Rhizome

rhizomatousrhizomesRhizomaticrizomerootstocksbotanical rhizomerhizoidalrhizomicrootsrootstock
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (, from "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.wikipedia
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Root

adventitious rootsrootsroot system
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (, from "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either (see rhizome).

Plant stem

stemstemsinternode
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (, from "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Most ferns have rhizomes with no vertical stem.

Stolon

stolonsstoloniferousrunners
A stolon is similar to a rhizome, but a stolon sprouts from an existing stem, has long internodes, and generates new shoots at the end, such as in the strawberry plant.
Rhizomes, in contrast, are root-like stems that may either grow horizontally at the soil surface or in other orientations underground.

Tuber

tuberstuberoustuberous roots
A stem tuber is a thickened part of a rhizome or stolon that has been enlarged for use as a storage organ.
Stem tubers form thickened rhizomes (underground stems) or stolons (horizontal connections between organisms).

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
In general, a tuber is high in starch, e.g. the potato, which is a modified stolon.
Starch grains from the rhizomes of Typha (cattails, bullrushes) as flour have been identified from grinding stones in Europe dating back to 30,000 years ago.

Bamboo

bamboosBambusoideaebamboo forest
This also allows for lateral spread of grasses like bamboo and bunch grasses. Plants with underground rhizomes include gingers, bamboo, the Venus flytrap, Chinese lantern, western poison-oak, hops, and Alstroemeria, and the weeds Johnson grass, Bermuda grass, and purple nut sedge.
Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome-dependent system.

Ginger

Zingiber officinaleginger rootZingiberis Rhizoma
Examples of plants that are propagated this way include hops, asparagus, ginger, irises, lily of the valley, cannas, and sympodial orchids.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine.

Iris (plant)

IrisirisesJapanese iris
Examples of plants that are propagated this way include hops, asparagus, ginger, irises, lily of the valley, cannas, and sympodial orchids. Some plants have rhizomes that grow above ground or that lie at the soil surface, including some Iris species, and ferns, whose spreading stems are rhizomes.
Irises are perennial plants, growing from creeping rhizomes (rhizomatous irises) or, in drier climates, from bulbs (bulbous irises).

Lily of the valley

lily-of-the-valleyConvallaria majalisLilies of the Valley
Examples of plants that are propagated this way include hops, asparagus, ginger, irises, lily of the valley, cannas, and sympodial orchids.
Convallaria majalis is an herbaceous perennial plant that forms extensive colonies by spreading underground stems called rhizomes.

Turmeric

Curcuma longaturmeric powderhaldi
Some rhizomes that are used directly in cooking include ginger, turmeric, galangal, fingerroot, and lotus.
The plant is a perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous plant native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, that requires temperatures between 20 and 30 C and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive.

Storage organ

geophytegeophytesgeophytic
A stem tuber is a thickened part of a rhizome or stolon that has been enlarged for use as a storage organ.

Orchidaceae

orchidorchidsorchid family
Examples of plants that are propagated this way include hops, asparagus, ginger, irises, lily of the valley, cannas, and sympodial orchids.
Terrestrial orchids may be rhizomatous or form corms or tubers.

Canna (plant)

CannaCannaceaecannas
Examples of plants that are propagated this way include hops, asparagus, ginger, irises, lily of the valley, cannas, and sympodial orchids.
The plants are large tropical and subtropical perennial herbs with a rhizomatous rootstock.

Galangal

GalangaGalingaleAlpiniae Officinari Rhizoma
Some rhizomes that are used directly in cooking include ginger, turmeric, galangal, fingerroot, and lotus.
In commerce, galangals are commonly available in Asian markets as whole fresh rhizome, or in dried and sliced, or powdered form.

Boesenbergia rotunda

fingerroottemu kunciChinese keys
Some rhizomes that are used directly in cooking include ginger, turmeric, galangal, fingerroot, and lotus.
In English, the root has traditionally been called fingerroot, because the shape of the rhizome resembles that of fingers growing out of a center piece.

Vegetative reproduction

vegetativelyvegetativevegetative propagation
This is a process known as vegetative reproduction and is used by farmers and gardeners to propagate certain plants.
Rhizomes are stem-like structures that grows horizontally across the ground and from which new roots and shoots may arise.

Rhubarb

RheumRheum'' × ''hybridumR.'' × ''hybridum
The plant hormones ethylene and jasmonic acid have been found to help induce and regulate the growth of rhizomes, specifically in rhubarb.
It is a herbaceous perennial growing from short, thick rhizomes.

Zingiberaceae

ginger familygingergingers
Plants with underground rhizomes include gingers, bamboo, the Venus flytrap, Chinese lantern, western poison-oak, hops, and Alstroemeria, and the weeds Johnson grass, Bermuda grass, and purple nut sedge.
Zingiberaceae or the ginger family is a family of flowering plants made up of about 50 genera with a total of about 1600 known species of aromatic perennial herbs with creeping horizontal or tuberous rhizomes distributed throughout tropical Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Fern

PolypodiopsidafernsPolypodiophyta
Some plants have rhizomes that grow above ground or that lie at the soil surface, including some Iris species, and ferns, whose spreading stems are rhizomes.
Stems: Fern stems are often referred to as rhizomes, even though they grow underground only in some of the species.

Nelumbo nucifera

lotuslotus flowerlotus root
Some rhizomes that are used directly in cooking include ginger, turmeric, galangal, fingerroot, and lotus.
Lotus varieties have been classified according to their use into three types: rhizome lotus, seed lotus and flower lotus.

Johnson grass

Sorghum halepenseJohnsongrassJohnson
Plants with underground rhizomes include gingers, bamboo, the Venus flytrap, Chinese lantern, western poison-oak, hops, and Alstroemeria, and the weeds Johnson grass, Bermuda grass, and purple nut sedge.
It reproduces by rhizomes and seeds.

Cynodon dactylon

Bermuda grassBermudabermudagrass
Plants with underground rhizomes include gingers, bamboo, the Venus flytrap, Chinese lantern, western poison-oak, hops, and Alstroemeria, and the weeds Johnson grass, Bermuda grass, and purple nut sedge.
C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, stolons, and rhizomes.

Cyperus rotundus

C. rotunduscoco-grasspurple nut sedge
Plants with underground rhizomes include gingers, bamboo, the Venus flytrap, Chinese lantern, western poison-oak, hops, and Alstroemeria, and the weeds Johnson grass, Bermuda grass, and purple nut sedge.
The root system of a young plant initially forms white, fleshy rhizomes, up to 25 mm in dimension, in chains.

Toxicodendron diversilobum

poison oakWestern poison oakwestern poison-oak
Plants with underground rhizomes include gingers, bamboo, the Venus flytrap, Chinese lantern, western poison-oak, hops, and Alstroemeria, and the weeds Johnson grass, Bermuda grass, and purple nut sedge.
It reproduces by spreading rhizomes and by seeds.

Sympodial branching

sympodialsympodiallysympodium
Examples of plants that are propagated this way include hops, asparagus, ginger, irises, lily of the valley, cannas, and sympodial orchids.
In some orchids, the apical meristem of the rhizome forms an ascendent swollen stem called a pseudobulb, and the apical meristem is consumed in a terminal inflorescence.