Restless legs syndrome

restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)the Jimmy legsWillis–Ekbom syndromeWittmaack-Ekbom's syndromeWittmaack–Ekbom syndrome
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is generally a long term disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.wikipedia
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Pramipexole

MirapexPramipexol
Medications used include levodopa or a dopamine agonist such as pramipexole. Evidence supports the use of dopamine agonists including: pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, and cabergoline.
Pramipexole, sold under the brand Mirapex among others, is medication used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Iron deficiency

ironhypoferremiaconsidered deficient
Risk factors for RLS include low iron levels, kidney failure, Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
An association has been observed between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and RLS or periodic limb movement disorder.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
The feelings generally happen when at rest and therefore can make it hard to sleep.
Sleep disorders include narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), restless leg syndrome (RLS), upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), and the circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

Periodic limb movement disorder

periodic limb movements in sleeplimb twitching during sleepnocturnal myoclonus
An association has been observed between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and RLS or periodic limb movement disorder. Additionally, many have limb twitching during sleep.
PLMD should not be confused with restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Growing pains

Childhood-onset restless legs syndrome is sometimes misdiagnosed as growing pains.

BTBD9

Three genes, MEIS1, BTBD9 and MAP2K5, were found to be associated to RLS.
There is some evidence that it may be associated with restless legs syndrome.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
Both conditions appear to have links to dysfunctions related to the neurotransmitter dopamine, and common medications for both conditions among other systems, affect dopamine levels in the brain.
Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with decreased dopamine activity.

Gabapentin

NeurontinFranklin v. Parke-DavisGabapentin ER
Medications used may include dopamine agonists or gabapentin in those with daily restless legs syndrome, and opioids for treatment of resistant cases.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat partial seizures, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.

Dopamine agonist

dopamine agonistsdopamine receptor agonistdopamine
Medications used include levodopa or a dopamine agonist such as pramipexole. Medications used may include dopamine agonists or gabapentin in those with daily restless legs syndrome, and opioids for treatment of resistant cases. Evidence supports the use of dopamine agonists including: pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, and cabergoline.
The DA are used in Parkinson’s disease and, to a lesser extent, to treat depression, hyperprolactinemia and restless leg syndrome.

Ropinirole

RequipAdartrelropinerole
Evidence supports the use of dopamine agonists including: pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, and cabergoline.
Ropinirole, sold under the brand name Requip among others, is a medication used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Rotigotine

Neupro
Evidence supports the use of dopamine agonists including: pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, and cabergoline.
Rotigotine (trade name Neupro) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class of medications indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Diazepam

ValiumDizacCANA
Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam or clonazepam, are not generally recommended, and their effectiveness is unknown.
It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.

Pregabalin

Lyrica
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, and generalized anxiety disorder.

Quinine

ChinineQuinologistBromo Quinine
Quinine is not recommended due to its risk of serious side effects involving the blood.
While used for restless legs syndrome, it is not recommended for this purpose due to the risk of side effects.

International Classification of Sleep Disorders

ICSDICSD-3
According to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3), the main symptoms have to be associated with a sleep disturbance or impairment in order to support RLS diagnosis.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Secondary RLS may be cured if precipitating medical conditions (anemia) are managed effectively.
Restless legs syndrome is more common in those with iron-deficiency anemia.

Clonazepam

KlonopinRivotril
Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam or clonazepam, are not generally recommended, and their effectiveness is unknown.

Cabergoline

Dostinex
Evidence supports the use of dopamine agonists including: pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, and cabergoline.
Much more severe side effects are reported for treatment of Parkinson's disease and (off-label treatment) for restless leg syndrome which both typically require very high doses.

Uremia

uraemiauremicuremic toxin
There are several risk factors for RLS, including old age, family history, and uremia.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo
Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam or clonazepam, are not generally recommended, and their effectiveness is unknown.

Delusional parasitosis

Ekbom's SyndromeDelusory ParasitosisEkbom syndrome
A point of confusion is that RLS and delusional parasitosis are entirely different conditions that have both been called "Ekbom syndrome", as both syndromes were described by the same person, Karl-Axel Ekbom.
(He also gave his name to the unrelated Willis–Ekbom disease (WED), more commonly known as restless legs syndrome.) Morgellons is considered to be a self-diagnosed form of this condition, in which individuals have sores that they believe contain some kind of fibers.

Karl-Axel Ekbom

Karl Axel Ekbom
A point of confusion is that RLS and delusional parasitosis are entirely different conditions that have both been called "Ekbom syndrome", as both syndromes were described by the same person, Karl-Axel Ekbom. However, it was not until almost three centuries after Willis, in 1945, that Karl-Axel Ekbom (1907–1977) provided a detailed and comprehensive report of this condition in his doctoral thesis, Restless legs: clinical study of hitherto overlooked disease.
He is mostly known for his detailed description of restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Actigraphy

actigraphactigraphicactivity pattern
Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy (both related to sleep parameters) are more objective resources that provide evidences of sleep disturbances associated with RLS symptoms.
It is not recommended for the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome.