Rice

A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species
Oryza sativa with small wind-pollinated flowers
Cooked brown rice from Bhutan
Jumli Marshi, brown rice from Nepal
Rice can come in many shapes, colors and sizes.
Single grain of rice under handmade microscope
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice
Unmilled to milled Japanese rice, from left to right, brown rice, rice with germ, white rice
Tteumul, water from the washing of rice
-Rice processing- A: Rice with chaff B: Brown rice C: Rice with germ D: White rice with bran residue E: Musenmai (Japanese: 無洗米), "Polished and ready to boil rice", literally, non-wash rice (1): Chaff (2): Bran (3): Bran residue (4): Cereal germ (5): Endosperm
Worldwide rice production
Production of rice (2019)
Burning of rice residues after harvest, to quickly prepare the land for wheat planting, around Sangrur, Punjab, India.
Rice combine harvester Katori-city, Chiba Prefecture, Japan
After the harvest, rice straw is gathered in the traditional way from small paddy fields in Mae Wang District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Drying rice in Peravoor, India
Work by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture to measure the greenhouse gas emissions of rice production.
Chinese rice grasshopper (Oxya chinensis) Borneo, Malaysia
Chloroxylon is used for pest management in organic rice cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India.
Rice seed collection from IRRI
Ancient statue of Dewi Sri from Java (c. 9th century)
Hainanese chicken rice in Singapore

Seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

- Rice
A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species

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Unprocessed seeds of spelt, a historically important staple food

Staple food

Food that is eaten often and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given person or group of people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

Food that is eaten often and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given person or group of people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

Unprocessed seeds of spelt, a historically important staple food
White rice, boiled
Bread made from wheat flour
Pasta
Couscous
Maize (corn)
Edamame (green soybeans)
Kidney beans
Sorghum seeds and popped sorghum
Millet grains
Amaranth (left) and common wheat berries
Colored quinoa
Cassava roots
Chinese yams
Sweet potato salad
Ulluco tubers
Oca tubers
Taro roots
Potatoes
Plantain and banana

Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese, and dried legumes such as lentils and other beans.

Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp.

Maize (Zea mays subsp.

Plant fragments dated to 4200 BC found in the Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, showed maize had already been domesticated from teosinte.
Cultivation of maize in an illustration from the 16th c. Florentine Codex
Ancient Mesoamerican relief, National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico
Many small male flowers make up the male inflorescence, called the tassel.
Zea mays 'Ottofile giallo Tortonese` – MHNT
Zea mays "strawberry"—MHNT
Zea mays "Oaxacan Green" MHNT
Variegated maize ears
Multicolored corn kernels (CSIRO)
Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains
Teosinte (top), maize-teosinte hybrid (middle), maize (bottom)
Stucco head of the Maya maize god, 550–850 AD
Seedlings three weeks after sowing
Young stalks
Mature plants showing ears
Mature maize ears
Harvesting maize, Jones County, Iowa
Harvesting maize, Rantasalmi, South Savonia, Finland
Hand-picking harvest of maize in Myanmar
Production of maize (2019)
Semi-peeled corn on the cob
Poster showing a woman serving muffins, pancakes, and grits, with canisters on the table labeled corn meal, grits, and hominy, US Food Administration, 1918
Mexican tamales made with corn meal
Boiled corn on a white plate
Farm-based maize silage digester located near Neumünster in Germany, 2007. Green inflatable biogas holder is shown on top of the digester.
Children playing in a maize kernel box
Female inflorescence, with young silk
Mature silk
Stalks, ears and silk
Male flowers
Full-grown maize plants
Mature maize ear on a stalk
Maize kernels
Maize plant diagram
Ear of maize with irregular rows of kernels
With white and yellow kernels

Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice.

The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. The graph depicts an increase (that is, right-shift) in demand from D1 to D2 along with the consequent increase in price and quantity required to reach a new equilibrium point on the supply curve (S).

Commodity

Economic good, usually a resource, that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

Economic good, usually a resource, that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. The graph depicts an increase (that is, right-shift) in demand from D1 to D2 along with the consequent increase in price and quantity required to reach a new equilibrium point on the supply curve (S).

Most commodities are raw materials, basic resources, agricultural, or mining products, such as iron ore, sugar, or grains like rice and wheat.

Oryza

Genus of plants in the grass family.

Genus of plants in the grass family.

It includes the major food crop rice (species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima).

Monocotyledon

Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

Allium crenulatum (Asparagales), an onion, with typical monocot perianth and parallel leaf venation
Onion slice: the cross-sectional view shows the veins that run in parallel along the length of the bulb and stem
Comparison of a monocot (grass: Poales) sprouting (left) with a dicot (right)
Yucca brevifolia (Joshua Tree: Asparagales)
Roystonea regia palm (Arecales) stems showing anomalous secondary growth in monocots, with characteristic fibrous roots
Illustrations of cotyledons by John Ray 1682, after Malpighi

These include not only major grains (rice, wheat, maize, etc.), but also forage grasses, sugar cane, and the bamboos.

Sushi

Japanese dish of prepared vinegared rice (鮨飯), usually with some sugar and salt, accompanied by a variety of ingredients (ねた), such as seafood, often raw, and vegetables.

Japanese dish of prepared vinegared rice (鮨飯), usually with some sugar and salt, accompanied by a variety of ingredients (ねた), such as seafood, often raw, and vegetables.

President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at Sukiyabashi Jiro
Sushi by Hiroshige
Sushi platter in takeway
Chirashizushi with raw ingredients
Three pieces of inarizushi
Funa-zushi (narezushi made from nigorobuna)
Nigirizushi
Several types of nigirizushi, rice hand-pressed with various seafood, including tuna, eel, and sea urchin roe gunkanmaki
Japanese cutlassfish oshizushi at a restaurant in Minamata City, Kumamoto Prefecture
Oshi-zushi (Pressed sushi)
Norway roll (ノルウェー巻き). A Norwegian businessman introduced the use of salmon as a sushi ingredient to Japan in the 1980s.
Uramakizushi rolls
Rainbow roll, uramaki with multiple fillings including shrimp tempura, salmon, avocado, mango, with rice mixed with tobiko
Sushi chef preparing nigirizushi, Kyoto, Japan
Sheets of nori
Sushi made of meats other than fish (whether raw or cooked) is a variation often seen in Japan.
Yaki anago-ippon-nigiri (焼きアナゴ一本握り) – a roasted and sweet-sauced whole conger eel
Ebifurai-maki (エビフライ巻き) – fried-shrimp roll
Sushi in shops are usually sold in plastic trays.
Sushi served on a wooden platter at a sushi restaurant in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan
Sushi in restaurant in Vienna, Austria
Meat sushi
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} topped with {{transl|ja|tobiko}}
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} in preparation
{{transl|ja|Futomaki}}
{{transl|ja|Kappamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Nattōmaki}}
{{transl|ja|Tekkamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Ehōmaki}}
{{nihongo3|fatty tuna belly|鮪とろ握り|Toro nigiri}}
{{nihongo|Salmon roll|巻き鮭}}
{{nihongo3|persimmon leaf|柿の葉寿司|Kakinoha}} sushi
{{nihongo||茶巾寿司|Chakin-zushi}}, wrapped in thin omelette
{{nihongo|Sushi plate|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo||イクラ軍艦巻き|Ikura gunkan-maki}}
{{nihongo3|bamboo leaf|笹寿司|Sasa}} sushi
{{nihongo3|teriyaki-roasted freshwater eel|鰻寿司|Unagi}} sushi
{{transl|ja|Nigirizushi}} for sale at a supermarket in Tokyo
{{nihongo|Assorted sushi|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo|Assorted Western sushi|盛り合わせ}}
Western California roll and tuna roll {{transl|ja|uramaki}} ({{lang|ja|カリフォルニア巻き}})
{{nihongo|Western spicy tuna hand roll|スパイシーツナロール}}
{{nihongo|Western spicy shrimp roll|スパイシー海老ロール}}
{{transl|ja|Gari}} (ginger)
Wasabi
thumb|right|{{transl|ja|Tamago}} sushi

Sushi is traditionally made with medium-grain white rice, though it can be prepared with brown rice or short-grain rice.

Peas are an annual plant.

Annual plant

Plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies.

Plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies.

Peas are an annual plant.

Examples of true annuals include corn, wheat, rice, lettuce, peas, watermelon, beans, zinnia and marigold.

Oryza sativa

Water buffalo being used to plough rice fields in Java
Jumli Marshi, brown rice from Nepal
Traditional rice of Niyamgiri Hills, India
Rice from Chhattisgarh
O. sativa
Rice stem cross section magnified 400 times

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.

Structure of the amylose molecule

Starch

Polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

Polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

Structure of the amylose molecule
Structure of the amylopectin molecule
Starch mill at Ballydugan (Northern Ireland), built in 1792
West Philadelphia Starch works at Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), 1850
Faultless Starch Company at Kansas City
potato starch granules in cells of the potato
starch in endosperm in embryonic phase of maize seed
Corn starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light, showing characteristic extinction cross
Rice starch seen on light microscope. Characteristic for the rice starch is that starch granules have an angular outline and some of them are attached to each other and form larger granules
Granules of wheat starch, stained with iodine, photographed through a light microscope
Sago starch extraction from palm stems
Glucose syrup
Karo corn syrup advert 1917
Niagara corn starch advert 1880s
Pacific Laundry and Cooking Starch advert 1904
Starch adhesive
Gentleman with starched ruff in 1560
Kingsford Oswego Starch advertising, 1885
Rice starch for ironing

Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as wheat, potatoes, maize (corn), rice, and cassava (manioc).

Risalamande being served during the traditional Scandinavian Christmas meal

Rice pudding

Risalamande being served during the traditional Scandinavian Christmas meal
Arroz con leche (rice with milk) is the Spanish and American type of rice pudding. Leftover rice is often used, especially in restaurants.
Turkish fırın sütlaç, baked
Levantine Riz bi haleeb
Malaysian pulut hitam in a restaurant
Indian Kheer in a restaurant
Kheer benazir at the Old Delhi restaurant Karim's
Oven baked
Portuguese Arroz doce served for Christmas
Macedonian Lapa with black poppy seeds
Store bought rice pudding
Argentine arroz con leche

Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon, vanilla and raisins.