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Haskalah

maskilimmaskilJewish Enlightenment
More than purely a linguistic process, the revival of Hebrew was utilized by Jewish modernization and political movements, and became a tenet of the ideology associated with settlement of the land, Zionism and Israeli policy.
His career marked the end of the Maskilic period in Hebrew literature and the beginning of the Era of Renaissance.

Literary language

literaryformal writingliterary English
At the same time, a parallel development in Europe changed Hebrew from primarily a sacred liturgical language into a literary language which played a key role in the development of nationalist educational programs.
During the revival of the Hebrew language, spoken and literary Hebrew were revived separately, causing a dispersion between the two.

Israel

🇮🇱IsraeliState of Israel
The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.
Israeli literature is primarily poetry and prose written in Hebrew, as part of the renaissance of Hebrew as a spoken language since the mid-19th century, although a small body of literature is published in other languages, such as English.

Eliezer Ben-Yehuda

Ben YehudaBen-Yehuda, Eliezer
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (1858–1922), is often regarded as the "reviver of the Hebrew language", yet his major contributions were ideological and symbolic; he was the first to raise the concept of reviving Hebrew, to publish articles in newspapers on the topic, and he took part in the project known as the Ben-Yehuda Dictionary.
He was the driving spirit behind the revival of the Hebrew language in the modern era.

Modern Hebrew

HebrewIsraeliModern
The process began as a diversity of Jews started arriving and establishing themselves alongside the pre-existing Jewish community of Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century, when veteran Jews in Palestine (largely Arabic-speaking by that time) and the linguistically diverse newly arrived Jews all switched to use Hebrew as a lingua franca, the historical linguistic common denominator of all the Jewish groups.
It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of Israel.

Ashkenazi Jews

AshkenaziAshkenazi JewishJewish
According to Zuckermann, although the revivalists wished to speak Hebrew with Semitic grammar and pronunciation, they could not avoid the Ashkenazi mindset arising from their European background.
For centuries they used Hebrew only as a sacred language, until the revival of Hebrew as a common language in Israel.

History of Palestine

PalestineOttoman PalestineOttoman
On the other hand, during the Ottoman era, widespread activity began in the moshavot, or agricultural settlements, of the First Aliyah, which was concentrated in the Hebrew schools.
Late 19th century was the timing for regional migrations of Druze, Circassians and Bedouin tribes and also the spike of Jewish immigration and the revival of the Hebrew language.

Language revitalization

language revivalrevitalizationrevival
Language revitalization
It has been pointed out that there has only been one successful instance of a complete language revival, that of the Hebrew language, creating a new generation of native speakers without any pre-existing native speakers as a model.

HaZvi

Ha-ZeviHaOrHaTzvi
Ben-Yehuda attempted to convince other families to do so as well, founded associations for speaking Hebrew, began publishing the Hebrew newspaper HaZvi, and for a short while taught at Hebrew schools, for the first time making use of the method of "Hebrew in Hebrew."
HaZvi (הצבי, also Hatzevi, literally 'The Gazelle') was a Hebrew-language newspaper published in Jerusalem from 1884 to 1914 by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, a leading pioneer of the revival of Hebrew as a spoken tongue.

Second Aliyah

secondemigrated to Ottoman Palestinesecond wave of ''aliyah
However, what finally brought about the revitalization of Hebrew were not Ben-Yehuda's activities in Jerusalem (at least for the most part), but developments in the settlements of the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah.
The Second Aliyah is largely credited with the revival of the Hebrew language and establishing it as the standard language for Jews in Israel.

Semitic languages

SemiticSemitic languageArabian
According to Zuckermann, although the revivalists wished to speak Hebrew with Semitic grammar and pronunciation, they could not avoid the Ashkenazi mindset arising from their European background.
Biblical Hebrew, long extinct as a colloquial language and in use only in Jewish literary, intellectual, and liturgical activity, was revived in spoken form at the end of the 19th century.

War of the Languages

debate over the language of instruction
The pinnacle of Hebrew's development during this period came in 1913, in the so-called "War of the Languages:" The Company for Aiding German Jews, then planning the establishment of a school for engineers (first known as the Technikum and for which construction had begun in 1912), insisted that German should be its language of instruction, arguing among other things that German possessed an extensive scientific and technical vocabulary while a parallel vocabulary drawn from Hebrew would need to be created from scratch, often using calques or translations of terms anyway.
This "language war" was a cornerstone event in the history of the revival of the Hebrew language.

Linguistic purism

purismpuristpuristic
The Haskalah-era literature written in Hebrew based itself upon two central principles: Purism and flowery language.
Hebrew during the Haskalah

Academy of the Hebrew Language

Hebrew AcademyHebrew Language CommitteeThe Academy of the Hebrew Language
The Hebrew Language Committee continued to function until 1953, when it was succeeded by the Academy of the Hebrew Language.
Revival of the Hebrew language

Yaakov Meir

Jacob MeirYaacob MeirYaacov Meir
In 1889, Ben-Yehuda, together with rabbis Yaakov Meir and Chaim Hirschensohn and educator Chaim Kalmi, founded the Clear Language Society, with the goal of teaching Hebrew.
Meir was committed to the Revival of the Hebrew language, and together with Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, Chaim Hirschensohn, and Chaim Kalmi, he co-founded the Safa Brura ("clear language") association, which was created in 1889 to teach and encourage the use of Hebrew.

Yiddishist movement

YiddishistConference for the Yiddish LanguageCzernowitz Yiddish Language Conference
Yiddish Renaissance
This, coupled with the revival of the Hebrew language as the national language of Israel, essentially extinguished the dynamic momentum Yiddish had been gaining in the early decades of the 20th century.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel. According to Zuckermann, although the revivalists wished to speak Hebrew with Semitic grammar and pronunciation, they could not avoid the Ashkenazi mindset arising from their European background.

Judaism

JewishJewsJew
The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.

Spoken language

oral languagespokenspeech
The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.

Written language

textwrittentextual
The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.

Jewish ethnic divisions

other Jewish groupsJewish ethnic divisionJewish communities
The process began as a diversity of Jews started arriving and establishing themselves alongside the pre-existing Jewish community of Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century, when veteran Jews in Palestine (largely Arabic-speaking by that time) and the linguistically diverse newly arrived Jews all switched to use Hebrew as a lingua franca, the historical linguistic common denominator of all the Jewish groups.

Old Yishuv

IsraelJewish community Jewish
The process began as a diversity of Jews started arriving and establishing themselves alongside the pre-existing Jewish community of Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century, when veteran Jews in Palestine (largely Arabic-speaking by that time) and the linguistically diverse newly arrived Jews all switched to use Hebrew as a lingua franca, the historical linguistic common denominator of all the Jewish groups.

Palestinian Jews

Jews of PalestineJews in PalestinePalestinian
The process began as a diversity of Jews started arriving and establishing themselves alongside the pre-existing Jewish community of Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century, when veteran Jews in Palestine (largely Arabic-speaking by that time) and the linguistically diverse newly arrived Jews all switched to use Hebrew as a lingua franca, the historical linguistic common denominator of all the Jewish groups.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelinguae francae
The process began as a diversity of Jews started arriving and establishing themselves alongside the pre-existing Jewish community of Palestine in the first half of the nineteenth century, when veteran Jews in Palestine (largely Arabic-speaking by that time) and the linguistically diverse newly arrived Jews all switched to use Hebrew as a lingua franca, the historical linguistic common denominator of all the Jewish groups.

Sacred language

liturgical languageliturgicalritual language
At the same time, a parallel development in Europe changed Hebrew from primarily a sacred liturgical language into a literary language which played a key role in the development of nationalist educational programs. The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.