A report on Rhythm and blues

Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946
The habanera rhythm shown as tresillo (lower notes) with the backbeat (upper note)
Fats Domino in 1956
Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949) by Professor Longhair. 2–3 claves are written above for rhythmic reference.
3–2 clave written in two measures in cut-time
Tresillo answered by the backbeat, the essence of clave in African American music
Bo Diddley's "Bo Diddley beat" is a clave-based motif.
Ray Charles in 1971
Ruth Brown was known as the "Queen of R&B"
Della Reese
Sam Cooke
Eric Burdon & the Animals (1964)

Genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s.

- Rhythm and blues
Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946

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The Righteous Brothers, one of the early artists most closely associated with blue-eyed soul

Blue-eyed soul

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The Righteous Brothers, one of the early artists most closely associated with blue-eyed soul
Steve Winwood performing with Traffic, 1969
Duffy, Welsh soul artist

Blue-eyed soul (also called white soul ) is rhythm and blues and soul music performed by white artists.

Jackson in 2015

Janet Jackson

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American singer, songwriter, actress, and dancer.

American singer, songwriter, actress, and dancer.

Jackson in 2015
Jackson (bottom row) in a 1977 CBS photo on the set of The Jacksons
Jackson performing on one of the dates of her 1993–95 Janet World Tour
Jackson in 1998
Jackson promoting her 2006 studio album, 20 Y.O.
Jackson performing during the 2008 Rock Witchu Tour
Jackson performing during the 2011 Number Ones, Up Close and Personal tour
Jackson performing during the 2015–16 Unbreakable Tour

Her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated elements of rhythm and blues, funk, disco, rap, and industrial beats, which led to crossover success in popular music.

The Spaniels

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The Spaniels were an American R&B and doo-wop group, best known for the hit "Goodnite, Sweetheart, Goodnite".

Two mid-1960s mods on a customised Lambretta scooter

Mod (subculture)

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Subculture that began in London and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere, eventually influencing fashions and trends in other countries, and continues today on a smaller scale.

Subculture that began in London and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere, eventually influencing fashions and trends in other countries, and continues today on a smaller scale.

Two mid-1960s mods on a customised Lambretta scooter
Quadrophenia exhibit at the Cotswold Motor Museum in Bourton-on-the-Water in 2007
The Small Faces in 1965
Carnaby Street in "Swinging London" circa 1966
Miniskirt-wearing woman in 1966
Mod graffiti in Italy from 2007
Mod revivalists at Box Hill, Surrey, England, in April 2007
Quadrophenia alley, June 2020.
Royal Air Force roundel, a mod symbol
Pete Townshend of The Who in 1967
Dexamphetamine tablets
1963 VBB Standard 150
Vespa with characteristic collection of mirrors

Elements of the mod subculture include fashion (often tailor-made suits); music (including soul, rhythm and blues, ska, jazz, and later splintering off into freakbeat); and motor scooters (usually Lambretta or Vespa).

Saxophone

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Type of single-reed woodwind instrument with a conical body, usually made of brass.

Type of single-reed woodwind instrument with a conical body, usually made of brass.

Two mouthpieces for tenor saxophone: the one on the left is ebonite; the one on the right is metal.
Adolphe Sax, the inventor of the saxophone
In a rare early inclusion in an orchestral score, the saxophone was used in Gioacchino Rossini's Robert Bruce (1846)
A US sailor with the Seventh Fleet Band plays a tenor saxophone in Hong Kong
Classical saxophonist Sigurd Raschèr
SS Stockholm. 369th Infantry Regiment Band and leader Lt. James Reese Europe, winter 1918–1919
Coleman Hawkins, the most influential saxophone stylist of jazz's early period, c. 1945
Charlie Parker, leader of the bebop revolution, 1947
Illinois Jacquet, early influence on R&B saxophone, 1941
Eppelsheim Soprillo Saxophone
Saxos de Bambú by Ángel Sampedro del Río, Argentina
From left to right, an E{{music|b}} alto saxophone, a curved B{{music|b}} soprano saxophone, and a B{{music|b}} tenor saxophone
A straight-necked Conn C melody saxophone (Conn New Wonder Series 1)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saxpics.com/?v=gal&c=622|title=Photo Gallery :: SaxPics.com|work=saxpics.com}}</ref> with a serial number that dates manufacture to 1922
Vintage silver-plated 'Pennsylvania Special' alto saxophone, manufactured by Kohlert & Sons for Selmer<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saxpics.com/?v=gal&a=2082 |title=Photo Gallery |publisher=SaxPics.com |access-date=2014-05-19}}</ref> in Czechoslovakia, circa 1930
Conn 6M "Lady Face"<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saxpics.com/?v=gal&c=534|title=Photo Gallery :: SaxPics.com|work=saxpics.com}}</ref> brass alto saxophone (dated 1935) in its original case
1950s Grafton alto made of plastic
Yamaha YAS-25 alto saxophone. Circa 1990s
Yanagisawa A9932J alto saxophone: has a solid silver bell and neck with solid phosphor bronze body. The bell, neck and key-cups are extensively engraved. Manufactured in 2008
Bauhaus Walstein tenor saxophone manufactured in 2008 from phosphor bronze
The lower portion of a P. Mauriat alto saxophone, showing the mother of pearl key touches and engraved brass pad cups
A Yamaha baritone saxophone
Ochres Music "No.5" hand-made professional alto saxophone with 24 carat gold seal on bell.
Vito 'Model 35' alto saxophone, circa 1960s. An unusual instrument with additional keywork.

The swing era fostered the later saxophone styles that permeated bebop and rhythm and blues in the early postwar era.

Tres cubano

Guajeo

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Typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns.

Typical Cuban ostinato melody, most often consisting of arpeggiated chords in syncopated patterns.

Tres cubano
Changüí offbeat guajeo written in cut-time[[File:Changui guajeo cut-time.mid]]
Generic son-based guajeo written in cut-time[[File:Generic 3-2 guajeo.mid]]
3-2 Piano guajeo: clave motif[[File:3-2 guajeo.mid]])
2-3 piano guajeo: clave motif[[File:2-3 guajeo.mid]]
3-2 guajeo: offbeat/onbeat motif[[File:B guajeo.mid]]
2-3 guajeo: onbeat/offbeat motif[[File:Two three guajeo.mid]]
2-3 clave (top) with ponchando figure (bottom).
Ponchando figure originally used in "Rareza de Melitón" (1942) by Arcano y Sus Maravillas[[File:Ponchando cut-time.mid]]
2-3 piano guajeo in octaves.
"Tanga" (Mario Bauzá) in the style of Machito and his Afro‐Cubans (recorded 1949).
A section of "Sabor" by João Donato, as arranged by Mark Levine, and performed by Cal Tjader.
2-3 piano guajeo with jazz voicings.
Generic chachachá piano guajeo (c. late 1940s)
NY-style 2-3 mozambique piano guajeo by Rebeca Mauleón.
"Con el bate de aluminio" (1979).
2-3 trumpet and trombone moñas, "Bilongo" (c. 1969) Top: trumpet; bottom: trombone.
2-3 trumpet and trombone moñas, "Guatacando" (1968). 1. trumpets; 2. trombones.
Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949) by Professor Longhair. 2-3 clave is written above for rhythmic reference.
"Passi ya boloko" by Franco (c. mid-1950s). From top: lead guitar; rhythm guitar; bass guitar.
Seben section of a soukous song. From top: solo guitar; mi-solo guitar; accompaniment guitar.
Top: clave. Bottom highlife guitar part[[File:Highlife guitar.mid]]
Top: 2-3 clave. Bottom: afrobeat guitar part[[File:Afro-beat.mid]]

The Cuban influence was exceptionally strong in the Crescent City during the late 1940s and early 1950s, when rhythm & blues (R&B) was first forming.

New Orleans

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Consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana.

Consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana.

The New Orleans cityscape in early February 2007
The Revolt took place in what is now Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez, Mississippi.
1724 plan for Saint Louis Parish Church, New Orleans, Louisiana, by Adrien de Pauger
The Battle of New Orleans (1815)
Plan of the city and suburbs of New Orleans: from a survey made in 1815
Mississippi River steamboats at New Orleans, 1853
The starving people of New Orleans under Union occupation during the Civil War, 1862
Esplanade Avenue at Burgundy Street, looking lakewards (north) towards Lake Pontchartrain in 1900
1943 waiting line at wartime Rationing Board office in New Orleans
Richard Nixon in New Orleans, August 1970. Royal at Iberville Streets, heading to Canal Street.
A view of the New Orleans Central Business District, as seen from the Mississippi River. USS New Orleans (LPD-18) in foreground (2007).
Hurricane Katrina at its New Orleans landfall
An aerial view from a United States Navy helicopter showing floodwaters around the Louisiana Superdome (stadium) and surrounding area (2005)
A true-color satellite image taken on NASA's Landsat 7, 2004
Vertical cross-section, showing maximum levee height of 23 ft
Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street
New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods.
Skyline of the Central Business District of New Orleans
Snow falls on St. Charles Avenue in December 2008.
Hurricanes of Category 3 or greater passing within 100 miles, from 1852 to 2005 (NOAA)
Map of racial distribution in New Orleans, 2010 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people:
2016 New Orleans Pride
Cathedral-Basilica of St. Louis, King of France
Beth Israel synagogue building on Carondelet Street
A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans
Intracoastal Waterway near New Orleans
The steamboat Natchez operates out of New Orleans.
Aerial view of NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility
French Quarter in 2009
Street artist in the French Quarter (1988)
The New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) located in City Park
New Orleans Mardi Gras in the early 1890s
Mounted krewe officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras
Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans jazz musician
Frank Ocean is a musician from New Orleans.
Steamship Bienville on-board restaurant menu (April 7, 1861)
Café du Monde, a landmark New Orleans beignet cafe established in 1862
The fleur-de-lis is often a symbol of New Orleans and its sports teams.
A view of Gibson Hall at Tulane University
University of New Orleans
Xavier University of Louisiana, 2019
A New Orleans streetcar traveling down Canal Street
Streetcar network
Ferries connecting New Orleans with Algiers (left) and Gretna (right)

Much later in its musical development, New Orleans was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll.

Jacquet, New York City, c. May 1947 (Photograph by William Paul Gottlieb)

Illinois Jacquet

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Jacquet, New York City, c. May 1947 (Photograph by William Paul Gottlieb)
Jacquet in 1941
Illinois Jacquet's gravesite at Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York.

Jean-Baptiste "Illinois" Jacquet (October 30, 1922 – July 22, 2004) was an American jazz tenor saxophonist, best remembered for his solo on "Flying Home", critically recognized as the first R&B saxophone solo.

Perkins in 1977

Carl Perkins

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American singer, songwriter, and guitarist who recorded at the Sun Studio, in Memphis, beginning in 1954.

American singer, songwriter, and guitarist who recorded at the Sun Studio, in Memphis, beginning in 1954.

Perkins in 1977
Perkins in 1956
Carl Perkins (2nd from left) performing "Glad All Over" with (left to right) Clayton Perkins, W.S. "Fluke" Holland, and Jay Perkins in the movie Jamboree
Historic marker commemorating Perkins alongside other famous peers
Continuation of the historic placard in tribute to Perkins

On March 17, Perkins became the first country artist to reach number 3 on the rhythm and blues charts.

John Lee Hooker created his own blues style and renewed it several times during his long career.

Electric blues

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Electric blues refers to any type of blues music distinguished by the use of electric amplification for musical instruments.

Electric blues refers to any type of blues music distinguished by the use of electric amplification for musical instruments.

John Lee Hooker created his own blues style and renewed it several times during his long career.
Clapton in 2008, one of the major figures of the British blues boom in the 1960s.
Johnny Winter in 2007.
Stevie Ray Vaughan was the most prominent figure in Texas electric blues in the late 20th century

Veteran Linsey Alexander is known for his original Chicago blues influenced by soul, R&B, and funk.