the idea of making statements about resources (in particular web resources) in expressions of the form subject – predicate – object, known as triples.
A semantic triple, or simply triple, is the atomic data entity in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model.

Semantic Web

Web 3.0semanticsemantics
This mechanism for describing resources is a major component in the W3C's Semantic Web activity: an evolutionary stage of the World Wide Web in which automated software can store, exchange, and use machine-readable information distributed throughout the Web, in turn enabling users to deal with the information with greater efficiency and certainty.
To enable the encoding of semantics with the data, well-known technologies are RDF(Resource Description Framework) and OWL(Web Ontology Language).

Web Ontology Language

OWLDAML+OILOWL 2
As RDFS and OWL demonstrate, one can build additional ontology languages upon RDF.
They are built upon the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) XML standard for objects called the Resource Description Framework (RDF).

Named graph

quad storenamed graphsQuad
However, in practice, RDF data is often stored in relational database or native representations (also called Triplestores—or Quad stores, if context such as the named graph is also stored for each RDF triple).
Named graphs are a key concept of Semantic Web architecture in which a set of Resource Description Framework statements (a graph) are identified using a URI, allowing descriptions to be made of that set of statements such as context, provenance information or other such metadata.

RDF Schema

RDFSRDFRDF Schema Property
As RDFS and OWL demonstrate, one can build additional ontology languages upon RDF.
RDF Schema (Resource Description Framework Schema, variously abbreviated as RDFS, RDF(S), RDF-S, or RDF/S) is a set of classes with certain properties using the RDF extensible knowledge representation data model, providing basic elements for the description of ontologies, otherwise called RDF vocabularies, intended to structure RDF resources.

Dublin Core

Dublin Core Metadata InitiativeDCMIOpen Source Metadata Framework
The initial RDF design, intended to "build a vendor-neutral and operating system-independent system of metadata," derived from the W3C's Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS), an early web content labelling system, but the project was also shaped by ideas from Dublin Core, and from the Meta Content Framework (MCF), which had been developed during 1995–1997 by Ramanathan V. Guha at Apple and Tim Bray at Netscape.
During that time, the World Wide Web Consortium's work on a generic data model for metadata, the Resource Description Framework (RDF), was maturing.

Triplestore

triple storeRDF DatabaseTriple
However, in practice, RDF data is often stored in relational database or native representations (also called Triplestores—or Quad stores, if context such as the named graph is also stored for each RDF triple).
In addition to queries, triples can usually be imported/exported using Resource Description Framework (RDF) and other formats.

Machine-readable data

machine-readablemachine readablemachine-readable format
This mechanism for describing resources is a major component in the W3C's Semantic Web activity: an evolutionary stage of the World Wide Web in which automated software can store, exchange, and use machine-readable information distributed throughout the Web, in turn enabling users to deal with the information with greater efficiency and certainty.
There are two types of machine-readable data: human-readable data that is marked up so that it can also be read by machines (e.g. microformats, RDFa, HTML) and data file formats intended principally for processing by machines (CSV, RDF, XML, JSON).

Entity–attribute–value model

Entity-attribute-value modelEAVentities
Therefore, RDF uses subject instead of object (or entity ) in contrast to the typical approach of an entity–attribute–value model in object-oriented design: entity (sky), attribute (color), and value (blue).
Where an EAV system is implemented through RDF, the RDF Schema language may conveniently be used to express such metadata.

Turtle (syntax)

TurtleRDF Turtle
Terse RDF Triple Language (Turtle) is a syntax and file format for expressing data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model.

RSS

RSS feedRSS feedsReally Simple Syndication
RSS 1.0 and FOAF became exemplar applications for RDF in this period.
RSS (originally RDF Site Summary; later, two competing approaches emerged, which used the backronyms Rich Site Summary and Really Simple Syndication respectively) is a type of web feed which allows users and applications to access updates to websites in a standardized, computer-readable format.

Knowledge representation and reasoning

knowledge representationrepresentationknowledge
This in theory makes an RDF data model better suited to certain kinds of knowledge representation than are other relational or ontological models.
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) provides the basic capability to define classes, subclasses, and properties of objects.

GRDDL

Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages
With a little effort, virtually any arbitrary XML may also be interpreted as RDF using GRDDL (pronounced 'griddle'), Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages.
It is a W3C Recommendation, and enables users to obtain RDF triples out of XML documents, including XHTML.

Blank node

The subject of an RDF statement is either a uniform resource identifier (URI) or a blank node, both of which denote resources.
In RDF, a blank node (also called bnode) is a node in an RDF graph representing a resource for which a URI or literal is not given.

Ontology (information science)

ontologyontologiesOntology (computer science)
This in theory makes an RDF data model better suited to certain kinds of knowledge representation than are other relational or ontological models.

Platform for Internet Content Selection

PICS
The initial RDF design, intended to "build a vendor-neutral and operating system-independent system of metadata," derived from the W3C's Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS), an early web content labelling system, but the project was also shaped by ideas from Dublin Core, and from the Meta Content Framework (MCF), which had been developed during 1995–1997 by Ramanathan V. Guha at Apple and Tim Bray at Netscape.
The W3C Protocol for Web Description Resources project integrates PICS concepts with RDF.

JSON-LD

JSON-LD is designed around the concept of a "context" to provide additional mappings from JSON to an RDF model.

Notation3

Notation 3N3Notation3 (N3)
Notation3, or N3 as it is more commonly known, is a shorthand non-XML serialization of Resource Description Framework models, designed with human-readability in mind: N3 is much more compact and readable than XML RDF notation.

FOAF (ontology)

FOAFFriend of A Friend (FOAF) ontologyFOAF (software)
RSS 1.0 and FOAF became exemplar applications for RDF in this period.
FOAF is a descriptive vocabulary expressed using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL).

Ontology language

ontology languagesrepresentation language
As RDFS and OWL demonstrate, one can build additional ontology languages upon RDF.

SPARQL

RDF Data AccessSPARQL endpointSPARQL Query Results JSON Format
The predominant query language for RDF graphs is SPARQL.
SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language—that is, a semantic query language for databases—able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format.

ShEx

The shapes can be defined in a human-friendly compact syntax called ShExC or using any Resource Description Framework (RDF) serialization formats like JSON-LD or Turtle.

Ramanathan V. Guha

Ramanathan Guha
The initial RDF design, intended to "build a vendor-neutral and operating system-independent system of metadata," derived from the W3C's Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS), an early web content labelling system, but the project was also shaped by ideas from Dublin Core, and from the Meta Content Framework (MCF), which had been developed during 1995–1997 by Ramanathan V. Guha at Apple and Tim Bray at Netscape.
In 1997 he joined Netscape where, in collaboration with Tim Bray, he created a new version of MCF that used the XML language and which became the main technical precursor to W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF) standard.

Tim Bray

Antarctica SystemsTimothy Bray
The initial RDF design, intended to "build a vendor-neutral and operating system-independent system of metadata," derived from the W3C's Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS), an early web content labelling system, but the project was also shaped by ideas from Dublin Core, and from the Meta Content Framework (MCF), which had been developed during 1995–1997 by Ramanathan V. Guha at Apple and Tim Bray at Netscape.
He was contracted by Netscape in 1999, along with Ramanathan V. Guha, in part to create a new version of Meta Content Framework called Resource Description Framework (RDF), which used the XML language.