Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communismfall of the Iron Curtaincollapsethe fall of the Iron Curtain in 19891989collapse of the Soviet empirefall of communism in EuropeDecember 1989
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.wikipedia
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Leipzig

LeipsicLeipzig, GermanyLipsiae
This led to mass demonstrations in cities such as Leipzig and subsequently to the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, which served as the symbolic gateway to German reunification in 1990.
Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, mainly through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

fall of the Soviet Unioncollapse of the Soviet Uniondissolution of the USSR
The Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991, resulting in eleven new countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) which had declared their independence from the Soviet Union in the course of the year while the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) regained their independence in September 1991.
Both the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR also marked the end of the Cold War.

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaRomanian communist regime
The events of the full-blown revolution first began in Poland in 1989 and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Romania.
However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
Albania and Yugoslavia abandoned Communism between 1990 and 1992.
With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation also failed.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
Czechoslovakia dissolved three years after the end of Communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992.
In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation.

Politics of Europe

European politicsEuropeanEurope
The European political landscape changed drastically, with several former Eastern Bloc countries joining NATO and the European Union, resulting in stronger economic and social integration with Western Europe and the United States.
Modern European politics is dominated by the European Union, since the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc of Communist states.

Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
The Cold War saw these states, bound together by the Warsaw Pact, have continuing tensions with the capitalist west, bound together by NATO.
A common historiography of the conflict begins with 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe.

Civil resistance

nonviolent civil resistanceResist !!resistance
One feature common to most of these developments was the extensive use of campaigns of civil resistance, demonstrating popular opposition to the continuation of one-party rule and contributing to the pressure for change.
the various movements contributing to the revolutions of 1989 in central and eastern Europe, and to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
Nazi ideology was violently anti-communist, and the Nazis brutally suppressed communist movements in the countries it occupied.
With the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, most of the world's Communist governments were overthrown and the Cold War ended.

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganisationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The European political landscape changed drastically, with several former Eastern Bloc countries joining NATO and the European Union, resulting in stronger economic and social integration with Western Europe and the United States. The Cold War saw these states, bound together by the Warsaw Pact, have continuing tensions with the capitalist west, bound together by NATO.
The collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature, tasks, and their focus on the continent of Europe.

German reunification

reunificationreunification of Germanyreunified
This led to mass demonstrations in cities such as Leipzig and subsequently to the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, which served as the symbolic gateway to German reunification in 1990.
Further inspired by other images of brave defiance, a wave of revolutions swept throughout the Eastern Bloc that year.

Slovenia

🇸🇮SlovenianSlovene
By 1992, Yugoslavia had split into five successor states, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was later renamed Serbia and Montenegro in 2003 and eventually split in 2006 into two states, namely Serbia and Montenegro.
The initial revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe by almost a year, but went largely unnoticed by international observers.

Communist state

communist regimecommunistcommunist countries
Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country whose citizens overthrew its Communist regime violently. The Russian Revolution of 1917 saw the first communist state in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), when the Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government.
In 1989, the Communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed under public pressure during a wave of non-violent movements which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae CeauşescuCeauşescuCeaușescu
Believing Gorbachev's reform initiatives would be short-lived, hardline communist rulers like East Germany's Erich Honecker, Bulgaria's Todor Zhivkov, Czechoslovakia's Gustáv Husák and Romania's Nicolae Ceauşescu obstinately ignored the calls for change.
The demonstrations, which reached Bucharest, became known as the Romanian Revolution—the only violent overthrow of a communist government in the turn of the Revolutions of 1989.

History of Solidarity

Solidarityrise of Solidarityemergence of Solidarity
Over the next few days, sixteen other mines went on strike followed by a number of shipyards, including on 22 August, the Gdansk Shipyard, famous as the epicentre of the 1980 industrial unrest that spawned Solidarity.
It is considered to have contributed greatly to the fall of communism.

Warsaw Pact

Soviet blocWarsaw TreatyEastern Bloc
The Cold War saw these states, bound together by the Warsaw Pact, have continuing tensions with the capitalist west, bound together by NATO.
The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Counter-Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Poland and its electoral success in June 1989.

Poland

🇵🇱PolishPOL
Wałęsa's inauguration as president on 21 December 1990 is thought by many to be the formal end of the Communist People's Republic of Poland and the beginning of the modern Republic of Poland.
In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, the sovereign state of Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic.

1991 Polish parliamentary election

1991 parliamentary elections19911991 parliamentary election
On 27 October 1991 the first entirely free Polish parliamentary elections since 1945 took place.
It was the first parliamentary election to be held since the formation of the Third Republic, the first entirely free and competitive legislative election since the fall of communism, the first completely free legislative election of any sort since 1928, and only the fifth completely free election in all of Polish history.

Solidarity (Polish trade union)

SolidaritySolidarity movementSolidarity trade union
On 4 June 1989, the trade union Solidarity won an overwhelming victory in a partially free election in Poland, leading to the peaceful fall of Communism in that country in the summer of 1989.
Solidarity won 99 of the 100 Senate seats and all 161 contestable seats in the Sejm—a victory that also triggered a chain reaction across the Soviet Union's satellite states, leading to almost entirely peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe known as the Revolutions of 1989 (Jesień Ludów or Wiosna Obywatelów), which ended in the overthrow of each Moscow-imposed regime, and ultimately to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
The European political landscape changed drastically, with several former Eastern Bloc countries joining NATO and the European Union, resulting in stronger economic and social integration with Western Europe and the United States.
In 1990, after the fall of the Eastern Bloc, the former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a reunified Germany.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The Russian Revolution of 1917 saw the first communist state in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), when the Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government.
Under Gorbachev, the role of the Communist Party in governing the state was removed from the constitution, causing a surge of severe political instability to set in. In 1989 Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments.

Viktor Orbán

OrbánViktor OrbanPrime Minister Orbán
It was at the talks that a number of Hungary's future political leaders emerged, including László Sólyom, József Antall, György Szabad, Péter Tölgyessy and Viktor Orbán.
He briefly studied political science at Pembroke College, Oxford, before entering politics in the wake of the Autumn of Nations at the head of the reformist student movement Alliance of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége), the nascent Fidesz.

József Antall

AntallHungarian government
It was at the talks that a number of Hungary's future political leaders emerged, including László Sólyom, József Antall, György Szabad, Péter Tölgyessy and Viktor Orbán.
József Antall Jr. (8 April 1932–12 December 1993) was a Hungarian teacher, librarian, historian, and statesman who served as the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Hungary after the fall of communism (23 May 1990–12 December 1993, his death).

Egon Krenz

Krenz, Egon
Faced with ongoing civil unrest, the SED deposed Honecker on 18 October and replaced him with the number-two-man in the regime, Egon Krenz.
Egon Rudi Ernst Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former East German politician who was the last communist leader of East Germany during the final months of 1989.

Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria

dismantling its border fence with Austriaborder fencecrossing the border from Communist-controlled Hungary into Austria
On 2 May 1989, the first visible cracks in the Iron Curtain appeared when Hungary began dismantling its 240 km long border fence with Austria.
The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.