A report on Rib vault

Romanesque rib vaulting, Peterborough Cathedral (begun 1118) south aisle
Gothic rib vaulting, Reims Cathedral (begun 1221) nave
Crossing vault of Seville Cathedral by Juan Gil de Hontañón
Keystone of a vault Church Notre-Dame in Morienval, Oise, (12th century)
Chapel of Villaviciosa, Great Mosque of Cordoba (962–965)
Mosque of Cristo de la Luz, Toledo, Spain (c. 1000)
Aljafería of Zaragoza (11th century)
Romanesque vaults of Saint-Philibert de Tournus (1008–1050)
Romanesque nave and vaults of Speyer Cathedral (1082–1103)
Sainte-Croix Abbey church of Quimperlé (1083)
Star vault, Caen Cathedral (1065–1166)
Groin vaults of the choir of the Abbaye-aux-Dames (1080s)
Nave of Durham Cathedral, (1093–1135)
Early rib vault in east end of Lessay Abbey, Normandy (about 1098) (photo from before World War II)
Nave of Vézelay Abbey, (1104–1132) with Romanesque groin vaults in the nave (foreground) and Gothic rib vaults in the choir (background)
Vaulted church of Fontenay Abbey (1130–1147)
Norman-Romanesque vaults in choir of Cefalù Cathedral (1148–1240)
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Cambridge (c. 1130)
Lantern vault, Laon Cathedral (1150s–1230)
Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio (12th century)
Six-part rib vaults in the narthex of Vézelay Abbey (1132)
Ambulatory of the Basilica of Saint-Denis (completed 1144)
Six-part rib vaults of ceiling of nave of Notre-Dame de Paris (1163–1345)
Sexpartite rib vaults in Sens Cathedral (1135–1164)
Cefalù Cathedral (1131–1240), with rib vault in the chancel at east end
Four-part rib vaults at Amiens Cathedral (1220–1270) allowed greater height and larger windows
Stronger four-part rib vaults at Rouen Cathedral (13th c.)
The choir of Beauvais Cathedral (1225–1272), the tallest of Gothic church interiors.
Nave of Cologne Cathedral (1248–1322)
Hall of the guards of the Conciergerie, part of the earlier royal palace, in Paris (13th century)
Tierceron vault in the nave of Exeter Cathedral
Lierne vault in the Lady Chapel of Ely Cathedral (begun 1321)
Lierne vault in the choir of Gloucester Cathedral (1331)
Lierne vault in the nave of Canterbury Cathedral (late 14th century)
Late Gothic star vault of the Monastery of Batalha, Portugal (1386)
Fan vault in the chapel of King's College, Cambridge (1446–1554)
Tierceron vault in the Church of Saint-Pierre, Caen (15th century)
Fan vault in Bath Abbey (mostly 19th century)
Tierceron vault in the chapter house of Wells Cathedral
Decorative rib vault in the hall of Prague Castle
Structure of a six-part Gothic rib vault (Drawings by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc) The six-part vault could cover two bays of the nave, but required alternating pillars and columns to support the difference of weight distributed by the traverse and diagonal ribs.
The dynamics of a rib vault, with outward and downward pressure from ribs balanced by columns and buttresses. The pieces in the model can stand by themselves, without cement. (National Museum of French Monuments, Paris)
Rib vaults support the roof; they transfer the force of the weight outwards and downwards through a web of thin stone ribs, connected by thin pillars to the piers and columns below and to buttresses outside

Architectural feature for covering a wide space, such as a church nave, composed of a framework of crossed or diagonal arched ribs.

- Rib vault
Romanesque rib vaulting, Peterborough Cathedral (begun 1118) south aisle

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Pointed arches in the Tower of the church of San Salvador, Teruel

Gothic architecture

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Architectural style that was prevalent in Europe from the late 12th to the 16th century, during the High and Late Middle Ages, surviving into the 17th and 18th centuries in some areas.

Architectural style that was prevalent in Europe from the late 12th to the 16th century, during the High and Late Middle Ages, surviving into the 17th and 18th centuries in some areas.

Pointed arches in the Tower of the church of San Salvador, Teruel
Early Gothic triple elevationSens Cathedral (1135–1164)
High Gothic flying buttressesMetz Cathedral (1220–)
High Gothic west front, Reims Cathedral (1211–)
Strasbourg Cathedral (1275–1486), a facade entirely covered in sculpture and tracery
Flamboyant Gothic east end,Prague Cathedral (1344–)
Perpendicular Gothic east end, Henry VII Chapel (c. 1503–12)
Flamboyant, Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes, west front
Structure of an early six-part Gothic rib vault. (Drawing by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc)
Crossing vault, Seville Cathedral
Rouen Cathedral from the south west – façade towers 12th–15th century, the flamboyant tower to the 15th century, spire rebuilt in 16th century
Oxen sculpture in High Gothic towers of Laon Cathedral (13th century)
Beauvais Cathedral, south transept (consecrated 1272)
Plate tracery, Lincoln Cathedral "Dean's Eye" rose window (c.1225)
Plan of a Gothic cathedral
Notre-Dame de Paris – deep portals, a rose window, balance of horizontal and vertical elements. Early Gothic.
Grotesque of Selby Abbey (14th century)
Windows of Sainte-Chapelle (13th century)
Medieval Louvre in early 15th century
Plateresque façade, University of Salamanca (late 15th century)
Donjon of the Château de Vincennes, (1337–)
Thistle Chapel at Edinburgh's High Kirk (completed 1910)
Early Gothic: Abbey church of Saint-Denis, west façade (1135–40)
Early Gothic: Nave of Sens Cathedral (1135–1176)
Early English; choir of Canterbury Cathedral (1174–80)
Notre-Dame de Paris nave (rebuilt 1180–1220)
High Gothic; Chartres Cathedral choir (1210-1250)
Rayonnant: Sainte-Chapelle upper level (1238-1248)
Rayonnant- Angel's Choir of Lincoln Cathedral (14th c.)
Perpendicular Gothic; Choir of York Minister (1361-1405)
Flamboyant; "Butter Tower" of Rouen Cathedral (1488-1506)
Eastern end of Wells Cathedral (begun 1175)
West front of Reims Cathedral, pointed arches within arches (1211–1275)
Lancet windows of transept of Salisbury Cathedral (1220–1258)
Pointed arches in the arcades, triforium, and clerestory of Lincoln Cathedral (1185–1311)
A detail of the windows and galleries of the west front of Strasbourg Cathedral (1215–1439)
Early six-part rib vaults in Sens Cathedral (1135–1164)
Rib vaults of choir of Canterbury Cathedral (1174–77)
Stronger four-part rib vaults in nave of Reims Cathedral (1211–1275)
Salisbury Cathedral – rectangular four-part vault over a single bay (1220–1258)
Lierne vaults of Gloucester Cathedral (Perpendicular Gothic)
Skeleton-vault in aisle of Bristol Cathedral (c. 1311–1340)
Lincoln Cathedral – quadripartite form, with tierceron ribs and ridge rib with carved bosses.
Bremen Cathedral – north aisle, a reticular (net) vault with intersecting ribs.
Church of the Assumption, St Marein, Austria – star vault with intersecting lierne ribs.
Salamanca Cathedral, Spain Flamboyant S-shaped and circular lierne ribs. (16th–18th century)
Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse – palm tree vault (1275–1292)
Peterborough Cathedral, retrochoir – intersecting fan vaults
"Rococo Gothic" vaults of Vladislav Hall of Prague Castle (1493)
Early Gothic – Alternating columns and piers, Sens Cathedral (12th century)
High Gothic – Clustered columns of Reims Cathedral (13th century)
Early English Gothic – Clustered columns in Salisbury Cathedral (13th century)
Perpendicular Gothic – columns without interruption from floor to the vaults. Canterbury Cathedral nave (late 14th century)
Canterbury Cathedral with simple wall buttresses and flying buttresses (rebuilt into Gothic 1174–1177)
East end of Lincoln Cathedral, with wall buttress, and chapter house with flying buttresses. (1185–1311)
Flying buttresses of Notre Dame de Paris (c. 1230)
Buttresses of Amiens Cathedral with pinnacles to give them added weight (1220–1266)
Section of Reims Cathedral showing the three levels of each buttress (1211–1275)
Decorated buttresses of Cologne Cathedral (1248–1573)
Abbaye aux Hommes, Caen (tall west towers added in the 13th century)
Towers of Chartres Cathedral; Flamboyant Gothic on left, early Gothic on the right.
The 13th century flèche of Notre Dame, recreated in the 19th c, destroyed by fire in 2019, now being restored
Salisbury Cathedral tower and spire over the crossing (1320)
West towers of York Minster, in the Perpendicular Gothic style.
The perpendicular west towers of Beverley Minster (c. 1400)
Crossing tower of Canterbury Cathedral (1493–1505)
Cologne Cathedral towers (begun 13th century, completed 20th century
Tower of Ulm Minster (begun 1377, completed 19th century)
Tower of Freiburg Minster (begun 1340) noted for its lacelike openwork spire
Prague Cathedral (begun 1344)
The Giralda, the bell tower of Seville Cathedral (1401–1506)
West towers of Burgos Cathedral (1444–1540)
Giotto's Campanile of Florence Cathedral (1334–1359)
Lancet Gothic, Ripon Minster west front (begun 1160)
Plate tracery, Chartres Cathedral clerestory (1194–1220)
Geometrical Decorated Gothic, Ripon Minster east window
Rayonnant rose window, Strasbourg Cathedral west front
Flamboyant rose window, Amiens Cathedral west front
Curvilinear window, Limoges Cathedral nave
Perpendicular four-centred arch, King's College Chapel, Cambridge west front
Early bar tracery in Soissons Cathedral (13th century)
Bar-tracery, Lincoln Cathedral east window
Blind tracery, Tours Cathedral (16th century)
Noyon Cathedral nave showing the four early Gothic levels (late 12h century)
Three-part elevation of Wells Cathedral (begun 1176)
Nave of Lincoln Cathedral (begun 1185) showing three levels; arcade (bottom); tribune (middle) and clerestory (top).
Three-part elevation of Chartres Cathedral, with larger clerestory windows.
Nave of Amiens Cathedral, looking west (1220–1270)
Nave of Strasbourg Cathedral (mid-13th century), looking east
The medieval east end of Cologne Cathedral (begun 1248)
Wells Cathedral (1176–1450). Early English Gothic. The facade was a Great Wall of sculpture.
Amiens Cathedral, (13th century). Vertical emphasis. High Gothic.
Salisbury Cathedral – wide sculptured screen, lancet windows, turrets with pinnacles. (1220–1258)
Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula in Brussels, a towered highly decorated facade
Flamboyant facade of Notre-Dame de l'Épine (1405–1527) with openwork towers
Orvieto Cathedral (1310–), with polychrome mosaics
High Gothic Chevet of Amiens Cathedral, with chapels between the buttresses (13th century)
Ambulatory and Chapels of the chevet of Notre Dame de Paris (14th century)
The Henry VII Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey (begun 1503)
Ely Cathedral – square east end: Early English chancel (left) and Decorated Lady Chapel (right)
Interior of the Ely Cathedral Lady Chapel (14th century)
Monsters and devils tempting Christians - South portal of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
Gallery of Kings and Saints on the facade of Wells Cathedral (13th century)
Amiens Cathedral, tympanum detail – "Christ in majesty" (13th century)
Illumination of portals of Amiens Cathedral to show how it may have appeared with original colors
West portal Annunciation group at Reims Cathedral with smiling angel at left (13th century)
More naturalistic later Gothic. Temptation of the foolish Virgins, Strasbourg Cathedral.
Sculpture from facade of Siena Cathedral by Nino Pisano (14th century)
Gargoyle of Amiens Cathedral (13rh century)
A stryx at Notre-Dame de Paris (19th century copy)
Labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
Labyrinth with Chartres pattern at Amiens Cathedral
Abbey of Saint-Denis, Abbot Suger represented at feet of Virgin Mary (12th century)
Detail of the Apocalypse window, Bourges Cathedral, early 13th century
Thomas Becket figure from Canterbury Cathedral (13th century)
Glass of Sainte-Chapelle depicting a baptism (13th century), now in Cluny Museum
Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes (14th century)
Windows of King's College Chapel, Cambridge (1446–1451)
The Visitation window (1480) from Ulm Minster, by Peter Hemmel of Andlau. Late Gothic with fine shading and painted details.
Late Gothic grisaille glass and painted figures, depicting Saint Nicholas (France, 1500–1510), Cluny Museum
Detail of the Late Gothic stained glass of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, (1531)
Notre Dame de Laon west window (13th century)
South rose window of Notre Dame de Paris (13th century)
South rose window of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
West rose window of Reims Cathedral (13th century)
Grand rose of Strasbourg Cathedral (14th century)
Orvieto Cathedral rose window (14th c.)
Palais de la Cité (1119–) and Sainte-Chapelle (1238–48), Paris
Hall of men-at-arms, Conciergerie of the Palais de la Cité
Façade of the Palais des Papes, Avignon (1252–1364)
The Doge's Palace, Venice (1340–1442)
Palace of the Kings of Navarre, Olite (1269–1512)
Great Gatehouse at Hampton Court Palace, London (1522)
Hildesheim Town Hall, Germany (13/14th c.)
Bell tower of the Hotel de Ville of Douai, France (14th c.)
Brussels' Town Hall (15th century)
Belfry of Bruges in Bruges, Belgium (13th c. (lower stages), 15th c. (upper stages)
Silk Exchange, Valencia (1482–1548)
Gallery of Palau de la Generalitat, Barcelona (1403)
Middelburg Town Hall, Netherlands (1520)
Town Hall Gouda, Netherlands (1459)
Mob Quad of Merton College, Oxford University (1288–1378)
Balliol College, Oxford, front quad, with decorative battlements (1431)
Fan vaults and glass walls of King's College Chapel, Cambridge (1508–1515)
Gothic oriel window, Karolinum, Charles University, Prague (c.1380)
Cloister, Collegium Maius, Kraków (late 15th century)
Restored outer walls of the medieval city of Carcassonne (13th–14th century)
Malbork Castle in Poland (13th century)
Alcazar of Segovia (12th–13th centuries)
Hohenzollern Castle (1454–1461) in Baden-Württemberg, southern Germany
Romanesque Worms Synagogue from the 11th century with Gothic windows (after 1355)
Scolanova Synagogue, Trani, Apulia (1247)
Old New Synagogue, Prague (c. 1270)
Main portal of the Old New Synagogue, Prague (c. 1270)
Old Synagogue, Erfurt (c. 1270)
Late Gothic vaulting of Pinkas Synagogue, Prague (1535)
Renaissance interior of the Old Synagogue in Kraków using Gothic vaults (1570)
The mihrab of the Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque of Famagusta is located on a side chapel.
The carpet pattern marks the ranks for the faithful to pray towards Mecca (obliquely on the right) in the Selimiye Mosque of Northern Nicosia.
A minaret has been added to the Fethija mosque of Bihać.
Arap Mosque
The transition from Romanesque to Gothic styles is visible at the Durham Cathedral in England, (1093-1104. Early Gothic rib vaults are combined with round arches and other Romanesque features.
The south transept of Lessay Abbey in Normandy (1064–1178)
Cefalu Cathedral built in Norman Sicily (1131–1267)
Nave of Monreale Cathedral in Norman Sicily (1172–1267)
Al-Ukhaidir Fortress (completed 775 AD), Iraq
Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem
Vaulted central dome of Cordoba Mosque-Cathedral, Spain (784–987 A.D.). Ribs decorate the Pendentives which support the dome.
Cupola of Odzun Basilica in Armenia, supported by squinch vaulting, an early form of pendentive. (8th century)
Delal Bridge, Iraq
Arches at Al-Raqqah, Syria
The Armenian cathedral of Ani, completed in the early 11th century.
Tom Tower, Christ Church, Oxford, (1681–82), designed by Christopher Wren.
Strawberry Hill House, Twickenham (begun 1749, completed in 1776), designed for Horace Walpole.
Guildhall, London, main entrance (completed 1788) designed by George Dance
Elizabeth Tower (Big Ben) (completed in 1859) and the Houses of Parliament in London (1840–1876)
Ohel David Synagogue, Pune (completed 1867)
Frere Hall, Karachi, (completed 1865)
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, (completed 1878)
Palazzo del Governatore, Rhodes (1927) designed by Florestano Di Fausto
St. John's Cathedral ('s-Hertogenbosch)
Monastery of Batalha in Portugal
Grote Kerk (Breda)
alt=|Duke University's Chapel Interior (Star vault with intersecting lierne ribs)
alt=|Duke University Chapel is an ecumenical Christian chapel and the center of religion at Duke University, and has connections to the United Methodist Church.

The use of the pointed arch in turn led to the development of the pointed rib vault and flying buttresses, combined with elaborate tracery and stained glass windows.

Pointed arches form the rib vaults of Worcester Cathedral (1084–1504)

Pointed arch (architecture)

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Arch with a pointed crown, whose two curving sides meet at a relatively sharp angle at the top of the arch.

Arch with a pointed crown, whose two curving sides meet at a relatively sharp angle at the top of the arch.

Pointed arches form the rib vaults of Worcester Cathedral (1084–1504)
Temple of Trivikrama in Ter in Maharashtra India (3rd century AD)
Arched entrance of the Bhitargaon temple (4th–5th century AD)
alt=|cross-sectional view and plan of Sitamarhi cave.
Restored Abbasid architecture arches of the city gates of Samarra (9th century)
Central prayer niche in the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo (876–879 CE)
The 11th/12th century Baghdad Gate, Raqqa
Zumurrud Khatun Mosque and Mausoleum, Baghdad, Iraq (12th century)
Bibi-Khanym Mosque, Samarkand, Uzbekistan (1399–1404)
The Eurymedon Bridge in Turkey, originally built by the Romans and rebuilt with a pointed arch in the 13th century by the by Seljuk Turkish Sultan
The arched doorway from the vestibule to the interior of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque (1603–1619)
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, Isphahan Iran (1603–1619)
Thirteenth-century illustration by Villard de Honnecourt of how different pointed arches can be made from a single curve of the compass. From Eugène Viollet-le-Duc ""Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle"'
Gothic pointed windows, colonnades and vaults at the Abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris, drawn by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
The dynamics of a rib vault, with outward and downward pressure from ribs balanced by columns and buttresses. The pieces can stand by themselves, without cement. (National Museum of French Monuments, Paris)
An early six-partite rib vault drawn by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
Rib vaults of Durham Cathedral, with alternating columns and pillars, completed in 1135
Choir of Lessay Abbey in Normandy (1064–1178)
Vaulted ceiling of Cefalù Cathedral in Sicily (1131–1240)
Chapel of Saint Firmin in Basilica of Saint-Denis (1140–1144)
Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral (1220–1258)
Choir of Beauvais Cathedral (begun 1225) (48.5 meters (159 ft) high
Portal of Toledo Cathedral, the "Door of the Lions" (1226–1493)
West portal of Reims Cathedral (1211–1345)
Central portal of Chartres Cathedral (1194–1220)
Ruin of Aulne Abbey in Belgium (1214–1247)
Lancet windows
A Double-Lancet Window (about 1330) (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Pointed windows of the nave of Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes occupy near all the walls. (1379–1480)
Multiple arches of the Flamboyant Gothic at Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes.
Varieties of Gothic pointed arches
The Great Gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, an example of a Tudor Arch or Four-centred arch
Strawberry Hill House, residence of Horace Walpole (1749 onward)
Entrance to Victoria's Tower of the Houses of Parliament, London (1840–1876)
Peterhof Railway station, Peterhof, Russia (1857)
Interior of Grace Cathedral in San Francisco (1910–1964)

It first appeared in Indian and Islamic architecture as a way of making more decorative windows and doorways, but in the 12th century it began to be used in France and England as an important structural element, in combination with other elements, such as the rib vault and later the flying buttress.

Gothic rib vault ceiling of the Saint-Séverin church in Paris

Vault (architecture)

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Self-supporting arched form, usually of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof.

Self-supporting arched form, usually of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof.

Gothic rib vault ceiling of the Saint-Séverin church in Paris
Interior elevation view of a Gothic cathedral, with rib-vaulted roof highlighted
Assyrian bas-relief from Nimrud showing domed structures in the background
In a pitched-brick vault the bricks lean (are pitched) against an existing wall.
St Paul's Cathedral Choir looking east, London
Pointed barrel vault showing direction of lateral forces
A groin vault viewed from the underside, showing the arris or 'groin'
Plan of a groin vault from above showing resultant outward thrust
Groin vault from above
The rib vault of Reims Cathedral, France
Rib vault of church Sint-Niklaaskerk in Ghent, Belgium
Top of the rib-vaulted ceiling over the nave of Salisbury Cathedral
Rib-vault ceiling, with Lierne ribs, of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482
Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England
Section through the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
Neo-Byzantine vaults in portal of the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, Paris, France
The dome of the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrel vaulted soffit. Note the absence of clerestory windows, all of the light being provided by the rose window at one end of the vault.
Gothic Revival vault of Joensuu Church in Joensuu, Finland
Vaults and dome of the Gol Gumbaz
Neobyzantine vaults in Saint Sava. The vaults, 37.7 m high and 24 m wide are designed as concrete boxes. They were prefabricated and lifted with chains to their shown positions.

A rib vault is one in which all of the groins are covered by ribs or diagonal ribs in the form of segmental arches.

Renaissance groin vault in the church of Santa Maria dei Carmini in Venice

Groin vault

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Produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults.

Produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults.

Renaissance groin vault in the church of Santa Maria dei Carmini in Venice
Santa Maria Maggiore at Guardiagrele in Abruzzo

It was superseded by the more flexible rib vaults of Gothic architecture in the later Middle Ages.

St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, France: elevation of the east end (1080–1120).

Romanesque architecture

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Architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

Architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, France: elevation of the east end (1080–1120).
Portal, Church of Santa Maria, Viu de Llevata, Catalonia, Spain
The vault at the Abbey Church of Saint Foy, Conques, France
Cloister of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome
Bell tower of Angoulême Cathedral, Charente, SW France
Window and Lombard band of the Rotunda of San Tomè, Almenno San Bartolomeo
Saint Nicholas Rotunda in Cieszyn, Poland
alt=A small three-storey stone house with an exterior stone staircase to the first floor, and a wooden balcony around the upper floor|Romanesque house in Poreč, Croatia
alt=An imposing four-storey stone building with battlements and rows of paired windows, facing onto a town square.|The Civic Hall in Massa Marittima, Italy
alt=The facade of a tall grey church with paired towers and a single ornately carved doorway|Abbey Church of St James, Lébény, Hungary (1208)
alt=A circular castle tower with enormous jutting buttresses. There are few windows and entrance is on an upper floor, is reached by a modern staircase.|The keep of Conisbrough Castle, England.
Santa María del Naranco, Oviedo, Spain, AD 848. Built as a palace for Ramiro I of Asturias.
alt=The interior of a narrow and rather dark church that has columns down each side supporting a plain wall with small high windows.|Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome (8th – early 12th century) has a basilical plan and reuses ancient Roman columns.
alt=The interior of a tall octagonal church, rising in three rows of decorated arches. A large candelabra hangs above the central altar.|Charlemagne's Palatine Chapel, Aachen, 9th century, modelled on the Byzantine church of San Vitale, Ravenna
alt=The interior of another long narrow church with high windows. The arch leading into the chancel at the far end has alternating red and white stones.|Interior of St. Michael's, Hildesheim, (1001–1031) with alternating piers and columns and a 13th-century painted wooden ceiling
alt=The exterior of the same church shows a short square tower with a pointed metal roof over the crossing, and a small round tower at the end of the transept.|St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim has similar characteristics to the church in the Plan of Saint Gall.
alt= A huge square tower of grey stone is seen beyond fortifications on the edge of a river.|Tower of London (1078); William the Conqueror built the central White Tower as his stronghold and residence
alt=An enormous cathedral, of red stone with green copper roofs, has a two tall towers framing an octagonal dome at each end of the building.|Speyer Cathedral, begun by Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1030, as an expression of imperial power and architectural innovation
alt=A castle with a tall narrow tower and walls topped by battlements stretches along the edge of a cliff covered in trees and palm trees|{{lang|it|Castello di Venere}}, Erice (12th–13th century), is one of many built by the Normans in Sicily, Italy.
alt=View of a small town on a hilltop surrounded by trees and vineyards. There are eight tall square towers rising from among the densely packed houses.|Many towns, such as San Gimignano, were enclosed with walls, causing crowding and the building of tower houses
alt=A little stone church with a little steeple on a wooden belfry sits in a green graveyard overlooking a lake and mountains.|Many parish churches across Europe, such as this in Vestre Slidre, Norway, are of Romanesque foundation
alt=In a wooded valley is a large church with small windows and a square stone belfry. It is surrounded by ancient buildings arranged around courtyards, and a lavender garden.|The Romanesque Sénanque Abbey church and surrounding monastic buildings, Gordes, Provence, France
alt=The houses of a small town, surrounded by green hillsides, are dominated by a huge church with a large square tower and a spire like a witch's hat.|Collegiate churches such as that of Saint Hadelin, Celles, Belgium, were administered by lay canons
alt=A huge cathedral with numerous towers, both square and round, rises above a town square where people are sitting in the shade of clipped trees.|Many cathedrals such as Trier Cathedral, Germany, date from this period, with many later additions
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, a major pilgrimage site from the 4th century onwards, its rotunda inspired the construction of many Romanesque circular churches.
alt= An enormous castle with encircling walls, on a rise in barren country with distant mountains.|Crusader castle, Krak des Chevaliers, Syria, was mainly constructed in this period, with the outer walls being later
The Abbey of Saint Foy, Conques, France, was one of many such abbeys to be built along the pilgrimage Way of St James that led to Santiago de Compostela.
The plan of the Church of Saint Front, Périgueux, France, was influenced by Byzantine architecture seen by the Crusaders. The present appearance is largely due to restorer Paul Abadie, mid-19th Century
The basilica of Saint-Sernin in Toulouse is the archetype of large pilgrimage churches, where pilgrims could walk around the church via the transept and the choir chapels.
alt=A small church sits on a steep rise, surrounded by craggy mountains. It is basically square with three bulging projections and a castle-like tower.|The monastery of San Vittore alle Chiuse, Genga, Italy, of undressed stone, has a typically fortress-like appearance with small windows of early Romanesque.
alt=A large square castle keep of pinkish-grey stone, with a projecting entrance tower, has architectural details to its windows, mouldings and stonework.|Castle Rising, England, shows flat buttresses and reinforcing at the corners of the building typical in both castles and churches.
alt= A tall church of grey stone with fine details and a crossing tower topped with a slate-covered spire rises out of rural countryside, where two mares are grazing.|Cerisy Abbey, Normandy, France, has a compact appearance with aisles rising through two storeys buttressing the vault.
alt=A long, low cathedral has a fine Norman brick crossing-tower rising in three stages of round-topped paired windows. The rest of the building is a conglomeration of styles in ancient brick, modern brick, ashlar and flint.|St Albans Cathedral England, demonstrates the typical alterations made to the fabric of many Romanesque buildings in different styles and materials
alt=The facade and forecourt of a redbrick church are composed of simple arcades. A brick tower rises up to one side.|The atrium and arcaded narthex of Sant'Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, is a harmonious composition of similar arches.
alt=A highly ornamental church facade built in alternating courses of red and white stone.|The facade of Notre Dame du Puy, le Puy en Velay, France, has a more complex arrangement of diversified arches: Doors of varying widths, blind arcading, windows and open arcades.
alt=A tall rectangular structure of grey stone and stern appearance with a jutting apse and a small octagonal belfry.|Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude, Nivelles, Belgium uses fine shafts of Belgian marble to define alternating blind openings and windows. Upper windows are similarly separated into two openings by colonettes.
alt=The apsidal end of a tall red stone church framed by circular towers.|Worms Cathedral, Germany, displays a great variety of openings and arcades including wheel and rose windows, many small simple windows, galleries and Lombard courses.
alt=A very large porch of yellowish stone, with a single enormous, slightly pointed archway, juts from the side of a building.|The south portal of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, has a square door divided by an ornate doorpost, surmounted by a carved tympanum and set within a vast arched porch.
St Michael's, Hildesheim, shows two columns set between the piers.
Mainz Cathedral, Germany, has rectangular piers and possibly the earliest example of an internal elevation of 3 stages. (Gothic vault)
Malmesbury Abbey, England, has hollow core columns, probably filled with rubble. (Gothic vault)
The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, has large drum columns with attached shafts supporting a barrel vault.
Durham Cathedral, England, has decorated masonry columns alternating with piers of clustered shafts supporting the earliest pointed high ribs.
Simple capital of a Doric form supporting a Mozarabic arch, São Pedro de Lourosa Church, Portugal
Capital of Corinthian form with anthropomorphised details, Pisa Campanile, Italy
Capital of Corinthian form with Byzantine decoration and carved dosseret, San Martín de Tours, Frómista, Palencia
Capital of simplified concave Corinthian form with billeted abacus, simple dosseret and pronounced annulet. Church of Santa Maria, San Martín de Castañeda, Spain
Capital of convex cubic form with its abacus, concave dosseret and cable decoration defined by polychrome. Herina. Capitals of this shape are often decorated with "Barbaric" carvings of foliage, and mythical creatures.
Capital retaining Corinthian form decorated with intertwined beasts derived from Irish manuscripts. Grande-Sauve Abbey, France
Capital of amorphous form surmounting a cluster of shafts. The figurative carving shows a winged devil directing Herod to slaughter the Innocents. Monastery of San Juan de Duero, Soria, Spain
alt=A tall narrow church interior with rounds columns in delicate pastel colours that rise without interruption from floor to vault.|The painted barrel vault at the Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe is supported on tall marbled columns.
The nave of Lisbon Cathedral is covered by a series of transverse barrel vaults separated by transverse arches and has an upper, arched gallery (triforium).
alt= A church interior of yellow stone with arches of alternating red and cream crossing the nave to support an unusual vaulting system.|The Church of St Philibert, Tournus, has a series of transverse barrel vaults supported on diaphragm arches.
alt=A narrow space with grey columns with ornate capitals supporting a plastered cross vault without ribs.|The aisle of the Abbey Church at Mozac has groin vaults supported on transverse arches.
alt=A side aisle with masonry of massive proportions is ribbed with arches of a bold profile.|The aisles at Peterborough Cathedral have quadripartite ribbed vaults. (The nave has an ancient painted wooden ceiling.)
alt=A tall wide church of grey stone, elegantly vaulted with fine ribs.|The ribbed vaults at Saint-Étienne, Caen, are sexpartite and span two bays of the nave.
The crossing of Speyer Cathedral, Germany, has a dome on squinches.
The plan of the Abbey of St Gall, Switzerland
Germany, Speyer Cathedral
France, Autun Cathedral
France, Angoulême Cathedral
England, Ely Cathedral
Spain, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
France, Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse
Spain, San Isidoro de León
Modena Cathedral
This drawing is a reconstruction by Dehio of the appearance of the Romanesque Konstanz Cathedral before its alterations in the Gothic style. It has a typical elevation of nave and aisles with wooden panelled ceilings and an apsidal east end.
This nave elevation of Arnsburg Abbey, Germany, shows the typical arrangement of the nave arcade, aisle, clerestory windows and ribbed vault
Exterior elevation, Peterborough Cathedral
Rural church of São Pedro de Lourosa, Portugal, built in the 10th century it has the simplest type of square-shape apsidal east end.
The small church of Saint-Pierre Xhignesse, Belgium, already has a semi-circular termination at the same height as the choir and nave.
The small church of Saint-Andreas Szprotawa, Poland, built in the 13th century has an apsidal east end projecting from a chancel.
The Cathedral of Santa Maria d'Urgell, Catalonia, has an apsidal east end projecting at a lower level to the choir and decorated with an arcade below the roofline. This form is usual in Italy and Germany.
The Abbey of Sant'Antimo has a high apsidal end surrounded by an ambulatory and with small projecting apses
Saint-Étienne, Nevers, displays a round chancel with ambulatory, apsidal chapels and strongly projecting transepts
The Old Cathedral of Coimbra, Portugal, is fortress-like and battlemented. The two central openings are deeply recessed.
Church of St. Trophime, Arles, France. The ornamentation is focused on the porch and the carved Christ in Majesty on the tympanum, typical of French cathedrals.
Church of San Zeno, Verona, Italy, The facade is neatly divided vertically and horizontally. The central wheel window and small porch with columns resting on crouching lions is typical of Italy.
Pisa Cathedral, Italy. The entire building is faced with marble striped in white and grey. On the facade this pattern is overlaid with architectonic decoration of blind arcading below tiers of dwarf galleries. The three portals became increasingly common.
The Collegiate Church, Empoli, Italy, represents a screen facade. The polychrome marble decoration divides the facade into zones while giving little indication of the architectural form behind it.
Angoulême Cathedral, France. The facade here, richly decorated with architectonic and sculptural forms, has much in common with that at Empoli in that it screens the form of the building behind it.
Saint-Étienne, Abbaye aux Hommes, Caen, France, 11th century, with its tall towers, three portals and neat definition of architectural forms became a model for the facades of many later cathedrals across Europe. 14th-century spires
Southwell Cathedral, England, 1120, follows the Norman model with pyramidal spires as were probably at Saint-Étienne. The Perpendicular window and battlement are late Gothic.
Lisbon Cathedral, Portugal, 1147, has a similar form to the Old Cathedral of Coimbra above with the addition of two sturdy bell towers in the Norman manner and a wheel window.
Limburg Cathedral, Germany. The facade, c. 1200, with polychrome plaster, follows the paired-tower model found at several Rhineland churches. The rose window has plate tracery and the spires are Rhenish helms.
The westwork of the Maria Laach Abbey, Germany, 12th century, (porch 1225) is typical of Germany, a form that dates to Carolingian architecture with grouped towers of different plans and both "candle-snuffer" and Rhenish helm spires.
Parma Cathedral, Italy, 1178, has a screen facade ornamented with galleries. At the centre is an open porch surmounted by a ceremonial balcony. The tower, (Gothic 1284) is a separate structure as usual in Italy.
The tower of the Basilica of San Frediano, Lucca, has openings that graduate in number, typical of Italian and Spanish Romanesque campanile. (See pic. San Esteban, Segovia, below)
Paired towers such as those of Plankstetten Abbey, are a typical feature of Bavarian and Central European church architecture. (See image of Abbey Church of St James, Lébény, above)
The octagonal crossing tower of the Abbey church at Cluny influenced the building of other polygonal crossing towers in France, Spain and Germany. (See pic. Maria Laach Abbey, above)
The most massive Romanesque crossing tower is that at Tewkesbury Abbey, in England, where large crossing towers are characteristic. (See pic. St Alban's Cathedral, above)
The Leaning Tower of Pisa with its encircling arcades is the best known (and most richly decorated) of the many circular towers found in Italy.
San Zeno, Verona, has a porch typical of Italy. The square-topped doorway is surmounted by a mosaic. To either side are marble reliefs showing the Fall of Man and the Life of Christ
The mouldings of the arched central west door of Lincoln Cathedral are decorated by chevrons and other formal and figurative ornament typical of English Norman. The "Gallery of Kings" above the portal is Gothic
The Basilica of Saint-Trophime, Arles, France, has an elaborate sculptural scheme which includes Christ in Majesty, a frieze extending over the lintel and a gallery of sculptured figures.
The Porta de Praterías, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, by Master Esteban, has two wide openings with tympanums supported on brackets. The sculptured frieze above is protected by an eave on corbels.
The portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, has unusual features including the frieze of roundels on the lintel, the scalloped jambs and figures of prophets on the central jamb
St Gertrude, Nivelles, Belgium, (consecrated 1046) has a nave and aisles divided by piers supporting a clerestorey. The nave is divided by transverse arches. The interior would have been plastered and painted.
San Miniato al Monte, Florence (1013–1090) has basilical form, open timber roof and decoration of polychrome marble and mosaic. The decoration continued harmoniously until the apsidal mosaic of 1260.
The Church of St Philibert, Tournus, (990–1019) has tall circular piers supporting the arcade and is roofed with a series of barrel vaults supported on arches. Small clerestory windows light the vault.
Abbey of St Mary Magdalene, Vézelay, (consecrated 1104) has clusters of vertical shafts rising to support transverse arches and a groin vault. The dressed polychrome stonework has exquisitely detailed mouldings. East end is Gothic.
The nave of Peterborough Cathedral (1118–1193) in three stages of arcade, gallery & clerestory, typical of Norman abbey churches. The rare wooden ceiling retains its original decoration (c. 1230). Gothic arches beneath tower (c. 1350).
The groin-vaulted crypt of Worcester Cathedral
The chapter house of Santa María de la Oliva, Carcastillo, Spain
The lateral porch of the Church of San Esteban, Segovia
The cloister of Lavaudieu Abbey
The Baptistery of Parma Cathedral
Blind arcading in brick in the Mozarabic style of Asturia and Leon on the apse of Castro de Avelãs Monastery, a unique example in Portugal.
Overlapping arches form a blind arcade at St Lawrence's church Castle Rising, England. (1150) The semi-circular arches form pointed arches where they overlap, a motif which may have influenced Gothic.
Flat striated pillars (one of which forms the axis of symmetry, separating two windows with semi-circular arches) and richly decorated blind windows in the apse of San Juan de Rabanera Church in Soria, Spain.
Dwarf galleries are a major decorative feature on the exterior of Speyer Cathedral, Germany (1090–1106), surrounding the walls and encircling the towers. This was to become a feature of Rhenish Romanesque.
The eastern apse of Parma Cathedral, Italy (early 12th century) combines a diversity of decorative features: blind arcading, galleries, courses and sculptured motifs.
The arcading on the facade of Lucca Cathedral, Tuscany (1204) has many variations in its decorative details, both sculptural and in the inlaid polychrome marble.
Polychrome blind arcading of the apse of Monreale Cathedral, Sicily (1174–82) The decoration indicates Islamic influence in both the motifs and the fact that all the arches, including those of the windows, are pointed.
Detail of an apse of Abbey d'Arthous, Landes, France showing corbels representing aspects of sin such as lust, drunkenness and ignorance.
The portal of the Hermitage of St Segundo, Avila, has paired creatures. and decorative bands of floral and interlacing. The pairing of creatures could draw on Byzantine and Celtic models.
The carving of the polychrome porch of the Saint-Michel-D'aiguilhe chapel, the Aiguilhe, Haute-Loire, France, (11th century), has paired mermaids, and the Lamb of God
On these mouldings around the portal of Lincoln Cathedral are formal chevron ornament, tongue-poking monsters, vines and figures, and symmetrical motifs.
St Martin's Church, Gensac-la-Pallue has capitals with elaborate interlacing.
Interwoven and spiralling vines in the "manuscript" style at Saint-Sernin, Toulouse.
The tympanum of the side entrance of Saint-Sernin of Toulouse, (c. 1115) shows the Ascension of Christ, surrounded by angels, in a simple composition of standing figures.
The tympanum of the inner portal of la Madeleine Vezelay has the scene of Christ in Majesty, at the Last Judgement. The figure of Christ is highly formalised in both posture and treatment. (1130s)
The tympanum of the Saint-Pierre, Moissac, is a highly sophisticated, tightly packed design, like a manuscript illumination. Christ is surrounded by the symbols of the Four Evangelists
Details of the portal of Oloron Cathedral show a demon, a lion swallowing a man and kings with musical instruments.
A relief from St Trophime, Arles, showing King Herod and the Three Kings, follows the conventions in that the seated Herod is much larger than the standing figures.
Notre-Dame-en-Vaux, Châlons-en-Champagne. This paired capital representing Christ washing the feet of the disciples is lively and naturalistic.
The painted crypt of San Isidoro in León, Spain has a detailed scheme illustrating Biblical stories.
Apse of the Church of St Justus, Segovia. Christ in Majesty was a common theme for the apse.
A frieze of figures occupies the zone below the semi-dome in the apse. Abbey of St Pere of Burgal, Catalonia, Spain
In England the major pictorial theme occurs above the chancel arch in parish churches. St John the Baptist, Clayton, Sussex
This fresco showing Galen and Hippocrates is part of a complex scheme decorating the crypt of Anagni Cathedral, Italy
King David from Augsburg Cathedral, late 11th century. One of a series of prophets that are the oldest stained glass windows in situ.
Two panels of lively figures, Seth and Adam from the 12th-century Ancestors of Christ, Canterbury Cathedral, now set into a Perpendicular Gothic window with panels of many different dates.
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor, from a series of Emperors (12th and 13th centuries) The panels are now set into Gothic windows, Strasbourg Cathedral
Detail of a small panel showing Kings David and Solomon set in an architectonic frame from a large window at Strasbourg. Late 12th century. The alternation of red and blue is a typical device of simpler window designs. It is approximately 1/3 the height, and is much less complex in execution than the Emperor series of which Otto II is a part. See left
A rare and remarkable survival, of "unforgettable beauty", the very large Crucifixion window of Poitiers Cathedral, France.
The facade of Laon Cathedral, 1225, a Gothic cathedral, maintains rounded arches and arcading in the Romanesque manner.
Ely Cathedral, England, the central western tower and framing smaller towers all had transitional features, 1180s. The tower to the left fell. Gothic porch, 1250s; lantern, 1390s.
The facade of the Cathedral of Genoa has both round and pointed arches, and paired windows, a continuing Romanesque feature of Italian Gothic architecture.
alt=A tidy building like a large barn, of red brick with long sloping roofs, dormer windows and a low arched doorway.|The Great Hall of Oakham Castle, England, once part of the fortified manor of a Norman baron
Natural History Museum, London, Alfred Waterhouse, 1879
The façade of Catholic church of Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune, Strasbourg (built 1888–1893), is of a type adopted for many churches in the early 20th century.
The 19th-century reconstruction of the westwerk of the Romanesque Speyer Cathedral. see above
Royce Hall, at UCLA, inspired by The Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan, Italy. see above
Stanford Memorial Church at Stanford University, US, is a loose interpretation of a Romanesque facade.
The Smithsonian Institution Building, also known as "The Castle".

Ribbed vaults came into general use in the 12th century.

The Mosque of the Prophet, standing on the site of Muhammad's first mosque in Medina. The present-day building is the result of many reconstructions and expansions up to modern times.

Islamic architecture

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Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam.

Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam.

The Mosque of the Prophet, standing on the site of Muhammad's first mosque in Medina. The present-day building is the result of many reconstructions and expansions up to modern times.
Section of the Umayyad-era Mshatta Facade, now in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, from a palace near Amman
The walls and minaret of the Great Mosque of Samarra built by the Abbasids in the 9th century
The mihrab and maqsura area of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, added to the mosque by al-Hakam II in the late 10th century
Bab al-Futuh gate built by the Fatimid vazir Badr al-Jamali
Shalamar Gardens, a Mughal paradise garden in Lahore, Pakistan
The sahn (courtyard) and minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia
Qusair 'Amra
An iwan in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Ribbed dome in the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, dating from the 10th century
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Mosque in Qasr al-Hallabat
Entrance courtyard of Qasr al-Hallabat
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (late 7th century)
Tarikhaneh Temple, a pre-Islamic monument built in Sasanian Persia which was later turned into a mosque, showing elements of Iranian architecture before the spread of Islam
The Registan is the ensemble of three madrasas, in Samarkand, modern day Uzbekistan
Shah Mosque in Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Isfahan, Iran
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan
Portal of the Great Mosque of Divriği (1228–1229)
The Bāb al-Yaman (بَـاب ٱلْـيَـمَـن, Gate of the Yemen) in the Old City of Sana'a, Yemen
Demak Mosque One of the oldest surviving mosques in Indonesia.
The Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
A Tatar minaret dating from the 15th century
Almnara Tower Somalia
The 13th century Fakr ad-Din Mosque in Mogadishu
Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque at Muscat is the main mosque in the Sultanate of Oman, started in 1995 and inaugurated in 2001.
Faisal Mosque at Islamabad, Pakistan designed by Vedat Dalokay.
Museum of Islamic Art at Doha, Qatar designed by I. M. Pei.
Islamic geometric patterns in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Dome with squinches in the Palace of Ardashir of pre-Islamic Persia. squinches are one of the most significant Sasanian contribution to Islamic architecture<ref>{{cite web|last1=Huff|first1=D.|title=ARCHITECTURE iii. Sasanian Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica|url=http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/architecture-iii|access-date=16 March 2019|website=www.iranicaonline.org|publisher=Encyclopaedia Iranica}}</ref>
The dome of the Gur-i Amir Mausoleum in Samarqand
Non-radial rib vault in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Dome of the tomb of Ahmed Sanjar in Merv
Upper dome of Ālī Qāpū, Isfahan
VIew of the main dome at Humayun's Tomb in Delhi
Dome of Taj Mahal in Agra
The bulbous domes of the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
The main dome of Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta has tiles arranged in a stellate pattern to represent the night sky
The interior of the main dome of Shahi Hammam in Lahore
Schematic drawing of a pendentive dome
Central domes of the Hagia Sophia
Dome of the Kalenderhane Mosque
Selimiye Mosque, Edirne
Mashrabiya balcony in Bayt al-Suhaymi, Cairo (Egypt)
Hünkâr Mahfili (prayer space for the sultan) inside the Hagia Sophia (Turkey)
Use of Jali screen at Lahore Fort (Pakistan)
Jharokha balcony at Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur (India)
Design of a muqarnas quarter vault from the Topkapı Scroll
Muqarnas in the necropolis of Shah-i-Zinda, Samarqand
Muqarnas in the Alhambra
The muqarna of a mosque in Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Intricate design on the muqarna of Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore
Geometrical tile decoration (Zellij) in the Ben Youssef Madrasa in Marrakesh
Dome of the Shah Mosque in Isfahan with calligraphic inscription
Bengali Islamic terracotta on a 17th-century mosque in Tangail, Bangladesh
Tiles in Topkapı Palace, an example of Ottoman Architecture
Much of the interior of Emperor Jahangir's mausoleum in Lahore is adorned with Mughal-era frescoes.
Calligraphic inscription on the dome of the Mevlana mausoleum
Design of Ceiling in the Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar
Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Cordoba (10th century)
Stucco-carved mihrab of Uljaytu at the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan (early 14th century)
Mihrab of the Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan in Cairo (14th century)
Ottoman mihrab with Iznik tiles in the Rüstem Pasha Mosque, Istanbul (16th century)
Mihrab of the Jama Masjid in Delhi (mid-17th century)
Minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (early 9th century)
Minaret of Jam, Afghanistan (12th century)
Minaret of Sultan Qaytbay (15th century) at the Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo
Ottoman minarets of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul (early 17th century)
Qutb Minar of Delhi (12th century)
Medina quarter of Fez, Morocco
Figure-ground diagram of Algiers
Figure-ground diagram of a European town (1819)
Kharraqan Towers, mausoleums of Seljuk princes, built in 1068 and 1093 in Iran
Dome in the Friday Mosque of Isfahan, Iran, added in 1088–89 by Seljuk vizier Taj al-Mulk
Ghaznavid Tower of Mas'ud III near Ghazni (present-day Afghanistan), from the early 12th century
Ribat-i Sharaf caravanserai in Khorasan (northeastern Iran), built in 1114–1115
The Kalyan Minaret in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan), built in 1127 as part of a Qarakhanid congregational mosque
Toghrol Tower in Rayy, south of present-day Tehran (Iran), built in 1139 as the tomb of the Seljuk sultan Tughril
Mausoleum of Sultan Ahmad Sanjar (c. 1152) in Merv (present-day Turkmenistan)
Hospital of Nur al-Din, Damascus (1154)
Qarakhanid Mausoleums in Uzgen (Kyrgyzstan), second half of the 12th century
Minaret of the al-Nuri Mosque in Mosul (before its destruction in 2017), dating from the 12th century
Courtyard façade of the Great Mosque of Diyarbakir, founded in the 7th century and rebuilt by the Artuqids in the 12th century
Yedi Kardeş Tower in the city walls of Diyarbakir, built by Artuqid sultan Nasir al-Din Mahmud in 1208–1209
Mausoleum of Fakhr al-Din Razi or Il-Arslan in Kunya-Urgench (Turkmenistan), late 12th or early 13th century (Khwarazmian Empire period)
Zinciriye or Sultan Isa Madrasa in Mardin (1385)
Hypostyle interior of the Alâeddin Mosque in Konya (12th-13th centuries)
Seljuk mosaic tile decoration from the Kubadabad Palace (early 13th-century Anatolia)
Courtyard of the Sultan Han caravanserai, built in 1229 on the road between Aksaray and Konya
Interior of the Çifte Minareli Medrese in Erzurum (c. 1250)
Entrance portal of the Karatay Madrasa in Konya (c. 1251), with muqarnas and ablaq decoration
Tile decoration inside the Karatay Madrasa in Konya (c. 1251)
Stone-carved decoration in the entrance portal of the Ince Minareli Medrese in Konya (c. 1265)
Entrance and minarets of the Gök Medrese in Sivas (1271–2)
Döner Kümbet in Kayseri (1276), the tomb of a Seljuk princess
Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir (1297), an example of a wooden hypostyle mosque
The Green Mosque in Iznik (late 14th century)<ref>{{Cite book|last=Goodwin|first=Godfrey|title=A History of Ottoman Architecture|publisher=Thames & Hudson|year=1971|isbn=0500274290|location=New York|pages=20}}</ref>
The Grand Mosque of Bursa (end of 14th century)
Tiled mihrab of the Green Mosque in Bursa (early 15th century)
Courtyard of the Bayezid II Mosque, Istanbul (late 15th century)
Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul (16th century), designed by Mimar Sinan
One of the chambers of the Topkapı Palace
Interior of Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul (early 17th century)
Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Istanbul (mid-18th century), an example of the Ottoman Baroque style
The sebil of Abdülhamid I, Istanbul (late 18th century)<ref>{{Cite book|last=Goodwin|first=Godfrey|title=A History of Ottoman Architecture|publisher=Thames & Hudson|year=1971|isbn=0500274290|location=New York}}</ref>
Entrance gates of the Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul (19th century)
Istanbul High School (19th century)
Examples of civil Ottoman architecture in Eskişehir
Yalı is a house or mansion constructed along the shores of the Bosphorus near Istanbul
Reception Hall of Abd ar-Rahman III at Madinat al-Zahra (10th century, caliphal period)
Aljaferia Palace in Zaragoza (11th century, Taifa period)
Almoravid Qubba in Marrakesh (early 12th century, Almoravid period)
Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh (12th century, Almohad period)
Giralda tower in Seville: former Almohad minaret (12th century) converted into a Christian bell tower
Kasbah Mosque in Tunis (13th century, Hafsid period)
Bou Inania Madrasa in Fes (14th century, Marinid period)
The Court of the Lions at the Alhambra, Granada (14th century, Nasrid period)
Dome of the Hall of Ambassadors in the Alcazar of Seville (14th century): an example of Mudejar architecture
Youssef Dey Mosque in Tunis (17th century): an example of Ottoman influence blended with local styles
Central mosque of Ghardaïa: an example of local architecture in the M'zab region (Algeria)
Mihrab of the Mausoleum of Sultan Baybars in Damascus (built 1277-1281)
Complex of Sultan Qalawun in Cairo (built in 1284–85). It included a mausoleum, a madrasa, and a highly important maristan (hospital).<ref>{{Cite book|last=Raymond|first=André|title=Le Caire|publisher=Fayard|year=1993|isbn=9782213029832}}</ref>
Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad (built in 1318 and modified in 1335) at the Citadel of Cairo
The Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Hasan (built between 1356 and 1361), the largest and one of the most impressive Mamluk monuments{{sfn|Blair|Bloom|1995|p=82}}{{sfn|Williams|2018|p=78}}
Projecting entrance portal of the Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Barquq (built between 1384 and 1386)
Interior of a mausoleum in the Khanqah-Mosque of Faraj ibn Barquq (built between 1400 and 1411)
Twin minarets of Bab Zuweila, built between 1415 and 1420 for the nearby Mosque of al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh
Carved stone dome of the Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay (completed in 1474) in the Northern Cemetery of Cairo
Sabil of Qaytbay (1482) at the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem
Wikala of Sultan al-Ghuri (1505), example of an urban caravanserai in Cairo
Sabil-Kuttab of Abd ar-Rahman Katkhuda (1744), which combines Mamluk and Ottoman elements{{sfn|Williams|2018|p=230}}
Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi Mosque in Alexandria, built in the 1940s in a neo-Mamluk style
The Taj Mahal, the most famous building of Mughal architecture.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569-70 CE
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan, Pakistan
Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan
Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad
Baradri (a type of Mughal building) at Fatima Jinnah Park in Islamabad
Gol Gumbaz built by the Bijapur Sultanate in Deccani style
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan
Sixty Dome Mosque in Bangladesh
Gate of Panembahan Senapati Mosque in Kotagede, Yogyakarta.
The Grand Mosque of the Masjid Agung in Central Java, Indonesia, features a multi-layered roof typical of Indonesian mosque architecture.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Indonesia, with Mughal and Dutch Colonial influences.
The Menara Kudus Mosque employs a Hindu-Buddhist temple-like structure as a minaret<ref name="Schoppert, P. 1997, p. 207">Schoppert, P., Damais, S., Java Style, 1997, Didier Millet, Paris, p. 207, {{ISBN|962-593-232-1}}</ref>
Masjid Kampung Laut
Masjid Zahir
Kampung Hulu Mosque
Sultan Alaeddin Royal Mosque
Paloh Mosque
The Mosque of Arwa bint Ahmad in Jibla (11th century), an example of a hypostyle courtyard mosque
Great Mosque of Zabid, with one of the oldest surviving minarets in Yemen (circa 13th century)
Central dome of the Ashrafiyya Mosque in Ta'izz (circa 1397)
Shibam, an example of a historic fortified village
Minaret at the Jama Masjid in Delhi (mid-17th century)
alt=|The Qutb Minar and Quwwat al-Islam Mosque complex in Delhi, begun in the 1190s and expanded in the 13th to 14th centuries{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture}}
The Friday Mosque of Ahmedabad (1423), which prominently combines Islamic and indigenous Indian architectural forms{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture; VI. c. 1250–c. 1500; A. Eastern Islamic lands; 3. India}}
alt=|Fatehpur Sikri, a palatial complex begun in the 1560s by Akbar{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Fatehpur Sikri}}
Charminar in Hyderabad (1591), an example of architecture in the Deccan Sultanates{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Hyderabad}}
Room with fountain in the Muthamman Burj (1628–30), added by Shah Jahan inside the Agra Fort built by Akbar{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Agra}}
The Red Fort in Delhi, built between 1639 and 1648 as the citadel of Shah Jahan's new capital{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Delhi}}
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore (1635), notable for its tile-decorated surfaces{{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=250}}
alt=|Badshahi Mosque in Lahore ({{circa|1673}}–1674){{sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture; VII. c. 1500–c. 1900; D. India}}
alt=|Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad (1678){{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=277}}
The Asfi Mosque of the Bara Imambara complex in Lucknow ({{circa|1780}}){{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=285}}

The three domes spanning the vaults in front of the mihrab wall are constructed as ribbed vaults.

La Madeleine, a Neoclassical, Roman Catholic church in Paris, France.

Church (building)

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Building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities.

Building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities.

La Madeleine, a Neoclassical, Roman Catholic church in Paris, France.
Interior of St. Andrew's Catholic Church in Roanoke, Virginia, US
Cyrican is an Old English word for churches and church property
South facade of the Church of Saint Simeon Stylites in Aleppo, Syria, is considered to be one of the oldest surviving church buildings in the world
The Frauenkirche in Munich is a largely Gothic, medieval church.
Las Lajas Shrine is a basilica church located in Colombia. The present temple, of Gothic Revival style, was built between 1916 and 1949
Lutheran Parish Church of Hallstatt, Upper Austria
Central nave of the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Vilnius, Lithuania, an example of a Baroque church interior
The view of the spire of Norwich Cathedral from the cloisters, in Norfolk, England
Great Church Hall of the Neoclassical-styled Helsinki Cathedral
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow, Russia (today a museum) is a famous and characteristic example of a Russian Orthodox Church building.
St. Martin's Cathedral, Utrecht, Netherlands
An interior of the Bridgettine's Nådendal Abbey, a medieval Catholic monastery in Naantali, Finland
Cotonou Salem Temple, affiliated to the Assemblies of God, in Cotonou, in Benin, 2018
A wooden St. Magdalena Church in the Ruhnu Island, Estonia
Worship service at Christ's Commission Fellowship Pasig affiliated to the Christ's Commission Fellowship in 2014, in Pasig, Philippines

The first pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses began to appear, all possessing geometric properties that reduced the need for large, rigid walls to ensure structural stability.

Detail of the west façade of the Trinity Abbey, Vendôme, highlighting the flame-like motifs associated with the Flamboyant style (completed 1507)

Flamboyant

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Form of late Gothic architecture that developed in Europe in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, from around 1375 to the mid-16th century.

Form of late Gothic architecture that developed in Europe in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, from around 1375 to the mid-16th century.

Detail of the west façade of the Trinity Abbey, Vendôme, highlighting the flame-like motifs associated with the Flamboyant style (completed 1507)
Great West Window, York Minster (1338)
Notre-Dame de l'Épine, west front (1405–1527)
Flamboyant rib vaulting of Segovia Cathedral, nave (1525–1577)
Flamboyant openwork tracery, fireplace and chimney, Salle des pas perdus, Palace of Poitiers (c. 1390)
Chapels commissioned by Jean de la Grange, northwest corner, Amiens Cathedral (c. 1375). Note the use of curvilinear mouchettes and soufflets at the top of the windows.
Palais Jacques Coeur, Bourges (1444–1451)
The Dunois staircase, Château de Châteaudun (1459–1468)
Gable window of the Hotel de Cluny, Paris (15th century)
Lucarne, west façade of the former Parliament of Normandy, now the Palais de Justice, Rouen (1499–1507)
West rose window of Sainte-Chapelle, Paris (1485-1498)
Facade of Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes (completed 1559)
The Butter Tower of Rouen Cathedral (1485–1507)
Rose window and façade of south transept, Sens Cathedral (1490–1518)
South porch of Notre-Dame de Louviers (1506–1510)
Detail of the North Tower of Chartres Cathedral (1507–1513)
Tour Saint-Jacques, Paris (1509–1523)
South rose window of Amiens Cathedral (16th c.)
North tower of Bourges Cathedral (1508-1515)
West façade, Abbey-church of Saint-Antoine, Saint-Antoine-l'Abbaye (15th century)
Bourbons chapel, Lyon Cathedral, engraving by Ebenezer Challis after a drawing by Thomas Allom (19th century)
Pendant vaults and mouldings with monograms, Bourbons chapel, Lyon Cathedral (late 15th century)
Louis XII wing of the Château de Blois (1498–1503)
Fusion of Flamboyant Gothic and Renaissance exterior decoration at Château de Gaillon (1502–1510)
Burial of Christ, Solesmes Abbey (1496)
Chapel vault with classicizing decoration, church of Saint-Pierre, Caen, by Hector Sohier (1518–1545)
Southeast side of the church of Saint-Pierre, Caen, showing combinations of Flamboyant Gothic and antique forms
The Longueville staircase, Château de Châteaudun, showing juxtaposition of Flamboyant Gothic and antique decoration
Detail of the Longueville staircase, Château de Châteaudun, showing juxtaposition of Flamboyant Gothic and antique decoration
Maison des Têtes (1528–1532), Valence
Angers Cathedral, a Renaissance lantern atop the Flamboyant Gothic central tower (finished 1515)
Tours Cathedral (finished 1507) with Renaissance lanterns atop the flamboyant towers
Tower of St Rumbold's Cathedral in Mechelen (1452–1520)
Lantern tower, Antwerp Cathedral, consecrated 1521
Cathedral of St Michael and St Gudula, Brussels (1485–1519)
Leuven's Town Hall (1448–1469)
Detail of the facade of Leuven's Town Hall
<center>Brussels Town Hall, Belgium</center>
Oudenaarde's Town Hall (1526–1536)
West porch and tower of Ulm Minster (begun late 14th century, completed 19th)
Detail of the tower of Ulm Minster, 19th century.
Detail of the tower of Freiburg Minster
Looking up into the spire of Freiburg Minster (after 1419)
Façade of the Saint George chapel in the Generalitat Palace, Barcelona (1432–1434)
Vault of the Saint George chapel in the Generalitat Palace, Barcelona
Rose window, west façade, Basílica de Santa Maria del Mar, Barcelona (1459)
Cloister of the Convent of Sant Doménec, Valencia
Colegio de San Gregorio (Completed 1487)
Decoration of Colegio de San Gregorio (1488–1496)
Vaults of the lower cloister of the Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes in Toledo (1477–1504)
Facade and openwork spires of Burgos Cathedral (1440–1481) by Juan de Colonia and Simón de Colonia
Star vault in the Constable Chapel of Burgos Cathedral by Simón de Colonia
Rose window of west facade of Toledo Cathedral (end of 15th century)
Batalha Monastery (1386–1517)
Flamboyant window of Batalha Monastery (1386–1517)
Jeronimos Monastery, Belem (1501–158)
Marine themed decoration of the Chapter House window of the Convent of Christ (Tomar) (1510–1514)
West rose window of Saint Chapelle (1485–1498)
Flamboyant window tracery, Limoges Cathedral (late 15th century)
Openwork gable and balustrade, west porch, church of Saint-Maclou, Rouen (1435–1521)