A report on Respiratory system

A complete, schematic view of the human respiratory system with their parts and functions.
Fig. 1. Respiratory system
Fig. 3 Output of a 'spirometer'. Upward movement of the graph, read from the left, indicates the intake of air; downward movements represent exhalation.
Fig. 9 The changes in the composition of the alveolar air during a normal breathing cycle at rest. The scale on the left, and the blue line, indicate the partial pressures of carbon dioxide in kPa, while that on the right and the red line, indicate the partial pressures of oxygen, also in kPa (to convert kPa into mm Hg, multiply by 7.5).
Fig. 10 A histological cross-section through an alveolar wall showing the layers through which the gases have to move between the blood plasma and the alveolar air. The dark blue objects are the nuclei of the capillary endothelial and alveolar type I epithelial cells (or type 1 pneumocytes). The two red objects labeled "RBC" are red blood cells in the pulmonary capillary blood.
Fig. 14 A graph showing the relationship between total atmospheric pressure and altitude above sea level.
Fig. 13 Aerial photo of Mount Everest from the south, behind Nuptse and Lhotse.
Fig. 15 The arrangement of the air sacs, and lungs in birds
Fig. 16 The anatomy of bird's respiratory system, showing the relationships of the trachea, primary and intra-pulmonary bronchi, the dorso- and ventro-bronchi, with the parabronchi running between the two. The posterior and anterior air sacs are also indicated, but not to scale.
Fig. 19 The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from right to left in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
Fig. 18 Inhalation-exhalation cycle in birds.
Fig. 21. The operculum or gill cover of a pike has been pulled open to expose the gill arches bearing filaments.
Fig. 22. A comparison between the operations and effects of a cocurrent and a countercurrent flow exchange system is depicted by the upper and lower diagrams respectively. In both, it is assumed that red has a higher value (e.g. of temperature or the partial pressure of a gas) than blue and that the property being transported in the channels, therefore, flows from red to blue. In fish a countercurrent flow (lower diagram) of blood and water in the gills is used to extract oxygen from the environment.
Fig. 23 The respiratory mechanism in bony fish. The inhalatory process is on the left, the exhalatory process on the right. The movement of water is indicated by the blue arrows.

Biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

- Respiratory system
A complete, schematic view of the human respiratory system with their parts and functions.

36 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe

Lung

16 links

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe
Cross-sectional detail of the lung
Thick elastic fibres from the visceral pleura (outer lining) of lung
TEM image of collagen fibres in a cross sectional slice of mammalian lung tissue.
A lobule of the lung enclosed in septa and supplied by a terminal bronchiole that branches into the respiratory bronchioles. Each respiratory bronchiole supplies the alveoli held in each acinus accompanied by a pulmonary artery branch.
Alveoli and their capillary networks.
3D Medical illustration showing different terminating ends of bronchioles.
The lungs as main part of respiratory tract
3D rendering of a high-resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
Lungs during development, showing the early branching of the primitive bronchial buds
The effect of the respiratory muscles in expanding the rib cage.
Tissue death of the lung due to a pulmonary embolism
3D still image of constricted airways as in bronchial asthma.
Lung tissue affected by emphysema using H&E stain.
On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the front of the bird, from where the air is exhaled.
The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from left to right in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) retains its larval form with gills into adulthood
Book lungs of spider (shown in pink)
thumb|Chest CT (axial lung window)
thumb|Chest CT (coronal lung window)

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

Conducting passages

Respiratory tract

7 links

Conducting passages
Complete respiratory system
Details of upper respiratory tract.
Parts of the lower respiratory tract.
Respiratory epithelium
3D still showing increased mucus.
3D still showing constricted airways.
Differences in cells along the respiratory tract.
Transverse section of tracheal tissue. Note that image is incorrectly labeled "ciliated stratified epithelium" at upper right.

The respiratory tract is the subdivision of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration in mammals.

A stylised dove skeleton. Key:

Bird anatomy

5 links

Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight.

Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight.

A stylised dove skeleton. Key:
External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird:
Collage of bird anatomical illustrations with the different vertebral sections color-coded across various species. The species included are as follows: Top Row (left to right) Struthio camelus and Sagittarius serpentarius (formerly Gypogeranus serpentarius) Bottom Row (left to right) Megascops choliba decussatus (formerly known as Strix decussata) and Falco rusticolus islandus (formerly Falco islandus).
Diagram of a general bird pelvic girdle skeleton including the lower vertebral column sections. Note that the caudal vertebrae (5–10) are not fused in this diagram but can be in certain species.
Highlighted in red is an intact keeled sternum of a dissected pigeon. In flying birds the sternum is enlarged for increased muscle attachment.
Four types of bird feet (right foot diagrams)
Comparative morphology of the paw skeleton of the extinct Haast's eagle with its closest living relative the little eagle.
The supracoracoideus works using a pulley like system to lift the wing while the pectorals provide the powerful downstroke
Labelled ventral musculature of a pigeon wing
Labelled dorsal musculature of a pigeon wing
Ostrich foot integument (podotheca)
The arrangement of the air sacs, and lungs in birds
The anatomy of bird's respiratory system, showing the relationships of the trachea, primary and intra-pulmonary bronchi, the dorso- and ventro-bronchi, with the parabronchi running between the two. The posterior and anterior air sacs are also indicated, but not to scale.
Inhalation–exhalation cycle in birds.
The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from right to left in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
The human heart (left) and chicken heart (right) share many similar characteristics. Avian hearts pump faster than mammalian hearts. Due to the faster heart rate, the muscles surrounding the ventricles of the chicken heart are thicker. Both hearts are labeled with the following parts: 1. Ascending Aorta 2. Left Atrium 3. Left Ventricle 4. Right Ventricle 5. Right Atrium.
In chickens and others birds, the superior cava is double.
Vocal Bird anatomy: Birds produce sounds through the air that passes through the Syrinx, which is shown close up in the bottom right.
Pigeon crop containing ingested food particles is highlighted in yellow. The crop is an out-pouching of the esophagus and the wall of the esophagus is shown in blue.
Simplified depiction of avian digestive system.
Alimentary canal of the bird exposed
Seen here is a diagram of a female chicken reproduction system.
A. Mature ovum, B. Infundibulum, C. Magnum, D. Isthmus, E. Uterus, F. Vagina, G. Cloaca, H. Large intestine, I. rudiment of right oviduct
Fledgling
A juvenile laughing gull
A Roseate spoonbill excreting urine in flight
Superior (towards the top) is the chicken's head, inferior (towards the bottom) is the chicken's feet. Chicken's kidneys are visualized at the bottom of the abdomen cavity, along the medial spine of the chicken. Testes are labeled as they sit above the kidneys.
Internal view of the location of bursa of fabricius

Birds have a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly.

Head and inner neck

Pharynx

4 links

Part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and above the oesophagus and trachea (the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs).

Part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and above the oesophagus and trachea (the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs).

Head and inner neck
Upper respiratory system, with the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx labeled at left
Details of torus tubarius
Pharyngitis is the painful swelling of the throat. The oropharynx shown here is very inflamed and red.
An illustration of the pharyngeal jaws of a moray eel
Everted pharynx of Alitta virens (also known as Nereis virens), lateral view
Pharynx of the flatworm Prorhynchus fontinalis
Pharynx of the flatworm Platydemus manokwari visible as the worm feeds on a snail.
Longitudinal section through the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans showing the position of the pharynx in the animal body.
Microscopic cross section through the pharynx of a larva from an unknown lamprey species.
Nose and nasal
Coronal section of right ear, showing auditory tube and levator veli palatini muscle
The entrance to the larynx, viewed from behind
Deep dissection of human larynx, pharynx and tongue seen from behind
The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx or larynx can be seen clearly in this sagittal section of the head and neck.

In humans, the pharynx is part of the digestive system and the conducting zone of the respiratory system.

The red gills of this common carp are visible as a result of a gill flap birth defect.

Gill

3 links

The red gills of this common carp are visible as a result of a gill flap birth defect.
Freshwater fish gills magnified 400 times
The red gills inside a detached tuna head (viewed from behind)
An alpine newt larva showing the external gills, which flare just behind the head
A live sea slug, Pleurobranchaea meckelii: The gill (or ctenidium) is visible in this view of the right-hand side of the animal.
Caribbean hermit crabs have modified gills that allow them to live in humid conditions.

A gill is a respiratory organ that many aquatic organisms use to extract dissolved oxygen from water and to excrete carbon dioxide.

Fig. 2. A comparison between the operations and effects of a cocurrent and a countercurrent flow exchange system is depicted by the upper and lower diagrams respectively. In both it is assumed (and indicated) that red has a higher value (e.g. of temperature or the partial pressure of a gas) than blue and that the property being transported in the channels therefore flows from red to blue. Note that channels are contiguous if effective exchange is to occur (i.e. there can be no gap between the channels).

Gas exchange

7 links

Physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

Physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

Fig. 2. A comparison between the operations and effects of a cocurrent and a countercurrent flow exchange system is depicted by the upper and lower diagrams respectively. In both it is assumed (and indicated) that red has a higher value (e.g. of temperature or the partial pressure of a gas) than blue and that the property being transported in the channels therefore flows from red to blue. Note that channels are contiguous if effective exchange is to occur (i.e. there can be no gap between the channels).
Fig. 3. An alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveus, "little cavity"), is an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity. They occur in the mammalian lung. They are spherical outcroppings of the respiratory bronchioles and are the primary sites of gas exchange with the blood.
Fig. 4. A histological cross-section through an alveolar wall showing the layers through which the gases have to move between the blood plasma and the alveolar air. The dark blue objects are the nuclei of the capillary endothelial and alveolar type I epithelial cells (or type 1 pneumocytes). The two red objects labeled "RBC" are red blood cells in the alveolar capillary blood.
Fig. 5. The changes in the composition of the alveolar air during a normal breathing cycle at rest. The scale on the left, and the blue line, indicate the partial pressures of carbon dioxide in kPa, while that on the right and the red line, indicate the partial pressures of oxygen, also in kPa (to convert kPa into mm Hg, multiply by 7.5).
Fig. 6. A diagrammatic histological cross-section through a portion of lung tissue showing a normally inflated alveolus (at the end of a normal exhalation), and its walls containing the alveolar capillaries (shown in cross-section). This illustrates how the alveolar capillary blood is completely surrounded by alveolar air. In a normal human lung all the alveoli together contain about 3 liters of alveolar air. All the alveolar capillaries contain about 100 ml blood.
Fig. 7. A highly diagrammatic illustration of the process of gas exchange in the mammalian lungs, emphasizing the differences between the gas compositions of the ambient air, the alveolar air (light blue) with which the alveolar capillary blood equilibrates, and the blood gas tensions in the pulmonary arterial (blue blood entering the lung on the left) and venous blood (red blood leaving the lung on the right). All the gas tensions are in kPa. To convert to mm Hg, multiply by 7.5.
Fig. 8. Gills of tuna showing filaments and lamellae
Fig. 10. Inhalation-exhalation cycle in birds.
Fig. 9. A diagrammatic representation of the cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from right to left in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
Fig. 11. A stylised cross-section of a euphyllophyte plant leaf, showing the key plant organs involved in gas exchange
Fig. 12. High precision gas exchange measurements reveal important information on plant physiology
Fig. 13. Diagram representing the body structure of Porifera. The diagram shows the mechanism of water uptake for sponges. Yellow: pinacocytes, red: choanocytes, grey: mesohyl, pale blue: water flow
Fig. 14. Cnidarians are always found in aquatic environments, meaning that their gas exchange involves absorbing oxygen from water.
Fig. 15. Cross section of a nematode.
Fig. 16. Photographic representation of spiracles.

They do not have any dedicated respiratory organs; instead, every cell in their body can absorb oxygen from the surrounding water, and release waste gases to it.

Diagram of the alveoli with both cross-section and external view.

Bronchiole

3 links

The bronchioles or bronchioli are the smaller branches of the bronchial airways in the respiratory tract.

The bronchioles or bronchioli are the smaller branches of the bronchial airways in the respiratory tract.

Diagram of the alveoli with both cross-section and external view.
A lobule of the lung enclosed in septa and supplied by a terminal bronchiole that branches into the respiratory bronchioles. Each respiratory bronchiole supplies the alveoli held in each acinus accompanied by a pulmonary artery branch.
Lungs showing bronchi and bronchioles
Cross sectional cut of primary bronchiole
{{ordered list |Trachea |Primary bronchus |Lobar bronchus |Segmental bronchus |Bronchiole |Alveolar duct |Alveolus}}

Terminal bronchioles mark the end of the conducting division of air flow in the respiratory system while respiratory bronchioles are the beginning of the respiratory division where gas exchange takes place.

Head and neck.

Nasal cavity

2 links

Large, air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.

Large, air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.

Head and neck.
Nasal cavity anatomy
CT scan in the coronal plane, showing the ostiomeatal complex (green area).

The nasal cavity is the uppermost part of the respiratory system and provides the nasal passage for inhaled air from the nostrils to the nasopharynx and rest of the respiratory tract.

An
example of a system: The brain, the cerebellum, the spinal cord, and the nerves are the four basic components of the nervous system.

Biological system

1 links

Complex network which connects several biologically relevant entities.

Complex network which connects several biologically relevant entities.

An
example of a system: The brain, the cerebellum, the spinal cord, and the nerves are the four basic components of the nervous system.

On the organ and tissue scale in mammals and other animals, examples include the circulatory system, the respiratory system, and the nervous system.

Mucous cells of the stomach lining secrete mucus (pink) into the lumen

Mucus

4 links

Slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

Slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

Mucous cells of the stomach lining secrete mucus (pink) into the lumen
Illustration depicting the movement of mucus in the respiratory tract
3D render showing accumulated mucus in the airways.
Gastric glands are composed of epithelial cells (B), chief cells (D), and parietal cells (E). The chief and parietal cells produce and secrete mucus (F) to protect the lining of the stomach (C) against the harsh pH of stomach acid. The mucus is basic, while the stomach acid (A) is acidic.

Mucus serves to protect epithelial cells in the linings of the respiratory, digestive, and urogenital systems, and structures in the visual and auditory systems from pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses.