Rhapta

Rhapta was a marketplace said to be on the coast of Southeast Africa, first described in the 1st century CE.wikipedia
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Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

Periplus Maris ErythraeiPeriplusPeriplus of the Erythrean Sea
The ancient Periplus of the Erythraean Sea described Rhapta as "the last marketplace of Azania", two days' travel south of the Menouthias islands (Chapter 16).
For instance, a "Rhapta" is mentioned as the farthest market down the African coast of "Azania", but there are at least five locations matching the description, ranging from Tanga to south of the Rufiji River delta.

Mountains of the Moon (Africa)

Mountains of the Moon
Diogenes further describes this river as having its source near the Mountains of the Moon, near the swamp whence the Nile was said to also have its source.
Eventually, a merchant named Diogenes reported that he had traveled inland from Rhapta in East Africa for twenty-five days and had found the source of the Nile.

Azania

Azania in modern usage
The ancient Periplus of the Erythraean Sea described Rhapta as "the last marketplace of Azania", two days' travel south of the Menouthias islands (Chapter 16).
Chapter 16 clearly describes the emporium of Rhapta, located south of the Puralean Islands at the end of the Seven Courses of Azania, as the "southernmost market of Azania".

Blown off course

blown off her courseforced to maintain a more northerly course owing to prevailing galesswept off course
According to Claudius Ptolemy, Diogenes, a merchant in the Indian trade, was blown off course from his usual route from India, and after travelling 25 days south along the coast of Africa arrived at Rhapta, located where the river of the same name enters the Indian Ocean opposite the island of Menouthias.

Menouthias

The ancient Periplus of the Erythraean Sea described Rhapta as "the last marketplace of Azania", two days' travel south of the Menouthias islands (Chapter 16). According to Claudius Ptolemy, Diogenes, a merchant in the Indian trade, was blown off course from his usual route from India, and after travelling 25 days south along the coast of Africa arrived at Rhapta, located where the river of the same name enters the Indian Ocean opposite the island of Menouthias.
Menouthias is ancient trading town most commonly identified with either Pemba Island, Mafia Island or Zanzibar in Tanzania or east Africa, that existed from at least 50 B.C. Along with Rhapta and Azania, the settlement is mentioned in early Greek writings, such as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which describes Rhapta as "the last marketplace of Azania", two days' travel south of the Menouthias islands.

Rufiji River

RufijiRufiji DeltaRufiji District
A branch of ancient sea routes led down the East African coast called "Azania" by the Greeks and Romans in the 1st century CE as described in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (and, very probably, 澤散 in the 3rd century by the Chinese), at least as far as the port known to the Romans as Rhapta, which was probably located in the delta of the Rufiji River in modern Tanzania.

Cinnamon

cinnamon stickscinnamon barkcinnamon tree
Miller notes that ancient authorities (e.g. Herodotus 3.111) state that cinnamon and cassia bark were harvested in Africa, yet these species until recently were found only in Southeast Asia.
Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa (see also Rhapta), where local traders then carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt.

Marketplace

marketstreet marketpublic market
Rhapta was a marketplace said to be on the coast of Southeast Africa, first described in the 1st century CE.

Southeast Africa

SoutheastSoutheasternSoutheastern Africa
Rhapta was a marketplace said to be on the coast of Southeast Africa, first described in the 1st century CE.

Ptolemy

Claudius PtolemyClaudius PtolemaeusPtolemaic
According to Claudius Ptolemy, Diogenes, a merchant in the Indian trade, was blown off course from his usual route from India, and after travelling 25 days south along the coast of Africa arrived at Rhapta, located where the river of the same name enters the Indian Ocean opposite the island of Menouthias.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
According to Claudius Ptolemy, Diogenes, a merchant in the Indian trade, was blown off course from his usual route from India, and after travelling 25 days south along the coast of Africa arrived at Rhapta, located where the river of the same name enters the Indian Ocean opposite the island of Menouthias.

Indian Ocean

IndianIndoSouthern Indian Ocean
According to Claudius Ptolemy, Diogenes, a merchant in the Indian trade, was blown off course from his usual route from India, and after travelling 25 days south along the coast of Africa arrived at Rhapta, located where the river of the same name enters the Indian Ocean opposite the island of Menouthias.

Nile

Nile RiverNile ValleyRiver Nile
Diogenes further describes this river as having its source near the Mountains of the Moon, near the swamp whence the Nile was said to also have its source.

Stephanus of Byzantium

Steph. B.Stephanus ByzantiusStephen of Byzantium
Rhapta is also mentioned by the Stephanus of Byzantium and Cosmas Indicopleustes.

Cosmas Indicopleustes

Cosma IndicopleustesCosmasCosmos of Alexandria
Rhapta is also mentioned by the Stephanus of Byzantium and Cosmas Indicopleustes.

Zanzibar

ZanzibariZanzibar, TanzaniaCommittee of Six
Huntingford dismisses the first two as being too close to Zanzibar and Pemba islands (which he identifies with Menouthis, and follows the author of the Periplus in locating Menouthis north of Rhapta).

Pemba Island

PembaPemba, Tanzaniaisland of Pemba
Huntingford dismisses the first two as being too close to Zanzibar and Pemba islands (which he identifies with Menouthis, and follows the author of the Periplus in locating Menouthis north of Rhapta).

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
However, J. Innes Miller points out that Roman coins have been found on Pemba; that the Ruvu emerges near the Kilimanjaro and Meru mountains—which confirm the account of Diogenes; and that an old inscription in Semitic characters has been found near the Pangani estuary, which make Pemba a likely candidate for Rhapta.

Mount Kilimanjaro

KilimanjaroMt. KilimanjaroMt Kilimanjaro
However, J. Innes Miller points out that Roman coins have been found on Pemba; that the Ruvu emerges near the Kilimanjaro and Meru mountains—which confirm the account of Diogenes; and that an old inscription in Semitic characters has been found near the Pangani estuary, which make Pemba a likely candidate for Rhapta.

Mount Meru (Tanzania)

Mount MeruMeruMount Meru, Tanzania
However, J. Innes Miller points out that Roman coins have been found on Pemba; that the Ruvu emerges near the Kilimanjaro and Meru mountains—which confirm the account of Diogenes; and that an old inscription in Semitic characters has been found near the Pangani estuary, which make Pemba a likely candidate for Rhapta.

Felix A. Chami

Chami, F. A.Felix Chami
In recent years, professor Felix Chami has found archaeological evidence for extensive Roman trade on Mafia Island and, not far away, on the mainland, near the mouth of the Rufiji River, which he dated to the first few centuries CE.