A report on Rhythm and blues

Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946
The habanera rhythm shown as tresillo (lower notes) with the backbeat (upper note)
Fats Domino in 1956
Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949) by Professor Longhair. 2–3 claves are written above for rhythmic reference.
3–2 clave written in two measures in cut-time
Tresillo answered by the backbeat, the essence of clave in African American music
Bo Diddley's "Bo Diddley beat" is a clave-based motif.
Ray Charles in 1971
Ruth Brown was known as the "Queen of R&B"
Della Reese
Sam Cooke
Eric Burdon & the Animals (1964)

Genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s.

- Rhythm and blues
Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946

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American blues singer Ma Rainey (1886–1939), the "Mother of the Blues"

Blues

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Music genre and musical form which originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in African-American work songs and spirituals.

Music genre and musical form which originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in African-American work songs and spirituals.

American blues singer Ma Rainey (1886–1939), the "Mother of the Blues"
A minor pentatonic scale;
Musicologist John Lomax (left) shaking hands with musician "Uncle" Rich Brown in Sumterville, Alabama
Sheet music from "Saint Louis Blues" (1914)
Bessie Smith, an early blues singer, known for her powerful voice
A typical boogie-woogie bass line
John Lee Hooker
Blues legend B.B. King with his guitar, "Lucille"
Texas blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan, 1983
Italian singer Zucchero is credited as the "Father of Italian Blues", and is among the few European blues artists who still enjoy international success.
Eric Clapton performing at Hyde Park, London, in June 2008
Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Ellington extensively used the blues form.
The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues.

The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common.

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio, in the origins of rock and roll

Rock and roll

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Genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio, in the origins of rock and roll
Chuck Berry in 1957
Bill Haley and his Comets performing in the 1954 Universal International film Round Up of Rhythm
Elvis Presley in a promotion shot for Jailhouse Rock in 1957
Little Richard in 1957
Buddy Holly and his band, the Crickets.
Tommy Steele, one of the first British rock and rollers, performing in Stockholm in 1957
"There's No Romance in Rock and Roll" made the cover of True Life Romance in 1956

It originated from African-American music such as jazz, rhythm and blues, boogie woogie, gospel, as well as country music.

Al Green (1973), one of the genre's major pioneering artists

Soul music

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Popular music genre that originated in the African American community throughout the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Popular music genre that originated in the African American community throughout the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Al Green (1973), one of the genre's major pioneering artists
Ray Charles pioneered the soul music genre during the 1950s by combining blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel styles
James Brown was known as the "Godfather of Soul"
Sam Cooke is acknowledged as one of soul music's "forefathers".
Solomon Burke recorded for Atlantic in the 1960s
Aretha Franklin is widely known as the "Queen of Soul"
Marvin Gaye shifted to a soul sound with his 1971 hit "What's Going On"
Levi Stubbs singing lead with the Four Tops in 1966
Soul singer Otis Redding was an electrifying stage presence
Isaac Hayes performing in 1973
Adele performing in 2016

It has its roots in African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues.

American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology

Jazz

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Music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime.

Music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime.

American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology
Albert Gleizes, 1915, Composition for "Jazz" from the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Ethel Waters sang "Stormy Weather" at the Cotton Club.
Al Jolson in 1929
Dance in Congo Square in the late 1700s, artist's conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation, African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion.
The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones
Scott Joplin in 1903
W. C. Handy at 19, 1892
The Bolden Band around 1905
Jelly Roll Morton, in Los Angeles, California, c. 1917 or 1918
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921
Louis Armstrong began his career in New Orleans and became one of jazz's most recognizable performers.
Benny Goodman (1943)
Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club (1943)
The "classic quintet": Charlie Parker, Tommy Potter, Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, and Max Roach performing at Three Deuces in New York City. Photograph by William P. Gottlieb (August 1947), Library of Congress.
Machito (maracas) and his sister Graciella Grillo (claves)
Dizzy Gillespie, 1955
Mongo Santamaria (1969)
Art Blakey (1973)
John Coltrane, 1963
Peter Brötzmann is a key figure in European free jazz.
Naná Vasconcelos playing the Afro-Brazilian Berimbau
Randy Weston
C pentatonic scale beginning on the I (C pentatonic), IV (F pentatonic), and V (G pentatonic) steps of the scale.
V pentatonic scale over II–V–I chord progression
Fusion trumpeter Miles Davis in 1989
Wynton Marsalis
David Sanborn, 2008
John Zorn performing in 2006
Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004

The mid-1950s saw the emergence of hard bop, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues to small groups and particularly to saxophone and piano.

Afrika Bambaataa with DJ Yutaka of Universal Zulu Nation in 2004

Hip hop music

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Genre of popular music developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans, Caribbean Americans and Latino Americans in the Bronx borough of New York City in the 1970s.

Genre of popular music developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans, Caribbean Americans and Latino Americans in the Bronx borough of New York City in the 1970s.

Afrika Bambaataa with DJ Yutaka of Universal Zulu Nation in 2004
DJ Kool Herc, a Jamaican DJ, is recognized as one of the earliest hip hop DJs and artists. Some credit him with officially originating hip hop music through his 1973 "Back to School Jam".
1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the Bronx, a venue used by Kool Herc that is often considered the birthplace of hip hop on August 11, 1973.
Two hip hop DJs creating new music by mixing tracks from multiple record players. Pictured are DJ Hypnotize (left) and Baby Cee (right).
The Sugarhill Gang used disco band Chic's "Good Times" as the source of beats for their 1979 hip hop hit "Rapper's Delight". Pictured is the Sugarhill Gang at a 2016 concert.
DJ Jazzy Jeff, who is also a record producer, manipulating a record turntable in England in 2005.
The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer, a staple sound of hip hop
DJ Marley Marl.
Grandmaster Flash performing in 1999.
Run-DMC, from left to right: Joseph "Run" Simmons, Jason "Jam Master Jay" Mizell, and Darryl "D.M.C." McDaniels.
KRS-One and his Boogie Down Productions were key performers in golden age hip hop.
Flavor Flav of Public Enemy performing in 1991.
Wu-Tang Clan at the Virgin Festival in 2007.
Dr. Dre performing with Snoop Dogg, 2012
Rapper Scarface from the southern U.S. group Geto Boys.
Birdman performing in 2010
Eminem performing in Munich, Germany in 1999.
50 Cent performing in 2012.
The Glitch Mob performing in the Netherlands in 2010
Producer Lil Jon is one of crunk's most prominent figures
Soulja Boy in an interview with Bandai Namco Entertainment at E3 2018.
While hip hop music sales dropped a great deal in the mid-late 2000s, rappers like Flo Rida were successful online and with singles, despite low album sales.
Kanye West performing in 2008
In 2009, Time magazine placed M.I.A. in the Time 100 list of "World's Most Influential People"
Migos performing in August 2017
Lil Nas X was one of the rappers to emerge in the 2010s. He garnered mainstream success in 2019. He is also the first successful openly gay rapper.
Doja Cat was the most streamed rapper of 2021 on Spotify.
The most streamed hip hop album of all time on Spotify is XXXTentacion's second album, ? (2018).
Pete Rock performing at Razel and Friends – Brooklyn Bowl, 2016
De La Soul at the Gorillaz tour, Demon Days Live in 2005
The annual Blockfest in Tampere, Finland is the largest hip hop music event in the Nordic countries and also one of the best-selling festivals in advance. Picture of Blockfest in 2017.
The German rapper Fler caused significant controversy with his music.
Cupcakke in 2018

Musical elements anticipating hip hop music have been identified in blues, jazz and rhythm and blues recordings from the 1950s and earlier, including several records by Bo Diddley.

James Brown, a pioneer of funk, in 1973

Funk

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James Brown, a pioneer of funk, in 1973
The rhythm section of a funk band—the electric bass, drums, electric guitar and keyboards--is the heartbeat of the funk sound. Pictured here is the Meters.
Simple kick and snare funk motif. The kick first sounds two onbeats, which are then answered by two offbeats. The snare sounds the backbeat.
A thirteenth chord (E 13, which also contains a flat 7th and a 9th)
Bootsy Collins performing in 1996 with a star-shaped bass
The drum groove from "Cissy Strut"
Guitarist Nile Rodgers is best known for his performances with Chic.
Isaac Hayes playing keyboards in 1973
Singer Charlie Wilson
Funk horn sections typically include saxophones and trumpets. Larger horn sections often add a second instrument for one of the saxes or trumpets, and a trombone or bari sax may also be used. Pictured is the Earth, Wind and Fire horn section.
James Brown, a progenitor of funk music
George Clinton and Parliament Funkadelic in 2006
The Original Family Stone live, 2006. Jerry Martini, Rose Stone, and Cynthia Robinson
Prince was an influential multi-instrumentalist, bandleader, singer and songwriter.
Me'shell Ndegeocello playing electric bass
Talking Heads combined funk with elements of art rock.
Dr. Dre (pictured in 2011) was one of the influential creators of G-funk.
Chaka Khan (born 1953) has been called the "Queen of Funk".
Janelle Monáe (born 1985) is part of a new wave of female funk artists.

Funk is a music genre that originated in African American communities in the mid-1960s when musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul, jazz and rhythm and blues (R&B).

The Rolling Stones performing at Summerfest in Milwaukee in 2015. From left to right: Charlie Watts, Ronnie Wood, Mick Jagger, and Keith Richards.

The Rolling Stones

13 links

English rock band formed in London in 1962.

English rock band formed in London in 1962.

The Rolling Stones performing at Summerfest in Milwaukee in 2015. From left to right: Charlie Watts, Ronnie Wood, Mick Jagger, and Keith Richards.
Blue plaque commemorating Jagger and Richards meeting on platform 2 at Dartford railway station in Dartford, Kent on 17 October 1961
The back room of what was the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, London, where the Rolling Stones had their first residency starting in February 1963
The Rolling Stones at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Netherlands in 1964, from back to front: Wyman, Jones, Richards, Watts and Jagger.
The Rolling Stones members Keith Richards, Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts at Turku Airport in Turku, Finland on 25 June 1965.
A trade ad for the 1965 Rolling Stones' North American tour
Keith Richards, 1972
Mick Taylor is, in part, responsible for the Stones' new sound in the early 1970s. Replacing Brian Jones in 1969, Taylor's onstage debut with the band was in Hyde Park, London on 5 July 1969, two days after Jones' death.
The Rolling Stones' logo, designed by John Pasche and modified by Craig Braun, introduced in 1971
Bill Wyman, 1975
Ronnie Wood (left) and Jagger (right) in Chicago, 1975
Jagger in 1976
El Mocambo where some of the live album Love You Live was recorded in 1977
The Rolling Stones performing in December 1981
Richards and Wood during a Stones concert in Turin, Italy in 1982
Multiple platinum award for their 1994 album Voodoo Lounge, on display at the Museo del Rock in Madrid
Richards in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil during the Voodoo Lounge Tour, 1995
Jagger in Chile during the Voodoo Lounge Tour
The Rolling Stones in 2008 (from left to right: Watts, Wood, Richards, Jagger) at the Berlin Film Festival's world premiere of Martin Scorsese's documentary film Shine a Light
Stage set for the 50 & Counting tour at the Prudential Center, New Jersey on 13 December 2012
The Rolling Stones performing in Hyde Park, London on 13 July 2013. They were joined on stage by Mick Taylor.
The Stones in Cuba in March 2016. A spokesman for the band called it "the first open air concert in Cuba by a British rock band".
The band's plane in Amsterdam in October 2017 during their No Filter Tour
The Stones post show at the London Olympic Stadium in May 2018
A copy of "Micawber", Keith Richards' signature Telecaster model, in the Fender Guitar Factory Museum
A Vox Teardrop guitar as used by Brian Jones, on display at the Hard Rock Cafe in Sacramento, California
Overhead shot of the Stones concert at Washington–Grizzly Stadium in Montana, October 2006. The Stones have had the highest-grossing concert tour three times.
The Rolling Stones store in Carnaby Street, London, 2012. Merchandise has contributed to the band's record-breaking revenues.
Runway (pictured in 2012) first appeared in Stones' concerts in 1981
Runway (pictured in 2012) first appeared in Stones' concerts in 1981

They returned to their rhythm and blues roots with such hits as "Jumpin' Jack Flash" (1968) and "Honky Tonk Women" (1969), and albums such as Beggars Banquet (1968), featuring "Sympathy for the Devil", and Let It Bleed (1969), featuring "You Can't Always Get What You Want" and "Gimme Shelter".

Atlantic Records

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American record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegun and Herb Abramson.

American record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegun and Herb Abramson.

Atlantic Records logo from its inception in 1947 to 1966 (it was still used on 7" single releases), used again from 1979 to 1981 and 2004 to 2015.
Atlantic logo used from 1966 to 2005. It was revived in 2015.
"Weird Al" Yankovic edits Atlantic Records' Wikipedia page to read "YOU SUCK!" in the music video for the song "White & Nerdy"

Over its first 20 years of operation, Atlantic earned a reputation as one of the most important American labels, specializing in jazz, R&B, and soul by Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Wilson Pickett, Sam and Dave, Ruth Brown and Otis Redding.

Richard in 1967

Little Richard

17 links

American musician, singer, and songwriter.

American musician, singer, and songwriter.

Richard in 1967
A poster for a Little Richard show, c. undefined 1956
"Good Golly, Miss Molly", 45 rpm recording on Specialty Records
Little Richard in 1966
Little Richard holding a photograph of himself at a Best Buddies International event, 1998
President Bill Clinton greets Little Richard at the White House in 1994
Little Richard in 2007
Little Richard in concert
Little Richard, interviewed during the 60th Annual Academy Awards, 1988

He influenced numerous singers and musicians across musical genres from rock to hip hop; his music helped shape rhythm and blues for generations.

Jordan in New York, July 1946

Jump blues

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Up-tempo style of blues, usually played by small groups and featuring horn instruments.

Up-tempo style of blues, usually played by small groups and featuring horn instruments.

Jordan in New York, July 1946
Louis Jordan's Tympany Five
Lionel Hampton

It was popular in the 1940s and was a precursor of rhythm and blues and rock and roll.