Rhineland massacres

German Crusade, 1096German Crusadeviolence against the Jews1096attackingattacks on Jewsconversion or murderCrusader persecutionsdestructiondevastation
The Rhineland massacres, also known as the persecutions of 1096 or Gzerot Tatnó (גזרות תתנ"ו, Hebrew for "Edicts of 4856"), were a series of mass murders of Jews perpetrated by mobs of German Christians of the People's Crusade in the year 1096, or 4856 according to the Jewish calendar.wikipedia
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Emicho

Count EmichoEmicho, Count of FlonheimEmicho of Leiningen
The largest of these crusades, and the most involved in attacking Jews, was that led by Count Emicho.
In 1096 he was the leader of the Rhineland massacres (sometimes referred to as the "German Crusade of 1096") which were a series of mass murders of Jews that took place during the People's Crusade.

Antisemitism

anti-Semitismanti-Semiticantisemitic
Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the Cossack massacres in Ukraine from 1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 1894–1906 Dreyfus affair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Europe during World War II, Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and Arab and Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries.

Takkanot Shum

Shum
Following the devastation of the Jewish communities of the Rhineland during the People's Crusade, Jews who had formerly made their livings as itinerant merchants could no longer travel safely, and had to find careers in the cities which they lived.

Peter the Hermit

Pierre l'hermite
Not all crusaders who had run out of supplies resorted to murder; some, like Peter the Hermit, used extortion instead.
In Germany in spring 1096 Peter was one of the prominent leaders of crusaders involved in the Rhineland massacres against the Jews.

Mainz

MogontiacumMainz, GermanyMoguntiacum
Emperor Henry IV (after being notified of the pledge by Kalonymus Ben Meshullam, the Jewish leader in Mainz) issued an order prohibiting such an action. The bishops of Mainz, Speyer, and Worms had attempted to protect the Jews of those towns within the walls of their palaces.
Jews were attacked in 1096 and by mobs in 1283.

Godfrey of Bouillon

Godfrey de BouillonGodfreyGodefroy de Bouillon
He stated that Godfrey of Bouillon swore
In the People's Crusade, beginning in the spring and early summer of 1096, bands of peasants and low-ranking knights set off early for Jerusalem on their own, and persecuted Jews during the Rhineland massacres.

People's Crusade

Crusaderspeasant crusadersPeasant's Crusade
The Rhineland massacres, also known as the persecutions of 1096 or Gzerot Tatnó (גזרות תתנ"ו, Hebrew for "Edicts of 4856"), were a series of mass murders of Jews perpetrated by mobs of German Christians of the People's Crusade in the year 1096, or 4856 according to the Jewish calendar. Some scholars consider the massacres to be the earliest known incident of antisemitism.
Another group would follow soon after; this group committed the Rhineland massacres against Jewish populations and is sometimes referred to as the "German Crusade of 1096".

Coloman, King of Hungary

ColomanColoman of HungaryKing Coloman
In late June 1096, the crusader mob of Gottschalk was welcomed by King Coloman of Hungary, but they soon began plundering the countryside and causing drunken disorder.
According to Albert of Aix, contemporaneous Christians thought that Emicho's defeat was a punishment that God inflicted on the pilgrims because they had massacred many Jews "rather from greed for their money than for divine justice".

Solomon bar Simson Chronicle

Solomon bar Simson
The Solomon bar Simson Chronicle records that they were so terrified by Peter's appearance at the gates that they readily agreed to supply his needs.
Like the Eliezer bar Nathan Chronicle and the Mainz Anonymous, it is concerned with the persecutions of Jewish communities in the Rhineland area, notably Speyer, Worms, Mainz and Trier, during the First Crusade (1095-1099).

Kalonymus ben Meshullam

Meshullam ben Kalonymus
Emperor Henry IV (after being notified of the pledge by Kalonymus Ben Meshullam, the Jewish leader in Mainz) issued an order prohibiting such an action.
He was head of the Jewish community of Mainz at the time of the Rhineland massacres.

William the Carpenter

Guillaume de MelunWilliam de MelunWilliam the Carpenter, Viscount of Milun
Emicho was joined by William the Carpenter and Drogo of Nesle, among others from the Rhineland, eastern France, Lorraine, Flanders and even England.
He participated in the attacks on Jews at Mainz, led by Emich of Flonheim.

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IVEmperor Henry IVHenry IV of Germany
Emperor Henry IV (after being notified of the pledge by Kalonymus Ben Meshullam, the Jewish leader in Mainz) issued an order prohibiting such an action.
They attacked the towns along the Rhine and massacred thousands of Jews.

First Crusade

CrusadersFirstCrusader
Sixty years after the Dispar nimirum, inspired by the atrocities of the First Crusade, the Sicut Judaeis was issued.
Mobs of peasants and laymen travelled to Anatolia where they came up against the Turks, on the way attacking populations of Jews in the Rhineland.

Third Crusade

crusadeThirdcrusaders
In England, the Third Crusade was the pretext for the expulsion of the Jews and the confiscation of their money.
The First and Second Crusades in Germany had been marred by violence against the Jews.

Worms massacre (1096)

800 are killed in Worms800 Jews were massacred in Worms800 were slain in Worms
At least 800 Jews were massacred in Worms when they refused Catholic baptism.

Eliezer ben Nathan

Eliezer bar NathanEliezer b. NathanEleazar ben Nathan
Eliezer ben Nathan, a Jewish chronicler at the times, paraphrased Habakkuk 1:6 and wrote of
Eliezer is also supposed to be the author of a history of the terrible events of 1096, the year of the Rhineland massacres, part of the People's Crusade.

Worms, Germany

WormsWorms am RheinHerrnsheim
The bishops of Mainz, Speyer, and Worms had attempted to protect the Jews of those towns within the walls of their palaces.

Richard A. Fletcher

Richard FletcherR. A. FletcherFletcher, Richard A.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
In parts of France and Germany, Jews were perceived as just as much of an enemy as Muslims: they were held responsible for the crucifixion, and they were more immediately visible than the distant Muslims.

Crucifixion

crucifiedcrucifycross
In parts of France and Germany, Jews were perceived as just as much of an enemy as Muslims: they were held responsible for the crucifixion, and they were more immediately visible than the distant Muslims.

Rhineland

RhenishRheinlandThe Rhineland
The Rhineland communities were relatively wealthy, both due to their isolation, and because they were not restricted as Catholics were against moneylending.

Loan

Loansconsumer loanslending
The Rhineland communities were relatively wealthy, both due to their isolation, and because they were not restricted as Catholics were against moneylending.