Respiratory system

respiratoryrespirationrespiratory organsrespiratory systemsbreathing organpulmonary systemrespiration organrespiratory organhuman respiratory systemrespiratory cycle
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.wikipedia
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Biological system

biological systemsbody systemsorgan system
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
On the organ and tissue scale in mammals and other animals, examples include the circulatory system, the respiratory system, and the nervous system.

Nasal cavity

nasal cavitiesnasal passagenasal
The upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds.
The nasal cavity is the uppermost part of the respiratory system and provides the nasal passage for inhaled air from the nostrils to the nasopharynx and rest of the respiratory tract.

Pharynx

nasopharynxoropharynxpharyngeal
The upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds.
In humans, the pharynx is part of the digestive system and the conducting zone of the respiratory system.

Bird

birdsAvesavian
In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi.
They have large air-filled cavities (called pneumatic cavities) which connect with the respiratory system.

Nose

nasalnosesnarial
The upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds.
Behind the nasal cavity, air next passes through the pharynx, shared with the digestive system, and then into the rest of the respiratory system.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract.
The most commonly defined body systems in humans are the nervous, the cardiovascular, the circulatory, the digestive, the endocrine, the immune, the integumentary, the lymphatic, the musculoskeletal, the reproductive, the respiratory, and the urinary system.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

Invertebrate

invertebratesmacroinvertebratemacroinvertebrates
In most fish, and a number of other aquatic animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment.
One type of invertebrate respiratory system is the open respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles that terrestrial arthropods have to transport metabolic gases to and from tissues.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

Respiratory tract

airwayupper respiratory tractlower respiratory tract
In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.

Bronchiole

bronchiolesbronchialrespiratory bronchiole
These enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles.
Terminal bronchioles mark the end of the conducting division of air flow in the respiratory system while respiratory bronchioles are the beginning of the respiratory division where gas exchange takes place.

Brainstem

brain stembrain-stemback of the skull
Ventilation of the lungs in mammals occurs via the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata and the pons of the brainstem.
The parts of the brainstem also play important roles in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function, helping to control heart rate and breathing rate.

Mucus

mucousmucinousslime
In this manner, irritants caught in the mucus which lines the respiratory tract are expelled or moved to the mouth where they can be swallowed.
Mucus serves to protect epithelial cells in the linings of the respiratory, digestive, and urogenital systems, and structures in the visual, and auditory systems from pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses.

Acid–base homeostasis

acid-base balanceacid-base homeostasisphysiological pH
In the long run these can be compensated by renal adjustments to the H + and HCO 3 − concentrations in the plasma; but since this takes time, the hyperventilation syndrome can, for instance, occur when agitation or anxiety cause a person to breathe fast and deeply thus causing a distressing respiratory alkalosis through the blowing off of too much CO 2 from the blood into the outside air.
The pH of the extracellular fluid, including the blood plasma, is normally tightly regulated between 7.32 and 7.42, by the chemical buffer s, the respiratory system, and the renal system.

Gas exchange

pulmonary gas exchangegaseous exchangealveolar gas exchange
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds.
They do not have any dedicated respiratory organs; instead, every cell in their body can absorb oxygen from the surrounding water, and release waste gases to it.

Skin

cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange.

Rib cage

ribsribcagefirst rib
As the diaphragm contracts, the rib cage is simultaneously enlarged by the ribs being pulled upwards by the intercostal muscles as shown in Fig.
The human rib cage is a component of the human respiratory system.

Bird anatomy

parabronchitarsusair sacs
In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds.
Birds have a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly.

Respiratory rate

breathing rateraterate of breathing
The number of breath cycles per minute is known as the respiratory rate.

Bronchus

bronchibronchialbronchial tubes
These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi.

Blood–air barrier

blood-air barrieralveolar capillariesalveolar capillary beds
11). This process occurs by simple diffusion, across a very thin membrane (known as the blood–air barrier), which forms the walls of the pulmonary alveoli (Fig.

Gill

gillsplastrongill filament
In most fish, and a number of other aquatic animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

Book lung

book lungsbook gillbook gills
Larger spiders, scorpions and other arthropods use a primitive book lung.
A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange that is found in many arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders.

Respiration (physiology)

respirationrespiratoryrespiratory physiology
It is formed by a vascularized expansion of the epibranchial bone of the first gill arch, and is used for respiration in air.
The contraction of the diaphragm muscle cause a pressure variation, which is equal to the pressures caused by elastic, resistive and inertial components of the respiratory system.