Rhodesia

RhodesianRepublic of RhodesiaSouthern RhodesiaRho'''desia(Southern) RhodesiaBush WarNorth-RhodesiaRHORhodesia, now ZimbabweRhodesian Army
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.wikipedia
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Zimbabwe

🇿🇼 ZimbabweanRepublic of Zimbabwe
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia.

Southern Rhodesia

RhodesiaSouth RhodesiaRhodesian
Rhodesia was the de facto successor state to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia, which had been self-governing since achieving responsible government in 1923.
However, the white-minority government issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965 and established Rhodesia, an unrecognised state.

Rhodesian Bush War

Bush WarSecond Chimurengacivil war
The Rhodesian Bush War, which pitted the government against two African nationalist organisations, ZANU and ZAPU, intensified in the 1970s, prompting Rhodesian premier Ian Smith to concede to multiracial democracy in 1978.
The Rhodesian Bush War—also called the Second Chimurenga and the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil conflict from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia).

Ian Smith

Ian Douglas SmithSmithSmith administration
The Rhodesian Bush War, which pitted the government against two African nationalist organisations, ZANU and ZAPU, intensified in the 1970s, prompting Rhodesian premier Ian Smith to concede to multiracial democracy in 1978. By 1964, growing dissatisfaction with the ongoing negotiations ousted Salisbury's incumbent Winston Field, replacing him with Ian Smith, deputy chairman of the conservative Rhodesian Front party.
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer, and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland

Central African FederationRhodesia and NyasalandRhodesia
Between 1953 and 1963, Southern Rhodesia was joined with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
In 1965, Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom as the state of Rhodesia.

Zimbabwe Rhodesia

Zimbabwe-RhodesiaRepublic of Zimbabwe RhodesiaPrime Minister of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
However, a provisional government subsequently headed by Smith and his moderate colleague Abel Muzorewa failed in appeasing international critics or halting the bloodshed.
Zimbabwe Rhodesia was preceded by an unrecognised republic named Rhodesia and was briefly followed by the re-established British colony of Southern Rhodesia, which according to British constitutional theory had remained the proper government after Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965.

Prime Minister of Rhodesia

Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Southern RhodesiaRhodesian Prime Minister
By December 1979, Muzorewa had replaced Smith as Prime Minister and secured an agreement with the militant nationalists, allowing Rhodesia to briefly revert to colonial status pending elections under a universal franchise. The Westminster system was retained, with the President acting as ceremonial head of state, and the Prime Minister, heading the Cabinet, as head of government.
The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (before 1964, of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in Rhodesia.

Zimbabwe African People's Union

ZAPUZimbabwe African Peoples UnionPF-ZAPU
The Rhodesian Bush War, which pitted the government against two African nationalist organisations, ZANU and ZAPU, intensified in the 1970s, prompting Rhodesian premier Ian Smith to concede to multiracial democracy in 1978.
It is a militant organization and political party that campaigned for majority rule in Rhodesia, from its founding in 1961 until 1980.

Lancaster House Agreement

Lancaster House ConferenceLancaster Houseindependence
By December 1979, Muzorewa had replaced Smith as Prime Minister and secured an agreement with the militant nationalists, allowing Rhodesia to briefly revert to colonial status pending elections under a universal franchise.
It required the imposition of direct British rule, nullifying Rhodesia’s 1965 Unilateral Declaration of Independence.

Zimbabwe African National Union

ZANUZimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)Zanu-PF
The Rhodesian Bush War, which pitted the government against two African nationalist organisations, ZANU and ZAPU, intensified in the 1970s, prompting Rhodesian premier Ian Smith to concede to multiracial democracy in 1978.
The Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) was a militant organisation that fought against white minority rule in Rhodesia, formed as a split from the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU).

Diplomatic recognition

recognizedrecognitioninternational recognition
(The government of the United Kingdom supported Rhodesia's transition to a multiracial democracy.) The UDI administration initially sought recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, but reconstituted itself as a republic in 1970.
Some consider that a state has a responsibility not to recognize as a state any entity that has attained the qualifications for statehood by a violation of basic principles of the UN Charter: the UN Security Council has in several instances (Resolution 216 (1965) and Resolution 217 (1965), concerning Rhodesia; Resolution 541 (1983), concerning Northern Cyprus; and Resolution 787 (1992), concerning the Republika Srpska) issued Chapter VII resolutions (binding in international law) that denied their statehood and precluded recognition.

Bechuanaland Protectorate

BechuanalandprotectorateProtectorate of Bechuanaland
A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland (later Botswana) to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique (a Portuguese province until 1975) to the east.
The British government originally expected to turn over administration of the protectorate to Rhodesia or South Africa, but Tswana opposition left the protectorate under British rule until its independence in 1966.

Politics of Rhodesia

Queen of Rhodesia66 seat parliamentParliament
Following the declaration of a republic in 1970, this was replaced by a bicameral Parliament with a House of Assembly and a Senate.
Rhodesia had limited democracy in the sense that it had the Westminster parliamentary system with multiple political parties contesting the seats in parliament, but as the voting was dominated by the White settler minority, and Black Africans only had a minority level of representation at that time, it was regarded internationally as a racist country.

White people in Zimbabwe

whitewhite minorityWhite Zimbabwean
The decolonisation of Africa in the early 1960s alarmed a significant proportion of Rhodesia's white population.
In 1965, in order to avoid the introduction of Black majority rule (commonly referred to at the time as the Wind of Change), the Government of what was then the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia issued the Unilateral Declaration of Independence, upon which the country became the de facto independent — albeit unrecognised — state of Rhodesia.

Zambia

ZambianRepublic of ZambiaNorthern Rhodesia
A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland (later Botswana) to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique (a Portuguese province until 1975) to the east.
Kaunda's endorsement of Patriotic Front guerrillas conducting raids into neighbouring (Southern) Rhodesia resulted in political tension and a militarisation of the border, leading to its closure in 1973.

President of Rhodesia

PresidentOfficer Administering the Government of RhodesiaActing President of Rhodesia
The Westminster system was retained, with the President acting as ceremonial head of state, and the Prime Minister, heading the Cabinet, as head of government.
The President of Rhodesia was the head of state of Rhodesia from 1970 to 1979.

Harare

SalisburyHarare, ZimbabweSalisbury, Rhodesia
Rhodesia's largest cities were its capital, Salisbury, and Bulawayo.
Salisbury was thereafter the seat of the Southern Rhodesian (later Rhodesian) government and, between 1953-63, the capital of the Central African Federation.

Decolonisation of Africa

decolonization of Africadecolonisationdecolonization
The decolonisation of Africa in the early 1960s alarmed a significant proportion of Rhodesia's white population.
In Rhodesia, the 1965 Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the white minority resulted in a civil war that lasted until the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979, which set the terms for recognised independence in 1980, as the new nation of Zimbabwe.

Mozambique

MozambicanMoçambiqueRepublic of Mozambique
A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland (later Botswana) to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique (a Portuguese province until 1975) to the east.
This conflict characterised the first decades of Mozambican independence, combined with sabotage from the neighbouring states of Rhodesia and South Africa, ineffective policies, failed central planning, and the resulting economic collapse.

Bulawayo

Bulawayo, ZimbabweBulawayo City CouncilkwaBulawayo
Rhodesia's largest cities were its capital, Salisbury, and Bulawayo.

Abel Muzorewa

Abel Tendekayi MuzorewaBishop MuzorewaAbel Tendekai Muzorewa
However, a provisional government subsequently headed by Smith and his moderate colleague Abel Muzorewa failed in appeasing international critics or halting the bloodshed.
In 1968, at Masera in Botswana, he was consecrated as the United Methodist Church's Bishop of Rhodesia.

Rhodesian Front

RFwhite minority governmentRepublican Front
By 1964, growing dissatisfaction with the ongoing negotiations ousted Salisbury's incumbent Winston Field, replacing him with Ian Smith, deputy chairman of the conservative Rhodesian Front party.
The Rhodesian Front was a conservative political party in Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia) when the country was under white minority rule.

Portuguese Mozambique

MozambiquePortuguese East AfricaOverseas Province of Mozambique
A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland (later Botswana) to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique (a Portuguese province until 1975) to the east.
By the early 1970s, Mozambique was bordering the Mozambique Channel, bordering the countries of Malawi, Rhodesia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Zambia.

Hugh Beadle

Sir Hugh BeadleThomas Hugh William BeadleBeadle CJ
To support his decision, Chief Justice Sir Hugh Beadle used several statements made by Hugo Grotius, who maintained that there was no way that a nation could rightly claim to be governing a particular territory – if it was waging a war against that territory.
Sir Thomas Hugh William Beadle (6 February 1905 – 14 December 1980) was a Rhodesian lawyer, politician and judge who served as his country's Chief Justice from 1961 to 1977.

Winston Field

Winston Joseph FieldField
By 1964, growing dissatisfaction with the ongoing negotiations ousted Salisbury's incumbent Winston Field, replacing him with Ian Smith, deputy chairman of the conservative Rhodesian Front party.
Winston Joseph Field CMG, MBE (June 6, 1904 – March 17, 1969) was a Rhodesian politician who served as the seventh Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia.