Rhineland

RhenishRheinlandThe RhinelandGerman RhinelandRhenish provincesalong the Rhineand GermanyCentral RhinelandFranconia along the Rhineleft bank of the Rhine
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie, Rijnland, Latinised name: Rhenania) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.wikipedia
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Rhine

Rhine RiverRiver RhineRhine Valley
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie, Rijnland, Latinised name: Rhenania) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

Rhine Province

Rhenish PrussiaRhinelandPrussian Rhineland
In 1822 the Prussian administration reorganized the territory as the Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz, also known as Rhenish Prussia), a tradition that continued in the naming of the current German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia.
The Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz), also known as Rhenish Prussia (Rheinpreußen) or synonymous with the Rhineland (Rheinland), was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822 to 1946.

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

remilitarisation of the Rhinelandreoccupation of the Rhinelandremilitarized the Rhineland
German forces remilitarized the territory in 1936, as part of a diplomatic test of will, three years before the outbreak of the Second World War.
The remilitarization of the Rhineland (Rheinlandbesetzung) by the German Army began on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland.

Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine

Lower RhineRhinelandProvince of the Lower Rhine
After the collapse of the French empire, the regions of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and Lower Rhine were annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia.
The province was created after the Congress of Vienna in 1815, where Frederick William III was given the Rhineland and with it the title of Grand Duke of the Lower Rhine.

North Rhine-Westphalia

Nordrhein-WestfalenNRWNorthrhine-Westphalia
In 1822 the Prussian administration reorganized the territory as the Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz, also known as Rhenish Prussia), a tradition that continued in the naming of the current German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia.
After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, and nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.

Kingdom of Prussia

PrussiaPrussianPrussian court
After the collapse of the French empire, the regions of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and Lower Rhine were annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia.
Its territory was disjointed, stretching 1200 km from the lands of the Duchy of Prussia on the south-east coast of the Baltic Sea to the Hohenzollern heartland of Brandenburg, with the exclaves of Cleves, Mark and Ravensberg in the Rhineland.

Cologne

KölnCologne, GermanyKöln, Germany
The southern and eastern parts are mainly hill country (Westerwald, Hunsrück, Siebengebirge, Taunus and Eifel), cut by river valleys, principally the Middle Rhine up to Bingen (or very rarely between the confluence with the Neckar and Cologne ) and its Ahr, Moselle and Nahe tributaries. Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Mainz,
With slightly over a million inhabitants (1.08 million) within its city boundaries, Cologne is the largest city on the Rhine and also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, and of the Rhineland.

War of the First Coalition

First CoalitionCoalitionFirst
A "Rhineland" conceptualization did not evolve until the 19th century after the War of the First Coalition, when a short-lived Cisrhenian Republic was established by Napoleon.
A major victory against combined coalition forces at the Battle of Fleurus gained all of Belgium and the Rhineland for France.

Austrasia

King of AustrasiaAustrasianAustrasian Franks
Historically, the Rhinelands refers (physically speaking) to a loosely defined region embracing the land on the banks of the Rhine in Central Europe, which were settled by Ripuarian and Salian Franks and became part of Frankish Austrasia.
Its exact boundaries were somewhat fluid over the history of the Frankish sub-kingdoms, but Austrasia can be taken to correspond roughly to the territory of present-day Luxembourg, parts of eastern Belgium, north-eastern France (Lorraine and Champagne-Ardenne), west-central Germany (the Rhineland, Hesse and Franconia) and the southern Netherlands (Limburg, North Brabant, with a salient north of the Rhine including Utrecht and parts of Gelderland).

Essen

Essen, GermanyAltenessenEssen-Kray
Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Mainz,
On the Ruhr and Emscher rivers, Essen geographically is part of the Rhineland and the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region.

Duisburg

Duisburg, West GermanyDuisburg, GermanyCity of Duisburg
Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Mainz,
Duisburg is a city in Germany’s Rhineland, the fifth largest of the nation’s most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf, GermanyDusseldorfDüsseldorf, West Germany
Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Mainz,
As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz.

Aachen

Aix-la-ChapelleAachen, GermanyAix
Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Mainz,
After Roman times, Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and also for strategic reasons as it is located between the Rhineland and northern France.

Koblenz

CoblenzCoblenceKoblenz, Germany
Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Mainz,
Koblenz lies in the Rhineland.

Ruhr

Ruhr areaRuhrgebietRuhr region
The area encompasses the western part of the Ruhr industrial region and the Cologne Lowland.
The most important towns of the region from Duisburg to the imperial city of Dortmund were concentrated along the Hellweg from the Rhineland to Westphalia.

Mainz

MogontiacumMainz, GermanyMoguntiacum
Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Koblenz, Krefeld, Leverkusen, Mainz,
Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the left bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine.

Solingen

OhligsSolingen, GermanySolingen-Ohligs
Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Oberhausen, Remscheid, Solingen, Trier and Wuppertal.
It is a member of the regional authority of the Rhineland.

Cisrhenian Republic

French occupation
A "Rhineland" conceptualization did not evolve until the 19th century after the War of the First Coalition, when a short-lived Cisrhenian Republic was established by Napoleon.
Together the Rhenish lands from Cleves up to Bingen were combined into the short-lived Cisrhenian Republic under the rule of General Hoche as 'Protector'.

Bingen am Rhein

BingenBingen.Bingen, Germany
The southern and eastern parts are mainly hill country (Westerwald, Hunsrück, Siebengebirge, Taunus and Eifel), cut by river valleys, principally the Middle Rhine up to Bingen (or very rarely between the confluence with the Neckar and Cologne ) and its Ahr, Moselle and Nahe tributaries.
Noted rabbis who taught in the small community included Seligmann Oppenheim, who convened the Council of Bingen (1455–56) in an unsuccessful attempt to establish his authority over the whole of Rhineland Jewry.

Locarno Treaties

Treaty of LocarnoLocarno PactLocarno Treaty
Following the First World War, the western part of Rhineland was occupied by Entente forces, then demilitarized under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and then the 1925 Locarno Treaties.
This spirit was made concrete when Germany joined the League in 1926, and the withdrawal of Allied troops occupying Germany's Rhineland.

Eburones

EburoniEburons
At the earliest historical period, the territories between the Ardennes and the Rhine were occupied by the Treveri, the Eburones and other Celtic tribes, who, however, were all more or less modified and influenced by their Germanic neighbors.
The Eburones (Greek: Ἐβούρωνες, Strabo), were a Gallic-Germanic tribe who lived in the northeast of Gaul, in what is now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, and the German Rhineland, in the period immediately before this region was conquered by Rome.

Middle Rhine

MittelrheinMiddleRhine Valley
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie, Rijnland, Latinised name: Rhenania) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

States of Germany

stateGerman statefederal state
In 1822 the Prussian administration reorganized the territory as the Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz, also known as Rhenish Prussia), a tradition that continued in the naming of the current German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia.
The most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia is uniquely divided into two area associations (Landschaftsverbände), one for the Rhineland, and one for Westphalia-Lippe.

Low Countries

The Low CountriesLow CountryNetherlands
The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands (de Lage Landen, les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands, Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in northwestern Europe forming the lower basin of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and consisting of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, part of northern France, Rhineland and part of northern Germany.

Lower Lorraine

Duchy of Lower LorraineLower LotharingiaLorraine
973) both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 959 the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine, on the Mosel, and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse.
The Duchy of Lower Lorraine, or Lower Lotharingia (also referred to as Lothier or Lottier in titles), was a stem duchy established in 959, of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, which encompassed almost all of the modern Netherlands (including Friesland), central and eastern Belgium, Luxemburg, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France's Nord-Pas de Calais region.