Richard Nixon

Nixon (second from right) makes his newspaper debut in 1916, contributing five cents to a fund for war orphans. His brother Donald is to his right.
Nixon at Whittier High School, 1930
Nixon's family: Julie and David Eisenhower, President Nixon, First Lady Pat Nixon, Tricia and Edward Cox (December 24, 1971)
Lieutenant Commander Richard Nixon, United States Navy (circa 1945)
Nixon's congressional campaign flyer
Nixon campaigning for the Senate, 1950
Nixon campaigns in Sausalito, California, 1950
Official Vice Presidential portrait
Front cover of literature for the Eisenhower–Nixon campaign, 1952
Nikita Khrushchev and Nixon speak as the press looks on at the Kitchen Debate, July 24, 1959
John F. Kennedy and Nixon before their first televised 1960 debate
1960 electoral vote results
Nixon and Lyndon Johnson leave the White House for the Kennedy–Johnson inauguration
Nixon shows his papers to an East German officer to cross between the sectors of the divided City of Berlin, 1963
Nixon and Johnson meet at the White House before Nixon's nomination, July 1968
Nixon campaigning July 1968
1968 electoral vote results; the popular vote between Nixon and Humphrey was less than one percentage point apart
Nixon is sworn in as the 37th President by Chief Justice Earl Warren. The new First Lady, Pat, holds the family Bible.
Mao Zedong and Nixon
Nixon delivers an address to the nation about the incursion in Cambodia
Nixon visits American troops in South Vietnam, July 30, 1969
Nixon with Mexican president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (to his right); motorcade in San Diego, California, September 1970
Nixon with Brezhnev during the Soviet leader's trip to the U.S., 1973
Nixon with President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, June 1974
Nixon at the Washington Senators' 1969 Opening Day with team owner Bob Short (arms folded) and Baseball Commissioner Bowie Kuhn (hand on mouth). Nixon's aide, Major Jack Brennan, sits behind them in uniform.
Nixon gives 1971 State of the Union Address
Official Nixon portrait by James Anthony Wills, c. 1984
Graph of increases in U.S. incarceration rate
Nixon visiting the Apollo 11 astronauts in quarantine aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet
1972 electoral vote results
Nixon takes questions at 1973 press conference
Demonstrator demands impeachment, October 1973
Nixon announces the release of edited transcripts of the Watergate tapes, April 29, 1974
Nixon's farewell speech to the White House staff, August 9, 1974
President Ford announcing his decision to pardon Nixon, September 8, 1974, in the Oval Office
President Jimmy Carter and ex-Presidents Gerald Ford and Nixon meet at the White House before former Vice President Hubert Humphrey's funeral, 1978
Nixon speaking with Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping and U.S. President Jimmy Carter at the White House, 1979
President Ronald Reagan meets with his three immediate predecessors, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Nixon at the White House, October 1981; the three former presidents would represent the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.
Nixon with President Bill Clinton in the residence of the White House, March 1993
Five U.S. presidents (including then-incumbent President Bill Clinton) and their wives attending the funeral of Richard Nixon, April 27, 1994
The graves of President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon
Richard Nixon's Presidential Library and Museum located in Yorba Linda, California
With Elvis Presley in December 1970: "The President & The King"
Presidents Gerald Ford, Nixon, George H.W. Bush, Ronald Reagan, and Jimmy Carter in 1991
Campaign button ironically emphasizing the personality and public image assessments discussed in this section
Nixon with Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir, June 1974.

The 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974.

- Richard Nixon

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Pat Nixon

Nixon in 1972
Vice President and Pat Nixon during a visit to Ghana, 1957
Pat Nixon greets young White House visitors, 1969
The First Lady with Queen Elizabeth II, 1970
Nixon with Canadian First Lady Margaret Trudeau holding a baby Justin Trudeau, April 1972
Pat Nixon greets well-wishers on a trip to Hawaii, 1972
Pat addresses the 1972 Republican National Convention. She was the first First Lady since Eleanor Roosevelt to address a party convention, and the first Republican First Lady to do so.
Pat Nixon with White House curator Clement Conger, whom she hired, in the Red Room after her redecorations, 1971
Escorted by armed guards, Pat Nixon (far right) arrives via helicopter on the ground in South Vietnam, July 31, 1969. It was the first time a first lady had entered a combat zone.
The Nixons walked on the Great Wall of China during their historic trip in February 1972
Pat Nixon posing in the White House, 1970
The Fords escort the Nixons as they depart the White House on Nixon's final day as president, August 9, 1974.
Pat Nixon viewing pandas in a Chinese zoo in 1972.
Pat Nixon was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun in 1971 by the government of Peru, becoming the first Western woman to earn the distinction.
Pat Nixon's official White House portrait, painted in 1978 by Henriette Wyeth Hurd
Nixon (seated second from left) attends the opening of the Ronald Reagan Library, November 1991
Pat Nixon reaches out from her limousine to a young girl during an October 1972 campaign stop in Atlanta.

Thelma Catherine "Pat" Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974 as the wife of President Richard Nixon.

1960 United States presidential election

The 44th quadrennial presidential election.

1960 Democratic primaries results
Dwight D. Eisenhower, the incumbent president in 1960, whose term expired on January 20, 1961
Kennedy campaigning in LaGrange, Georgia, October 1960
Senator John F. Kennedy (left) and vice president Richard Nixon (right), prior to their first presidential debate.
Second of the four Kennedy and Nixon debates, which took place at WRC-TV in Washington, D. C., on October 7, 1960
Presidential election results by county
Results by congressional district.
Kennedy cast his ballot at his polling place at a branch of the Boston Public Library.
1960 Nixon campaign button
Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr., received 15 electoral votes
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Senator John F. Kennedy from Massachusetts
Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas
Senator Stuart Symington from Missouri
Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota
Senator Wayne Morse from Oregon
Senator George Smathers from Florida
Former Governor Adlai Stevenson of Illinois
Vice President Richard Nixon
Former Senator George H. Bender from Ohio
State Senator James M. Lloyd from South Dakota
Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York
Governor Cecil H. Underwood of West Virginia
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Democratic presidential election results by county
Republican presidential election results by county
Unpledged electors presidential election results by county
"Other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of unpledged electors presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "Other" presidential election results by county

In a closely contested election, Democratic United States Senator John F. Kennedy defeated the incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee.

1968 United States presidential election

The 46th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968.

Richard Nixon campaign rally, July 1968
Vice President Hubert Humphrey, President Lyndon B. Johnson, and General Creighton Abrams in a Cabinet Room meeting in March 1968
Results by congressional district.
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Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Presidential election results by county
Republican presidential election results by county
Democratic presidential election results by county
American Independent presidential election results by county
"Other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of American Independent presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "Other" presidential election results by county

The Republican nominee, former vice president Richard Nixon, defeated the Democratic nominee, incumbent vice president Hubert Humphrey, and the American Independent Party nominee, former Alabama governor George Wallace.

1972 visit by Richard Nixon to China

Nixon flies to China on Air Force 1
Nixon shakes hands with Chinese leader Mao Zedong
Richard and Pat Nixon with Chinese delegates at the Great Wall
Pat Nixon in Beijing
Richard Nixon and Zhou Enlai speaking at a banquet at the Great Hall of the People

The 1972 visit by United States President Richard Nixon to the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an important strategic and diplomatic overture that marked the culmination of the Nixon administration's resumption of harmonious relations between the United States and mainland China after years of diplomatic isolation.

1952 United States presidential election

The 42nd quadrennial presidential election and was held on Tuesday, November 4, 1952.

Eisenhower/Nixon poster
Kefauver won all but three primaries but failed to win the nomination.
Adlai Stevenson warns against a return of the Republican policies of President Herbert Hoover.
Eisenhower presidential campaign in Baltimore, Maryland, September 1952
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Eisenhower (Republican), and shades of blue are for Stevenson (Democratic).
Results by congressional district. Shades of red are for Eisenhower (Republican), and shades of blue are for Stevenson (Democratic).
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<center>Senator Robert A. Taft from Ohio</center>
<center>Former Governor Harold Stassen of Minnesota</center>
<center>Governor Earl Warren of California</center>
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, from New York
Vice President Alben W. Barkley
Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota
Senator Estes Kefauver from Tennessee
Senator Robert S. Kerr from Oklahoma
Senator Richard Russell, Jr. from Georgia
President Harry S. Truman from Missouri
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

With the support of Thomas E. Dewey and other party leaders, Eisenhower narrowly prevailed over Taft at the 1952 Republican National Convention with Richard Nixon, a young senator from California, as his running mate.

Hubert Humphrey

American pharmacist and politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969.

Official portrait, 1965
Humphrey working as a pharmacist in his father's pharmacy.
Humphrey at the 1948 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.
Senator Humphrey
In the 1960 primaries, Humphrey won South Dakota and Washington, D.C.
Vice President-elect Humphrey alongside Coretta Scott King and Civil Rights Leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Humphrey (right) with President Johnson (left) horse-riding in LBJ ranch on November 4, 1964.
Vice President Humphrey at a meeting in the Oval Office, June 21, 1965
Humphrey with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin and Gemini 4 astronauts at the 1965 Paris Air Show
Vice President Hubert Humphrey, President Lyndon Johnson, and General Creighton Abrams in a Cabinet Room meeting in March 1968
Hubert Humphrey campaigning for President in 1968
Senator Hubert Humphrey with Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter, in 1976. California Governor Jerry Brown is at right.
1972 campaign logo
Senator Hubert Humphrey with President Jimmy Carter aboard Air Force One in 1977
Burial plot of Hubert and Muriel Humphrey at Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis

An intensely divided Democratic Party nominated him in the 1968 presidential election, which he lost to Republican nominee Richard Nixon.

Controlled Substances Act

Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.

1972 United States presidential election

The 47th quadrennial presidential election.

Statewide contest by winner
Richard Nixon during an August 1972 campaign stop
George McGovern speaking at an October 1972 campaign rally
Election results by county.
Results by congressional district.
John Hospers received one faithless electoral vote from Virginia.
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Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon from California defeated Democratic U.S. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

War on drugs

Global campaign, led by the U.S. federal government, of drug prohibition, military aid, and military intervention, with the aim of reducing the illegal drug trade in the United States.

Colin Powell, then the US Secretary of State, visiting Colombia in the early 2000s as part of the United States' support of Plan Colombia
Mexican troops during a gun battle in Michoacán, 2007. Mexico's drug war claims nearly 50,000 lives each year.
California Attorney General Kamala Harris visiting the U.S.–Mexico border on March 24, 2011, to discuss strategies to combat drug cartels
Operation Mallorca, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2005
Graph demonstrating increases in United States incarceration rate
D.C. Mayor Marion Barry captured on a surveillance camera smoking crack cocaine during a sting operation by the FBI and D.C. Police
Total incarceration in the United States by year
The U.S. military invasion of Panama in 1989
Mexico is scheduled to receive US$1.6 billion in equipment and strategic support from the United States through the Mérida Initiative.
An American domestic government propaganda poster c. undefined 2000 concerning cannabis in the United States
Approximately 1 million people are incarcerated every year in the United States for drug law violations.
USS Rentz (FFG-46) attempts to put out a fire set by drug smugglers trying to escape and destroy evidence.
US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved. There were 70,630 drug overdose deaths overall in 2019 in the USA.

The term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one".

John F. Kennedy

American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination near the end of his third year in office.

Oval Office portrait, 1963
Kennedy's birthplace in Brookline, Massachusetts
Kennedy in a football uniform at Dexter School (Massachusetts), 1926
The Kennedy family in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, with JFK at top left in the white shirt, 1931
Lieutenant (junior grade) Kennedy (standing at right) with his PT-109 crew, 1943
Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109, 1943
Kennedy endorsing Adlai Stevenson II for the presidential nomination at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Results of the 1958 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts. Kennedy's margin of victory of 874,608 votes was the largest in Massachusetts political history.
1960 campaign poster
Kennedy and Richard Nixon participate in the nation's second televised presidential debate, Washington, D.C., 1960
Chief Justice Earl Warren administers the presidential oath of office to John F. Kennedy at the Capitol, January 20, 1961.
Kennedy with retired president Dwight D. Eisenhower at Camp David
Foreign trips of John F. Kennedy during his presidency
Kennedy and Vice President Johnson walking on the White House grounds
Kennedy confers with Attorney General Robert Kennedy, October 1962
Kennedy signs the Proclamation for Interdiction of the Delivery of Offensive Weapons to Cuba in the Oval Office, October 23, 1962
News conference, March 23, 1961
Kennedy and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, 1962
Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963
Kennedy delivering his speech in West Berlin
Kennedy with Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir, December 27, 1962
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Kennedy, and U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in the White House Cabinet Room on April 13, 1962
Kennedy's motorcade through Cork, Ireland on June 28, 1963
Kennedy signs the Partial Test Ban Treaty, a major milestone in early nuclear disarmament
Kennedy signing the Manpower Development and Training Act, March 1962
Thurgood Marshall, appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit by Kennedy in May 1961
Kennedy with Boston Mayor John F. Collins (1960–1968) and his wife. On November 20, 1962, Kennedy issued Executive Order 11063 requiring all federal agencies to prevent racial discrimination in federally-funded subsidized housing in the United States.
Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights, June 11, 1963
Kennedy meetings with leaders of the March on Washington in the Oval Office, August 28, 1963
Accompanied by astronaut John Glenn, Kennedy inspects the Project Mercury capsule Friendship 7, February 23, 1962
Wernher von Braun and Kennedy
Kennedy proposing a program to Congress that will land men on the Moon, May 1961. Johnson and Sam Rayburn are seated behind him.
John F. Kennedy, and members of his Cabinet
The Kennedys and the Connallys in the presidential limousine moments before the assassination in Dallas
President Kennedy's family leaving his funeral at the U.S. Capitol Building
The Kennedy brothers: Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Senator Ted Kennedy, and President John F. Kennedy in 1963
The First Family in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, 1962
Kennedy and Jackie leaving the hospital following his spinal surgery, December 1954
Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Marilyn Monroe, and John Kennedy talk during the president's May 19, 1962, early birthday party, where Monroe publicly serenaded Kennedy with "Happy Birthday, Mr. President"
The Kennedy half dollar was first issued in 1964
John F. Kennedy statue outside the Massachusetts State House in Boston
The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, in Boston
Official White House portrait of John F. Kennedy, by Aaron Shikler
President's and his wife's graves at John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame memorial, Arlington National Cemetery

In the 1960 presidential election, he narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, who was the incumbent vice president.