Richard Hofstadter

Hofstadter, RichardHofstadter, Richard,Hofstadter, Richard.Richard J. Hofstadter
Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 – October 24, 1970) was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century.wikipedia
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The American Political Tradition

His most widely read works are Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915 (1944); The American Political Tradition (1948); The Age of Reform (1955); Anti-intellectualism in American Life (1963), and the essays collected in The Paranoid Style in American Politics (1964).
The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It is a 1948 book by Richard Hofstadter, an account on the ideology of previous Presidents of the United States and other political figures.

The Paranoid Style in American Politics

paranoid styleThe Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays
His most widely read works are Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915 (1944); The American Political Tradition (1948); The Age of Reform (1955); Anti-intellectualism in American Life (1963), and the essays collected in The Paranoid Style in American Politics (1964).
"The Paranoid Style in American Politics" is an essay by American historian Richard J. Hofstadter, first published in Harper's Magazine in November 1964; it served as the title essay of a book by the author in the same year.

Anti-intellectualism in American Life

His most widely read works are Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915 (1944); The American Political Tradition (1948); The Age of Reform (1955); Anti-intellectualism in American Life (1963), and the essays collected in The Paranoid Style in American Politics (1964).
Anti-intellectualism in American Life is a book by Richard Hofstadter published in 1963 that won the 1964 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction.

The Age of Reform

Age of Reform, The
His most widely read works are Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915 (1944); The American Political Tradition (1948); The Age of Reform (1955); Anti-intellectualism in American Life (1963), and the essays collected in The Paranoid Style in American Politics (1964).
The Age of Reform is a 1955 Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Richard Hofstadter.

Consensus history

Consensus historians of the 1950s
Modifying his earlier communist approach to history, in the 1950s he came closer to the concept of "consensus history", and was epitomized by some of his admirers as the "iconic historian of postwar liberal consensus."
Peter Novick identified Richard Hofstadter and Louis Hartz as leading "liberal consensus historians", and Daniel J. Boorstin as a "leading conservative consensus historian".

Margaret Lefranc

Despite opposition from both families, he married Felice Swados in 1936 after he and Felice spent several summers at Hunter Colony, New York, run by Margaret Lefranc, their close friend for years; they had one child, Dan.
She immediately set up the Hunter Colony and invited her young friends she had met when teaching art at Camp Allegro: Felice Swados and her future husband, Richard Hofstadter, and their friends, all who paid a stipend and spent summers working on projects whether painting, music, a thesis, or a book.

Social Darwinism

social DarwinistSocial Darwiniansocial Darwinists
In 1942, Hofstadter earned his PhD and in 1944 published his dissertation Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915, a commercially successful (200,000 copies) critique of late nineteenth-century American capitalism and its ruthless "dog-eat-dog" economic competition and Social Darwinian self-justification.
The term was popularized in the United States in 1944 by the American historian Richard Hofstadter who used it in the ideological war effort against fascism to denote a reactionary creed which promoted competitive strife, racism and chauvinism.

Charles A. Beard

Charles BeardBeardCharles
According to David Brown, his biographer, after 1945 Hofstadter philosophically "broke" with Charles A. Beard and moved to the right, becoming leader of the "consensus historians," a term that Hofstadter disapproved of, but it was widely applied to his apparent rejection of the Beardian idea that the fundamental conflict running throughout American history that pitted economic classes against each other was the sole basis for understanding history.
Richard Hofstadter (a consensus historian) concluded in 1968: "Today Beard's reputation stands like an imposing ruin in the landscape of American historiography. What was once the grandest house in the province is now a ravaged survival".

People's Party (United States)

PopulistPopulist PartyPeople's Party
He was twice awarded the Pulitzer Prize: in 1956 for The Age of Reform, an analysis of the populism movement in the 1890s and the progressive movement of the early 20th century; and in 1964 for the cultural history Anti-intellectualism in American Life.
In the 1950s, however, scholars such as Richard Hofstadter portrayed the Populist movement as an irrational response of backward-looking farmers to the challenges of modernity.

C. Wright Mills

Charles Wright MillsC. Wright Mills AwardMills, C. Wright
From 1942 to 1946 Hofstadter taught history at the University of Maryland, where he became a close friend of the radical sociologist C. Wright Mills and read extensively in the fields of sociology and psychology, absorbing ideas of Max Weber, Karl Mannheim, Sigmund Freud, and the Frankfurt School.
Mills became friends with historians, Richard Hofstadter, Frank Freidel, and Ken Stampp during World War II.

Daniel J. Boorstin

Boorstin, Daniel J.Daniel BoorstinBoorstin
Hofstadter later complained that this remark in a hastily written preface requested by the editor had been the reason for "lumping him" unfairly into the category of "consensus historians" like Boorstin, who celebrated this kind of ideological consensus as an achievement, whereas Hofstadter deplored it.
His writings were often linked with such historians as Richard Hofstadter, Louis Hartz and Clinton Rossiter as a proponent of the "consensus school", which emphasized the unity of the American people and downplayed class and social conflict.

Christopher Lasch

Lasch, Christopher
In a dissenting view, Christopher Lasch wrote that unlike the "consensus historians" of the 1950s, Hofstadter saw the consensus of classes on behalf of business interests not as a strength but "as a form of intellectual bankruptcy and as a reflection, moreover, not of a healthy sense of the practical but of the domination of American political thought by popular mythologies".
Richard Hofstadter was also a significant influence.

Merle Curti

CurtiMerle E. CurtiMerle Eugene Curti
In 1936, Hofstadter entered the doctoral program in history at Columbia University where his advisor Merle Curti was demonstrating how to synthesize intellectual, social, and political history based upon secondary sources rather than primary-source archival research.
Curti supervised 86 finished doctoral dissertations at Columbia and Wisconsin, including many who became well-known scholars: Richard Hofstadter on social Darwinism; John Higham on nativism; Bourke on community studies; Allen Davis on Progressivism and Jane Addams; and Roderick Nash on the environment.

Progressive Era

ProgressiveProgressive movementProgressives
He was twice awarded the Pulitzer Prize: in 1956 for The Age of Reform, an analysis of the populism movement in the 1890s and the progressive movement of the early 20th century; and in 1964 for the cultural history Anti-intellectualism in American Life.
Richard Hofstadter, for example, in 1955 wrote that prohibition, "was a pseudo-reform, a pinched, parochial substitute for reform" that "was carried about America by the rural-evangelical virus".

Julius W. Pratt

Hofstadter then studied philosophy and history at the University at Buffalo, from 1933, under the diplomatic historian Julius W. Pratt.
Richard Hofstadter, who was an undergraduate there, identified Pratt as his most important teacher at Buffalo.

Anti-intellectualism

anti-intellectualanticulturalanti-education
He explored subconscious motives such as social status anxiety, anti-intellectualism, irrational fear, and paranoia—as they propel political discourse and action in politics.
In Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (1963) the historian Richard Hofstadter said that anti-intellectualism is a social-class response, by the middle-class "mob", against the privileges of the political élites.

Andrew Jackson

JacksonJacksonianPresident Andrew Jackson
Making explicit reference to Jefferson, Jackson, Lincoln, Cleveland, Bryan, Wilson, and Hoover, Hofstadter made a statement on the consensus in the American political tradition, which is sometimes seen as "ironic":
Other 20th-century writers such as Richard Hofstadter and Bray Hammond depict Jackson as an advocate of the sort of laissez-faire capitalism that benefits the rich and oppresses the poor.

Eric Foner

Foner, EricFonerFoner, Eric,
He even employed one, Mike Wallace, to collaborate with him on American Violence: A Documentary History (1970); about the book, Hofstadter student Eric Foner said that it "utterly contradicted the consensus vision of a nation placidly evolving without serious disagreements."l Among them were Herbert Gutman, Eric Foner, Lawrence W. Levine, Linda Kerber, and Paula S. Fass.
Foner returned to Columbia for his Ph.D, where he worked under Richard Hofstadter; he finished in 1969.

Herbert Gutman

Herbert G. Gutman
Among them were Herbert Gutman, Eric Foner, Lawrence W. Levine, Linda Kerber, and Paula S. Fass.
It was written under the supervision of Richard Hofstadter.

Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
systematically analyzes and criticizes the intellectual foundations and historical validity of Charles Beard's historiography; the book "signalled a growing support for neoconservatism" by Hofstadter.
Prominent leaders included Richard Hofstadter, Louis Hartz, Daniel Boorstin, Allan Nevins, Clinton Rossiter, Edmund Morgan, and David M. Potter.

John C. Calhoun

John CalhounCalhounAmerican statesman of the same name
Each chapter title illustrated a paradox: Thomas Jefferson is "The Aristocrat as Democrat"; John C. Calhoun is the "Marx of the Master Class"; and Franklin Roosevelt is "The Patrician as Opportunist."
Historian Richard Hofstadter (1948) emphasizes that Calhoun's conception of minority was very different from the minorities of a century later:

Lawrence W. Levine

Lawrence Levine
Among them were Herbert Gutman, Eric Foner, Lawrence W. Levine, Linda Kerber, and Paula S. Fass.
He graduated from the City College of New York in 1955, and from Columbia University, with a master's degree and a doctorate in 1962, where he studied under Richard Hofstadter.

Stanley Elkins

Elkins, StanleyElkins, Stanley M.Stanley M. Elkins
Some, such as Eric McKitrick and Stanley Elkins, were more conservative than he; hence, Hofstadter had few disciples and founded no school of history writing.
After the war, he married Dorothy Adele Lamken and attended Harvard University on the GI Bill (A.B. 1949), followed by Columbia University for graduate school in American history (M.A. 1951, Ph.D. 1958), where he studied under Richard Hofstadter.

Mike Wallace (historian)

Mike WallaceWallace, Mike
He even employed one, Mike Wallace, to collaborate with him on American Violence: A Documentary History (1970); about the book, Hofstadter student Eric Foner said that it "utterly contradicted the consensus vision of a nation placidly evolving without serious disagreements."l
With historian Richard Hofstadter as his adviser, his dissertation examined the emergence of the two-party system.

Howard Zinn

Zinn, HowardHarry Zinn Spirit of 1776 AwardProfessor Howard Zinn
But it was Columbia historian Richard Hofstadter's The American Political Tradition that made the most lasting impression.