Reuben (son of Jacob)

ReubenRubenRubem de Israel Paddanthe Biblical story of Reuben
According to the Book of Genesis, Reuben or Re'uven (, Standard Rəʾuven Tiberian Rəʾûḇēn) was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah.wikipedia
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Jacob

Israelsons of JacobJacob (Israel)
According to the Book of Genesis, Reuben or Re'uven (, Standard Rəʾuven Tiberian Rəʾûḇēn) was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah.
Jacob's twelve sons, named in Genesis, were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, and Benjamin.

Tribe of Reuben

ReubenReubenitesReubenite
He was the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Reuben.
According to the biblical narrative, the Tribe of Reuben descended from Reuben, the oldest son of the patriarch Jacob.

Leah

First wifeLeaLeah bint Laban
According to the Book of Genesis, Reuben or Re'uven (, Standard Rəʾuven Tiberian Rəʾûḇēn) was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah.
Leah is the mother of six of Jacob's sons, including his first four (Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah), and later two more (Issachar and Zebulun), and a daughter (Dinah).

Israelites

IsraeliteIsraelchildren of Israel
He was the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Reuben.
Jacob's twelve sons (in order of birth), Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph and Benjamin, become the ancestors of twelve tribes, with the exception of Joseph, whose two sons Mannasseh and Ephraim, who were adopted by Jacob, become tribal eponyms.

Nabi Rubin

Al-Nabi RubinMaqam al-Nabi RubinNabi Rubin Mosque
Nabi Rubin is named after a shrine in the village, believed by Muslims to be the tomb of Reuben.

Kislev

Chisleuthe ninth
Classical rabbinical sources argue that Reuben was born on 14 Kislev, and died at the age of 125.
14 Kislev (circa 1568 BC) – Birth of Reuben, son of Jacob.

Bilhah

BilaBila Muts
In the Torah, Reuben is briefly described as having had sexual activity with Bilhah, his step-mother's maid and father's concubine.
Reuben was Jacob's (Israel) eldest son with Leah.

Judah (son of Jacob)

JudahJudasJuda
However, some of these sources argue that Reuben had not actually had sexual activity with Bilhah, but instead had simply supported the cause of his mother Leah, by harming that of Bilhah, angering Jacob; in these sources, it is argued that after the death of Rachel (Jacob's favourite wife), Jacob sought to give the precedence to Bilhah, as he had formerly preferred her mistress, and Reuben removed Bilhah's bed from the place where Jacob wished to have it. The classical rabbinical texts argue that Reuben immediately showed contrition for his actions in regard to Bilhah, and thus was the first penitent; initially, according to these sources, Reuben practiced penitence by secretly meditating, and also by abstaining from meat and wine, but when Judah confessed to the matter of Tamar, Reuben admitted what he had done, lest his other brothers might be suspected of his deed and punished for it. The classical sources go on to state that in honour of this voluntary penance and confession, God gave the tribe of Reuben Hosea as a member, and Reuben was given a reward in the future world.
Judah is the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob and his first wife, Leah: his full brothers are Reuben, Simeon and Levi (all older), and Issachar and Zebulun (younger) and one full sister Dinah.

Joseph (Genesis)

JosephJoseph in Potiphar's houseBiblical Joseph
Although part of the plot against Joseph, it is Reuben who persuades the others not to kill Joseph, tries to rescue him, and who later concludes that the trouble the brothers run into in Egypt was divine punishment for the plot.
Joseph's half-brothers were jealous of him; wherefore, in Dothan, most of them plotted to kill him, with the exception of Reuben, who suggested to have Joseph thrown into an empty cistern, intending to rescue Joseph himself.

Simeon (son of Jacob)

SimeonBiblical character SimeonShimon
Many of the rabbinical sources argue that Simeon died at the age of 120, roughly three years before the death of his brother Reuben, although Numbers Rabbah states that Simeon became the senior of the brothers after Reuben had died.

Zebulun

ZabulonZebulom de Israel PaddanZebulon

Asher

Aser Mayan
According to classical rabbinical literature, Asher had informed his brothers about Reuben's incest with Bilhah.

Gad (son of Jacob)

GadGade Mayanthe son of Jacob named ''Gad

Benjamin

Dinah

rape of DinahDinaDinah bint Jacob

Book of Genesis

GenesisGen.Gen
According to the Book of Genesis, Reuben or Re'uven (, Standard Rəʾuven Tiberian Rəʾûḇēn) was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah.

Hebrew language

HebrewHeb.Hebrew-language
According to the Book of Genesis, Reuben or Re'uven (, Standard Rəʾuven Tiberian Rəʾûḇēn) was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah.

Tiberian vocalization

TiberianTiberian HebrewTiberian system
According to the Book of Genesis, Reuben or Re'uven (, Standard Rəʾuven Tiberian Rəʾûḇēn) was the eldest son of Jacob and Leah.

Torah

LawPentateuchMosaic Law
The text of the Torah gives two different etymologies for the name of Reuben, which textual scholars attribute to different sources: one to the Yahwist and the other to the Elohist; the first explanation given by the Torah is that the name refers to God having witnessed Leah's misery, in regard to her status as the less-favourite of Jacob's wives, implying that the etymology of Reuben derives from raa beonyi, meaning he has seen my misery; the second explanation is that the name refers to Leah's hope that Reuben's birth will make Jacob love her, implying a derivation from yeehabani, meaning he will love me.

Etymology

etymologicaletymologiesetymologically
The text of the Torah gives two different etymologies for the name of Reuben, which textual scholars attribute to different sources: one to the Yahwist and the other to the Elohist; the first explanation given by the Torah is that the name refers to God having witnessed Leah's misery, in regard to her status as the less-favourite of Jacob's wives, implying that the etymology of Reuben derives from raa beonyi, meaning he has seen my misery; the second explanation is that the name refers to Leah's hope that Reuben's birth will make Jacob love her, implying a derivation from yeehabani, meaning he will love me.

Textual criticism

critical editiontextual scholarstextual critic
The text of the Torah gives two different etymologies for the name of Reuben, which textual scholars attribute to different sources: one to the Yahwist and the other to the Elohist; the first explanation given by the Torah is that the name refers to God having witnessed Leah's misery, in regard to her status as the less-favourite of Jacob's wives, implying that the etymology of Reuben derives from raa beonyi, meaning he has seen my misery; the second explanation is that the name refers to Leah's hope that Reuben's birth will make Jacob love her, implying a derivation from yeehabani, meaning he will love me.

Jahwist

YahwistJJ corpus
The text of the Torah gives two different etymologies for the name of Reuben, which textual scholars attribute to different sources: one to the Yahwist and the other to the Elohist; the first explanation given by the Torah is that the name refers to God having witnessed Leah's misery, in regard to her status as the less-favourite of Jacob's wives, implying that the etymology of Reuben derives from raa beonyi, meaning he has seen my misery; the second explanation is that the name refers to Leah's hope that Reuben's birth will make Jacob love her, implying a derivation from yeehabani, meaning he will love me.