Riau Islands

Pulau Penyengat (Lit: Wasp island), lithography of an original watercolour by J.C. Rappard. ca. 1883–1889.
The Tomb of Puteri Hamidah, Queen of Sultan Mahmud Shah III.
Ali Kelana, Crown Prince of Riau-Lingga, one of the founding fathers of the Roesidijah Club Riouw, the first modern organisation in the Netherlands East Indies. (taken in 1899)
Abdul Rahman II of Riau Lingga, the last sultan of Riau-Lingga sultanate. He was subsequently deposed by the Dutch and went into exile
An article by H. M. Hassan entitled "The Singapore heir to the Rhio Islands" published in The Straits Times.
In the 1970s, the city of Batam started an industrial boom, which continues to this day
Tanjung Piayu, a scenic area in Batam
Tropical vegetation on Mount Ranai in eastern Great Natuna Island
View of the Anambas Islands
Coral Reef at Anambas
Tin mining in Singkep, Lingga Islands
PLTU Batam
The cable-stayed Tengku Fisabilillah Bridge connecting Batam and Tonton, a part of the Barelang Bridge
Hang Nadim International Airport in Batam, the busiest airport in the province
Tanjung Pinang Ferry Harbor
Chinese junks Sin Tong Heng and Tek Hwa Seng in the Sambu Island, Singapore Strait, c. 1936. The Chinese has inhabited the Riau Islands since the late 18th century
Grand Mosque of the Sultan of Riau, one of the oldest mosques in Indonesia.
A troupe of local Riau Malay dancers performing the Joget Lambak. (taken in the late 19th century)
Malay men performing the Silat Pengantin traditional dance in a wedding ceremony at Lingga Islands
A typical Malay traditional house in the Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Nasi lemak Sambal Cumi, a variety of Nasi Lemak that can be found in the Riau Islands
Laksa Johor in Malaysia, similar to the one found in the Riau Islands
Nasi Campur, commonly consumed by the Chinese community in the Riau Islands
Sop Ikan Batam (Batam Fish Soup), a dish native to the city of Batam
Sop Asam Pedas, a Malay-Minangkabau dish
Siput Gongong, a common dish in Batam made of Laevistrombus canarium

Province of Indonesia.

- Riau Islands

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Province of Indonesia.

Muara Takus temple in Kampar, believed to be a remnant of the Srivijaya empire.
The Siak Sri Indrapura Palace in Siak. Riau was once the seat of many great Malay sultanates
Malay nobles of the Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura
A painting of Riouw, Dutch East Indies, painted between 1859 and 1861
Sultan Syarif Kasim II was the last sultan of the Siak Sultanate before being abolished. After Indonesia proclaimed independence, he ceded Siak Sultanate to be part of a united Indonesia.
Giam Siak Kecil – Bukit Batu biosphere reserves
A traditional Malay wedding replica in Museum Sang Nila Utama, Pekanbaru. Malay forms the majority of the population in Riau.
Street signs in Pekanbaru, written in both Latin and Jawi script
Jami Mosque of Air Tiris in Kampar Regency.
Typical dress of a Riau Malay couple while enjoying the traditional Gambus.
Rumah Melayu Lipat Kajang in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Grand Malay house in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Balai Adat Tambisai in Rokan Hulu Regency
Riau dancers performing the tari persembahan during a welcoming ceremony
Gendang (drum) from Riau
Timber industry in Riau has begun to grow since the colonial era
Palm oil construction in Riau, 2007
Sumatran elephants in the Balai Raja Wildlife Reserve
Lake Sipogas in Rokan Hulu Regency
Hoo Ann Kiong Temple in Selat Panjang
Performers in the Pacu Jalur Festival, Kuantan Singingi Regency
View of the sunset from a beach in the Kepulauan Meranti Regency
Soeman H.S Library, the largest provincial library in Sumatra
Kaharudin Nasution Stadium.
Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport
Tanjung Buton Ferry Harbor in Siak Regency
Siak Bridge
Road conditions in Bangkinang
Nasi lemak Riau
Rolled up roti jala
Roti cane with goat curry served in a Riau restaurant
Gulai ayam

Until 2004 the province included the offshore Riau Islands, a large group of small islands (of which the principal islands are Batam and Bintan) located east of Sumatra Island and south of Singapore, before these islands were split off as a province in July 2004.

South China Sea

Marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean.

Satellite image of the South China Sea
Sunset on the South China Sea off Mũi Né village on the south-east coast of Vietnam
South China Sea
Millions of barrels of crude oil are traded through the South China Sea each day
Island claims in the South China Sea
Map of various countries occupying the Spratly Islands

The shallow waters south of the Riau Islands are also known as the Natuna Sea.


Street view with a Protestant church and the entrance of a mosque, c.1910
The Raja Haji Fisabillah Monument in Tanjungpinang
Penyengat Island

Tanjungpinang, also written as Tanjung Pinang, is the capital city of the Indonesian province of Riau Islands.

Malacca Sultanate

Malay sultanate based in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century, during the reign of Mansur Shah
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.
A memorial rock for the disembarkation point of Admiral Zheng He in 1405.
The replica of Malacca Sultanate's palace which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477.
A bronze relief of Hang Tuah, a legendary Malay hero. Exhibited at the National Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The surviving gate of the Portuguese Fortress of Malacca
Malacca's tin ingot, photo taken from National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur.

At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important transshipment ports of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Islands and a significant portion of the northern coast of Sumatra in present-day Indonesia.

Malays (ethnic group)

Austronesian ethnic group native to eastern Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands that lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

A Malay couple in traditional attire after their akad nikah (marriage solemnisation) ceremony. The groom is wearing a baju melayu paired with songkok and songket, while the bride wears baju kurung with a tudong.
Joget dance from the Malacca Sultanate, many aspects of Malay culture are derived from the Malaccan court.
Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds in Jambi, historically linked to the pre-Islamic Melayu Kingdom.
Tengku Abd Aziz, the Prince of Terengganu in a classical formal Malay attire. (c. 1920)
A group of men from Brunei Darussalam in the Cekak Musang type, worn together with the songket (far left) and kain sarong.
Ladies from Sumatra clad in their traditional attire, known as Baju Kurung made from Songket. The dress is commonly associated with women of Malay extraction.
Early Malayic and pre-Malayic-speaking areas, classical kingdoms and urban settlements preceding the rise of Srivijaya in the 7th century and prior to the eastward Malay cultural expansion to the shores of Borneo. It also can be witnessed that the historical forebears of Minangkabaus, eastern Acehnese and Southern Thais are closely related with the present-day Malays during this era.
Chedi Phra Borommathat, a stupa located in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. The temple witnessed the rise and fall of Tambralinga, a powerful Buddhist kingdom that managed to conquer Jaffna kingdom in Sri Lanka.
The timeline of Srivijaya between the 7th-13th century, the state would subsequently known as Melayu Kingdom before its demise. Parameswara, a Melayu-Srivijayan prince would later establish the Kingdom of Malacca in 1400 after he moved from Palembang in 1377 and Singapura in 1389. Thus, continuing the Melayu-Srivijaya court traditions on the newfound capital
The "Dayak-Malay" brotherhood monument in West Kalimantan Provincial Museum, Pontianak, Indonesia. The golden age of Malay sultanates in Borneo has invited many Dayak tribes to be both Islamised and adopting the Malay culture, customs, language and identity. A similar process of "Masuk Melayu" (i.e. to become Malay) was also correlated with historical developments in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula, ushering many Orang Asli, Orang Laut, Batak and various other tribal and regional communities to be assimilated into the Malay-Islamic identity, thus becoming the ancestors of present-day Malay people.
The extent of the powerful Malaccan Sultanate in the 15th century. The emergence of Malacca as a cosmopolitan regional metropolis has monumentally redefined the characteristic of the Malay interpretation of culture, language, religion, philosophy and identity. With Malayness and Islam as the core pillars and strengths, the legacy of the Malaccan court can be strongly witnessed in the construction of the Malay sociocultural framework until today.
The reigning elite of the Riau-Lingga Sultanate, together with the Sultan (being seated, in the middle) as depicted in this photograph taken in 1867. The administrative class of Riau-Lingga are known to be strict adherents of Sufi Tariqa, this resulted various laws and legal enactments based on Islamic principles to be strictly observed throughout the archipelago kingdom. The sultanate would be abolished almost half a century later in 1911 by the Dutch powers, following a strong independence movement manifested in the nation against the colonial government.
Tuan Lebeh (seated, in the middle), the Long Raya or Raja Muda (crown prince) of the Kingdom of Reman in 1899. A state in the northern Malay Peninsula made wealthy by tin mining, the State of Reman was abolished by the Rattanakosin Kingdom alongside various other Malay kingdoms that revolted for independence in the early 1902 including Pattani, Saiburi, Nongchik, Yaring, Yala, Legeh and Teluban.
The Malay Rulers and nobilities of Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor with British colonial officers during the first Durbar in Istana Negara, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Federated Malay States, 1897.
The bronze mural of the legendary Malay warrior, Hang Tuah with his renowned quote Ta' Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia (Malay for "Never shall the Malays vanish from the face of the earth") written on the top. The quote is a famous rallying cry for Malay nationalism.
Federation of Malaya's commemorative stamp issued in 1957. The semi-independent federation was formed in 1948 from nine Malay states and two British Straits Settlements. It achieved independence in 1957.
Supporters of Negara Soematra Timoer (State of East Sumatra) in post-World War II Dutch-established territory of East Sumatra. The state was headed by a president, Dr. Tengku Mansur, a member of Asahan royal family. Both the state and the traditional Malay monarchy institution in East Sumatra dissolved following her merger into the newly formed unitarian Republic of Indonesia in 1950. (image taken c. 1947–1950)
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription written in Pallava script. Dating back from 683, it is one of the oldest surviving Malay written artefact.
The Alamat Langkapuri from British Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka). Initially published between 1869–1870 and written in Jawi script, it is noted to be among the first Malay-language newspaper. The readership consist of the Malay-diaspora in Ceylon as well as in the Malay archipelago.
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa in Jawi text. Also known as the Kedah Annals, it is an ancient Malay literature that chronicles the bloodline of Merong Mahawangsa and the foundation of Kedah.
A Kelantan-Patani styled Wayang Kulit (Shadow play) that narrated the heroic tale of Hikayat Seri Rama.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei on the eve of Ramadhan. The wealthy kingdom adopted Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy) as the national philosophy since its independence in 1984.
Replica of the Malacca Sultanate's Imperial Palace, which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477.
A wall panel adorned with various floral motives from the Setul Mambang Segara palatial residence as seen in the Muzium Negara. Setul was a historical Malay kingdom that existed between 1808 and 1915 in the northern Malay Peninsula.
Burung Petala Indra, a giant mythical bird constructed for the grand circumcision parade of the Kelantanese prince.
An ebony-coloured Labu Sayong, a classic Malay jar from Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia.
Itek Masak Lomak Cili Api, smoked duck with thick, creamy, savoury and spicy sauce, usually eaten with white rice. A classical dish from Negeri Sembilan; this cuisine features a common ingredient of a Malay recipe, a generous amount of coconut milk. As a result, many traditional fare of the Malay community is noted for its rich and flavourful gravy.
A troupe of Siamese Malay dancers performing the Mak Yong during the reign of King Rama V of Siam (c. 19th century), a dance theatre that owes its origin from the Pattani and Kelantanese palace courts. In 2005, it received recognition as being among the masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity by UNESCO.
Malay children wearing traditional dress during Eid al-Fitr.
Rows of Pelita (oil lamps) lighted during Malam Tujuh Likur (the 27th night of Ramadhan), the oil lamps are traditionally used to illuminate homes and the streets during the Ramadhan. Seen here in Muar, Johor, Malaysia
The coronation ceremony between Tengku Otteman, as the Tengku Mahkota (Crown Prince) of Deli Sultanate in Residency of Sumatra's East Coast, Dutch East Indies; with his wife, Raja Amnah, daughter of Raja Chulan and a member of Perak Royalty as Tengku Puan Indera in 1925.
A Silat Melayu performance on a stage.
The Bunga Mas, National Museum of Malaysia. Literary translated as the "Golden Flowers", the Bunga Mas was offered by the northern Malay states of Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, Pattani, Nong Chik, Yala, Rangae, Kubang Pasu and Setul to the King of Ayutthaya (Siam) as a symbol of allegiance.
A Malay Keris, with its sheath on the left. This particular dagger was historically belonged to a Malay aristocrat from Sumatra.
The trigger mechanism of an Istinggar, a classical Malay gun as displayed in Muzium Warisan Melayu (Malay Heritage Museum), Serdang, Selangor.
A Wau-maker's workshop in Kelantan, Malaysia. This peculiar type of kite can be found in the northeast coast of Malay Peninsular.
The realm of Malays is described in green and other related sub-ethnic groups are rendered in darker or lighter green.

These locations are today part of the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia (Eastern Sumatra, Bangka Belitung Islands, Western coastal Borneo (Kalimantan) and Riau Islands), southern part of Thailand (Pattani, Satun, Songkhla, Yala and Narathiwat), Singapore and Brunei Darussalam.


One of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia.

Batak warriors, 1870
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh
Huria Kristen Indonesia (Indonesian Christian Church) in Medan city
Map of geological formation of Sumatra island
Mount Sinabung, North Sumatra
Medan, the largest city in Sumatra
Sumatran tiger
Rafflesia arnoldii
Minangkabau women carrying platters of food to a ceremony
Traditional house in Nias North Sumatra

It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (182,812 mi.2), not including adjacent islands such as the Simeulue, Nias, Mentawai, Enggano, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung and Krakatoa archipelago.

Johor Sultanate

For the modern state of Malaysia, see Johor, and for its ruler, see Sultan of Johor.

Johor in present-day Malaysia
Aceh attacks on Malacca, Johor and other Malay states
Johor in present-day Malaysia
The Istana Besar (Grand Palace), completed in 1866 under Abu Bakar of Johor's rule, serves as the seat and residence of the Johor Sultanate.
Map showing the partition of the Johor Empire before and after the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, with the post-partition Johor Sultanate shown in the brightest purple, at the tip of the Malay Peninsula

This territory included the vassal states of Pahang, Muar, Johor mainland and Riau Islands.

Riau Archipelago

Red circle around the Riau archipelago, within Riau Islands Province (green)

The Riau Archipelago is a geographic term (as opposed to administrative region) for the core group of islands within the Riau Islands Province in Indonesia, and located south of Singapore and east of Riau on Sumatra.


Harbor view with oil tanks from the Shell at Sambu Island, 1936
BP Batam logo
The whole Batam view from the air
Panoramic view of Batam Centre
Industrial area in Batam
Tengku Fisabilillah (Barelang) Bridge
Sekupang International Ferry Terminal
Horizon Fast Ferry
Harbour Bay International Ferry Terminal
Harbour Bay Terminal
Trans Batam interior
Trans Batam buses
Blue Bird taxi
Turi Beach Resort
The 2014 National MTQ Building in Dataran Engku Putri, Batam Centre
Great Mosque of Batam
Pacific Palace Hotel
Batam Centre
Barelang Bridge
BCC Hotel Tower and iHotel Baloi
Batam Harbour Bay downtown, Harbour Bay ferry terminal
Batam Marriott Hotel Harbour Bay

Batam is the largest city in the province of Riau Islands, Indonesia.

Natuna Sea

Natuna Sea

The Natuna Sea (Laut Natuna) is an extensive shallow sea located around the Natuna Regency, extended from south of the Riau Islands, east of the Lingga Regency and west of Borneo, to the Bangka Belitung Islands.