Rhetoric

Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetoric.
Ezra calls for the rebuilding of the temple in this 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
A marble bust of Aristotle
Bust of Marcus Tullius Cicero
Portrait of Erasmus of Rotterdam

Art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic is one of the three ancient arts of discourse.

- Rhetoric

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Sophist

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.

A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a teacher in ancient Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Sophists specialized in one or more subject areas, such as philosophy, rhetoric, music, athletics (physical culture), and mathematics.

Aristotle

Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle
School of Aristotle in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece
Roman copy of 1st or 2nd century from original bronze by Lysippos. Louvre Museum
Plato (left) and Aristotle in Raphael's 1509 fresco, The School of Athens. Aristotle holds his Nicomachean Ethics and gestures to the earth, representing his view in immanent realism, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, indicating his Theory of Forms, and holds his Timaeus.
Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple. For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism).
Aristotle argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired – the potential made actual – by learning.
The four classical elements (fire, air, water, earth) of Empedocles and Aristotle illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed.
Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: in the case of a table, the wood used (material cause), its design (formal cause), the tools and techniques used (efficient cause), and its decorative or practical purpose (final cause).
Aristotle noted that the ground level of the Aeolian islands changed before a volcanic eruption.
Among many pioneering zoological observations, Aristotle described the reproductive hectocotyl arm of the octopus (bottom left).
Aristotle inferred growth laws from his observations on animals, including that brood size decreases with body mass, whereas gestation period increases. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: data are shown for mouse and elephant.
Aristotle recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta (the yolk sac), like a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.
Aristotle proposed a three-part structure for souls of plants, animals, and humans, making humans unique in having all three types of soul.
Senses, perception, memory, dreams, action in Aristotle's psychology. Impressions are stored in the sensorium (the heart), linked by his laws of association (similarity, contrast, and contiguity).
Aristotle's classifications of political constitutions
The Blind Oedipus Commending his Children to the Gods (1784) by Bénigne Gagneraux. In his Poetics, Aristotle uses the tragedy Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles as an example of how the perfect tragedy should be structured, with a generally good protagonist who starts the play prosperous, but loses everything through some hamartia (fault).
Frontispiece to a 1644 version of Theophrastus's Historia Plantarum, originally written around 300 BC
Islamic portrayal of Aristotle, c. 1220
Woodcut of Aristotle ridden by Phyllis by Hans Baldung, 1515
William Harvey's De Motu Cordis, 1628, showed that the blood circulated, contrary to classical era thinking.
"That most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle tutoring the future conqueror Alexander". Illustration by, 1866
First page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean Ethics in Greek and Latin
Nuremberg Chronicle anachronistically shows Aristotle in a medieval scholar's clothing. Ink and watercolour on paper, 1493
Aristotle by Justus van Gent. Oil on panel, c. 1476
Phyllis and Aristotle by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Oil on panel, 1530
Aristotle by Paolo Veronese, Biblioteka Marciana. Oil on canvas, 1560s
Aristotle and Campaspe,{{efn-ua | Compare the medieval tale of Phyllis and Alexander above.}} Alessandro Turchi (attrib.) Oil on canvas, 1713
Aristotle by Jusepe de Ribera. Oil on canvas, 1637
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer by Rembrandt. Oil on canvas, 1653
Aristotle by Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder. Oil on canvas, by 1813
Aristotle by Francesco Hayez. Oil on canvas, 1811
Roman copy of 117-138 AD of Greek original. Palermo Regional Archeology Museum
Relief of Aristotle and Plato by Luca della Robbia, Florence Cathedral, 1437–1439
Stone statue in niche, Gladstone's Library, Hawarden, Wales, 1899
Bronze statue, University of Freiburg, Germany, 1915

His writings cover many subjects including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics, meteorology, geology, and government.

Isocrates

Bust of Isocrates; plaster cast in the Pushkin Museum of the bust formerly at Villa Albani, Rome
Isocrates sculpture located at the Parc de Versailles
P. Oxy. 1183, late-1st-century-AD papyrus containing Isocrates's Trapeziticus 44–48.
Isokratous Apanta (1570)

Isocrates ( ; 436–338 BC) was an ancient Greek rhetorician, one of the ten Attic orators.

Dispositio

Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetoric.

Dispositio is the system used for the organization of arguments in the context of Western classical rhetoric.

Gorgias

Helen of Troy by Evelyn De Morgan (1898, London)

Gorgias (483–375 BC) was an ancient Greek sophist, pre-Socratic philosopher, and rhetorician who was a native of Leontinoi in Sicily.

Epideictic

Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetoric.

The epideictic oratory, also called ceremonial oratory, or praise-and-blame rhetoric, is one of the three branches, or "species" (eidē), of rhetoric as outlined in Aristotle's Rhetoric, to be used to praise or blame during ceremonies.

Cicero

Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

First-century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome
The Young Cicero Reading by Vincenzo Foppa (fresco, 1464), now at the Wallace Collection
Arpino, Italy, birthplace of Cicero
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Cicero's death (France, 15th century)
The Vengeance of Fulvia by Francisco Maura y Montaner, 1888 depicting Fulvia inspecting the severed head of Cicero
Cicero about age 60, from a marble bust
Henry VIII's childhood copy of De Officiis, bearing the inscription in his hand, "Thys boke is myne Prynce Henry"
Marci Tullii Ciceronis Opera Omnia (1566)

His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics, and he is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.

Demosthenes

Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.

Bust of Demosthenes (Louvre, Paris, France)
Bust of Demosthenes (British Museum, London), Roman copy of a Greek original sculpted by Polyeuktos.
Demosthenes Practising Oratory by Jean-Jules-Antoine Lecomte du Nouy (1842–1923). Demosthenes used to study in an underground room he constructed himself. He also used to talk with pebbles in his mouth and recited verses while running. To strengthen his voice, he spoke on the seashore over the roar of the waves.
Illustration by Walter Crane of Demosthenes leaving the Assembly in shame after his first failure at public speaking, as described by Plutarch in his Life of Demosthenes
Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (nikétérion) struck in Tarsus, c. 2nd century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris).
Satellite image of the Thracian Chersonese and the surrounding area. The Chersonese became the focus of a bitter territorial dispute between Athens and Macedon. It was eventually ceded to Philip in 338 BC.
The battle of Chaeronea took place in the autumn of 338 BC and resulted in a significant victory for Philip, who established Macedon's supremacy over the Greek cities.
Alexander Mosaic from Pompeii, from a 3rd-century BC original Greek painting, now lost. In 336–335 BC, the king of Macedon crippled any attempt of the Greek cities at resistance and shattered Demosthenes's hopes for Athenian independence.
The site of the temple of Poseidon, Kalaureia, where Demosthenes committed suicide.
Herma of Demosthenes: the head is a copy of the bronze posthumous commemorative statue in the Ancient Agora of Athens by Polyeuctus (c. 280 BC); this herm was found in the Circus of Maxentius in 1825 (Glyptothek, Munich).
Phryne Going to the Public Baths as Venus and Demosthenes Taunted by Aeschines by J. M. W. Turner (1838).

His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators.

Kenneth Burke

Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993) was an American literary theorist, as well as poet, essayist, and novelist, who wrote on 20th-century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetorical theory.

Persuasion

Umbrella term of influence.

Persuasion, novel by Jane Austen, illustrated by C. E. Brock. For Sir Walter Elliot, baronet, the hints of Mr Shepherd, his agent, were quite unwelcome...
'The art of persuasion'— returning from a ball in India from "The Graphic", 1890.

Rhetoric is the study of modes of persuasion in speech and writing, and is often taught as a classical subject.