Rhabdomyolysis

muscle breakdownrapid muscle breakdownbreakdown of skeletal muscleextensive muscle breakdownkidney failuremuscle necrosismyoglobinemiarhabdoskeletal muscle injury and breakdown
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.wikipedia
427 Related Articles

Crush syndrome

crush injuryasphyxiatedBywaters syndrome
The muscle damage is most often the result of a crush injury, strenuous exercise, medications, or drug abuse.
Crush syndrome (also traumatic rhabdomyolysis or Bywaters' syndrome) is a medical condition characterized by major shock and kidney failure after a crushing injury to skeletal muscle.

Heat stroke

sunstrokeheatstrokeharmful heat
Other causes include infections, electrical injury, heat stroke, prolonged immobilization, lack of blood flow to a limb, or snake bites.
Complications may include seizures, rhabdomyolysis, or kidney failure.

Hyperkalemia

high blood potassiumhyperkalaemiahigh blood potassium levels
Complications may include high blood potassium, low blood calcium, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and compartment syndrome.
Common causes include kidney failure, hypoaldosteronism, and rhabdomyolysis.

Exertional rhabdomyolysis

Exercise relatedtying up
It is one of many types of rhabdomyolysis that can occur, and because of this the exact prevalence and incidence are unclear.

Snakebite

snake bitesnake bitesbite
Other causes include infections, electrical injury, heat stroke, prolonged immobilization, lack of blood flow to a limb, or snake bites.
Muscle tissue will begin to die throughout the body, a condition known as rhabdomyolysis.

Creatine kinase

creatine phosphokinaseCPKCK
Blood tests show a creatine kinase greater than 1,000 U/L, with severe disease being above 5,000 U/L.
Clinically, creatine kinase is assayed in blood tests as a marker of damage of CK-rich tissue such as in myocardial infarction (heart attack), rhabdomyolysis (severe muscle breakdown), muscular dystrophy, autoimmune myositides, and acute kidney injury.

Acute kidney injury

acute renal failureacute kidney failureuremic poisoning
Some of the muscle breakdown products, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure.
Other causes of intrinsic AKI are rhabdomyolysis and tumor lysis syndrome.

Urine test strip

urine dipstickurine dipsticksDiagnostic test strips
The diagnosis is supported by a urine test strip which is positive for "blood" but the urine contains no red blood cells when examined with a microscope.
The presence of myoglobin in place of hemoglobin can be caused by pathologies associated with muscular damage (rhabdomyolysis), such as trauma, crush syndrome, prolonged coma, convulsions, progressive muscular atrophy, alcoholism, heroin abuse and strenuous physical activity.

Hypocalcaemia

hypocalcemialow blood calciumcalcium deficiency
Complications may include high blood potassium, low blood calcium, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and compartment syndrome.
Others causes include kidney failure, pancreatitis, calcium channel blocker overdose, rhabdomyolysis, tumor lysis syndrome, and medications such as bisphosphonates.

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Malignant neuroleptic syndrome
Complications may include rhabdomyolysis, high blood potassium, kidney failure, or seizures.

Hypophosphatemia

Hypophosphataemiahyperphosphaturiahypophosphatemia, familial
Complications may include seizures, coma, rhabdomyolysis, or softening of the bones.

Malignant hyperthermia

malignant hyperpyrexiahypermetabolic disorderKing–Denborough syndrome
Complications can include muscle breakdown and high blood potassium.

Serotonin syndrome

hyperserotonemiaserotonin toxicitycentral toxic serotonin reaction
Body temperature can increase to greater than 41.1 C. Complications may include seizures and extensive muscle breakdown.

Myoglobin

globular proteinsMB
Some of the muscle breakdown products, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure.
Myoglobin is released from damaged muscle tissue (rhabdomyolysis), which has very high concentrations of myoglobin.

Haff disease

Haff disease is the development of rhabdomyolysis (swelling and breakdown of skeletal muscle, with a risk of acute kidney failure) within 24 hours of ingesting fish.

Coturnism

after eating quaildiet-dependent
Rhabdomyolysis after consuming quail was described in more recent times and called coturnism (after Coturnix, the main quail genus).
Coturnism is an illness featuring muscle tenderness and rhabdomyolysis (muscle cell breakdown) after consuming quail (usually common quail, Coturnix coturnix, from which the name derives) that have fed on poisonous plants.

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

nonketotic hyperosmolar comahyperosmolar hyperglycemic statesHyperosmolar nonketotic coma
Complications may include seizures, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, mesenteric artery occlusion, or rhabdomyolysis.

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
Larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown.

Hypokalemia

hypokalaemialow blood potassiumhypokalemic
Reports exist of rhabdomyolysis occurring with profound hypokalemia with serum potassium levels less than 2 meq/l.

Compartment syndrome

compartmental syndromecompartment syndromesacute compartment syndrome
Complications may include high blood potassium, low blood calcium, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and compartment syndrome.
Rhabdomyolysis and subsequent kidney failure are also possible complications.

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

DICdefibrination syndromedisseminated intravascular coagulopathy
Complications may include high blood potassium, low blood calcium, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and compartment syndrome.

Statin

statinsHMG-CoA reductase inhibitorHMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
A systematic review concluded that while clinical trial meta-analyses underestimate the rate of muscle pain associated with statin use, the rates of rhabdomyolysis are still "reassuringly low" and similar to those seen in clinical trials (about 1–2 per 10,000 person years).

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

carnitine palmityl transferaseCarnitine palmityl transferase deficiency type 2CPT II deficiency
Characteristic signs and symptoms include rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of muscle fibers and subsequent release of myoglobin), myoglobinuria, recurrent muscle pain, and weakness.

Oliguria

Decreased urine outputlow urine outputoliguric
Damage to the kidneys may give rise to decreased or absent urine production, usually 12 to 24 hours after the initial muscle damage.

Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1

Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencyAdenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency
It is unclear, what, if anything, does it take to unknowingly trigger rhabdomyolysis at this point, assuming the muscle cell is otherwise healthy.