Richard Cobden

CobdenRichard Cobden MP
Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.wikipedia
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John Bright

BrightJohn Bright MPJ. Bright
In 1838, he and John Bright founded the Anti-Corn Law League, aimed at abolishing the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread.
In partnership with Richard Cobden, he founded the Anti-Corn Law League, aimed at abolishing the Corn Laws, which raised food prices and protected landowners' interests by levying taxes on imported wheat.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty. Of these, Jane, a British Liberal politician, married the publisher Thomas Fisher Unwin and was known as Mrs Cobden Unwin; Ellen was the first of the painter Walter Sickert's three wives; and Anne married the bookbinder T. J. Sanderson and he added her surname to his.
The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act.

Cobden–Chevalier Treaty

Cobden Chevalier treatyCobden-Chevalier Treaty of 1860Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement
Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty. Another free trade initiative was the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty of 1860, promoting closer interdependence between Britain and France.
It is named after the main British and French originators of the treaty, Richard Cobden MP and Michel Chevalier.

Anti-Corn Law League

anti corn law campaignerAnti-Corn LawAnti-Corn Law movement
In 1838, he and John Bright founded the Anti-Corn Law League, aimed at abolishing the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread. Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.
Its leading advocate Richard Cobden, according to historian Asa Briggs, promised that repeal would settle four great problems simultaneously:

Radicals (UK)

RadicalRadicalsEnglish Radical
Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.
Meanwhile Radical leaders like Richard Cobden and John Bright in the middle class Anti-Corn Law League emerged to oppose the existing duties on imported grain which helped farmers and landowners by raising the price of food, but which harmed consumers and manufacturers.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
Another free trade initiative was the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty of 1860, promoting closer interdependence between Britain and France.
Repeal was heavily promoted by the Anti-Corn Law League, grass roots activists led by Richard Cobden and based in the industrial cities; they demanded cheap food.

County Court, Manchester

Cobden HouseManchester County CourtCobden's House
He lived in a house on Quay Street, which is now called Cobden House.
It was the home of the politician and reformer Richard Cobden and subsequently the site of Owen's College, the forerunner of the University of Manchester.

Corn Laws

repeal of the Corn LawsCorn LawAnti-Corn Law
In 1838, he and John Bright founded the Anti-Corn Law League, aimed at abolishing the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread.
In the 1841 election, Sir Robert Peel became Prime Minister and Richard Cobden, a major proponent of free trade, was elected for the first time.

Quay Street

He lived in a house on Quay Street, which is now called Cobden House.
Richard Cobden's red brick townhouse, built in the Georgian style was the first home of Owens College and afterwards Manchester County Court.

Manchester Athenaeum

Athenaeum Gymnastic ClubManchester AthenæumThe Athenaeum
He championed the foundation of the Manchester Athenaeum and delivered its inaugural address.
Richard Cobden was instrumental in promoting education in the city and spoke at the opening.

Heyshott

Hoyle
Cobden was born at a farmhouse called Dunford, in Heyshott near Midhurst, in Sussex.
Richard Cobden (1804-1865), English manufacturer, politician and trade activist

Balance of power (international relations)

balance of powerbalance of power in international relationsimbalance of power
It contained also a bold indictment of the whole system of foreign policy founded on ideas of the balance of power and the necessity of large armaments for the protection of commerce.
Statesman Richard Cobden labeled balance of power "a chimera" due to its unclear meaning: "It is not a fallacy, a mistake, an imposture—it is an undescribed, indescribable, incomprehensible nothing."

Sabden

Heyhouses
As a young man, Cobden was a successful commercial traveller who became co-owner of a highly profitable calico printing factory in Sabden but lived in Manchester, a city with which he would become strongly identified.
However, as of spring 2012, much of the old Cobden Mill (named after Richard Cobden) had been demolished to make way for housing development, which only left the modern built Falcon House with its car park.

David Urquhart

It was designed to combat a wild outbreak of Russophobia inspired by David Urquhart.
He was recalled by Palmerston just as he published his anti-Moscow pamphlet England, France, Russia and Turkey which brought him into conflict with Richard Cobden.

Manchester Times

Manchester Weekly Times
Writing under the byname Libra, he published many letters in the Manchester Times discussing commercial and economic questions.
In 1835 the paper published a series of letters by Richard Cobden, and Prentice subsequently made it a mouthpiece for the Anti-Corn-Law League.

Adam Smith

SmithAdam Smith’sNeo-Smithian
Some of his ideas were influenced by Adam Smith.
Smith's most prominent disciple in 19th-century Britain, peace advocate Richard Cobden, preferred the first proposal.

Stockport (UK Parliament constituency)

StockportStockport BCBorough of Stockport
In 1841, Sir Robert Peel having defeated the Melbourne ministry in parliament, there was a general election, and Cobden was returned as the new member for Stockport.

Michel Chevalier

This campaign was conducted in collaboration with John Bright and French economist Michel Chevalier, and succeeded despite Parliament’s endemic mistrust of the French.
Together with Richard Cobden and John Bright he prepared the free trade agreement of 1860 between the United Kingdom and France, which is still called the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty.

Second French Empire

Second EmpireFranceFrench Empire
On the establishment of the Second French Empire in 1851–1852, a violent panic, fuelled by the press, gripped the public.
The commercial treaty with Great Britain in 1860 ratified the free trade policy of Richard Cobden and Michel Chevalier, had brought upon French industry the sudden shock of foreign competition.

Jane Cobden

JaneJane Cobden Unwin
Of these, Jane, a British Liberal politician, married the publisher Thomas Fisher Unwin and was known as Mrs Cobden Unwin; Ellen was the first of the painter Walter Sickert's three wives; and Anne married the bookbinder T. J. Sanderson and he added her surname to his.
A daughter of the Victorian reformer and statesman Richard Cobden, she was an early proponent of women's rights, and in 1889 was one of two women elected to the inaugural London County Council.

William Ewart Gladstone

GladstoneWilliam GladstoneW. E. Gladstone
He brought forward a motion in parliament to this effect, which led to a long and memorable debate, lasting over four nights, in which he was supported by Sidney Herbert, Sir James Graham, William Gladstone, Lord John Russell and Benjamin Disraeli, and which ended in the defeat of Lord Palmerston by a majority of sixteen.
On 12 September 1859 the Radical MP Richard Cobden visited Gladstone, who recorded it in his diary: "... further conv. with Mr. Cobden on Tariffs & relations with France. We are closely & warmly agreed".

Manchester Liberalism

Manchester SchoolManchesterismManchester Liberal
The tariff reform movement in Britain started by Joseph Chamberlain brought new opponents of Manchesterism, and the whole subject once more became controversial.
Led by Richard Cobden and John Bright, it won a wide hearing for its argument that free trade would lead to a more equitable society, making essential products available to all.

Alabama Claims

Alabama'' ClaimsAlabama Claims CommissionAlabama
When relations with the United States were becoming critical and menacing in consequence of the depredations committed on US commerce by vessels issuing from British ports, actions that would lead to the post-war Alabama Claims, he brought the question before the House of Commons in a series of speeches of rare clearness and force.
Though both the Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary were thought to favor the Confederacy at the time of Alabama construction, British public opinion was divided on the issue, and MPs such as Richard Cobden campaigned against it. The subsequent departure of the Alabama proved to be publicly embarrassing, and Palmerston and Russell were later forced to admit that the ship should not have been allowed to depart.

Peace congress

peace congressespreservation of peaceSecond Hague Conference for Peace
He was not successful in either case, nor did he expect to be. In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with a series of peace congresses which from 1848 to 1851 were held successively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfurt, London, Manchester and Edinburgh.
Among the distinguished delegates were Cobden, Thierry, Girardin, and Bastiat.

Thomas Milner Gibson

Milner GibsonThomas Gibson
Lord Palmerston was again prime minister, and having discovered that the advanced liberal party was not so easily "crushed" as he had apprehended, he made overtures of reconciliation, and invited Cobden and Thomas Milner Gibson to become members of his government.
As one of Richard Cobden's chief allies, he was elected to the House of Commons as Member of Parliament for Manchester in 1841, and from 1846 to 1848 he was Vice-President of the Board of Trade in Lord John Russell's ministry.