Richard Stallman

Richard M. StallmanStallman Stallman, RichardRMSStallman, Richard
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, RMS, is an American free software movement activist and programmer.wikipedia
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Free software

freefree-softwarefreely
Software that ensures these freedoms is termed free software.
Although the term free software had already been used loosely in the past, Richard Stallman is credited with tying it to the sense under discussion and starting the free-software movement in 1983, when he launched the GNU Project: a collaborative effort to create a freedom-respecting operating system, and to revive the spirit of cooperation once prevalent among hackers during the early days of computing.

Free Software Foundation

FSFfree software communityFree Software Foundation's high priority list
Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and wrote the GNU General Public License.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.

Free software movement

free software communityopen source communityfree-software community
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, RMS, is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
Although drawing on traditions and philosophies among members of the 1970s hacker culture and academia, Richard Stallman formally founded the movement in 1983 by launching the GNU Project.

GNU Emacs

Emacs
Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and wrote the GNU General Public License.
It was created by GNU Project founder Richard Stallman.

GNU Project

GNUFree System Distribution GuidelinesGNU Free System Distribution Guidelines
Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and wrote the GNU General Public License.
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.

League for Programming Freedom

In 1989, he co-founded the League for Programming Freedom.
League for Programming Freedom (LPF) was founded in 1989 by Richard Stallman to unite free software developers as well as developers of proprietary software to fight against software patents and the extension of the scope of copyright.

GNU Debugger

gdbGDB-TkGNU debugger (GDB)
He has been the GNU project's lead architect and organizer, and developed a number of pieces of widely used GNU software including, among others, the GNU Compiler Collection, the GNU Debugger and the GNU Emacs text editor.
GDB was first written by Richard Stallman in 1986 as part of his GNU system, after his GNU Emacs was "reasonably stable".

Copyleft

copyleft licenseweak copyleftby-nc-sa
Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft, which uses the principles of copyright law to preserve the right to use, modify and distribute free software, and is the main author of free software licenses which describe those terms, most notably the GNU General Public License (GPL), the most widely used free software license.
The GNU General Public License (GPL), originally written by Richard Stallman, was the first software copyleft license to see extensive use, and continues to dominate in that area.

GNU Compiler Collection

GCCGNU C compilerg++
Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and wrote the GNU General Public License.
In an effort to bootstrap the GNU operating system, Richard Stallman asked Andrew S. Tanenbaum, the author of the Amsterdam Compiler Kit (also known as the Free University Compiler Kit) for permission to use that software for GNU.

Emacs

GNU EmacsEmacs (text editor)Emacs Pinky
As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects such as TECO, Emacs for ITS, and the Lisp machine operating system (the CONS of 1974–1976 and the CADR of 1977–1979—this latter unit was commercialized by Symbolics and LMI starting around 1980). Stallman's influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX and the Emacs editor.
The most popular, and most ported, version of Emacs is GNU Emacs, which was created by Richard Stallman for the GNU Project.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed entirely of free software.
The GNU Project was started by activist and programmer Richard Stallman with the goal of creating a complete free software replacement to the proprietary UNIX operating system.

Hacker culture

hackerhackershacking
In 1971, near the end of his first year at Harvard, he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, RMS (which he used in his computer accounts).
Richard Stallman explains about hackers who program:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)M.I.T.
Stallman considered staying on at Harvard, but instead he decided to enroll as a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman's GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology; the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee; the OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002; and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.

GNU General Public License

GPLGNU GPLGPLv2
Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and wrote the GNU General Public License.
The license was originally written by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project, and grants the recipients of a computer program the rights of the Free Software Definition.

Symbolics

symbolics.comsymbolicSymbolics 3600 series
As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects such as TECO, Emacs for ITS, and the Lisp machine operating system (the CONS of 1974–1976 and the CADR of 1977–1979—this latter unit was commercialized by Symbolics and LMI starting around 1980).
According to Richard Stallman, Symbolics engaged in a business tactic in which it forced MIT to make all Symbolics' copyrighted fixes and improvements to the Lisp Machine OS available only to Symbolics (and MIT but not to Symbolics competitors), and thereby choke off its competitor LMI, which at that time had insufficient resources to independently maintain or develop the OS and environment.

GNU Manifesto

manifestoThe GNU Manifesto
In 1985, Stallman published the GNU Manifesto, which outlined his motivation for creating a free operating system called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix.
The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman and published in March 1985 in Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools as an explanation and definition of the goals of the GNU Project, and to call for participation and support developing GNU, a free software computer operating system.

TECO (text editor)

TECOTape Editor and CorrectorText Editor and Corrector (TECO)
As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects such as TECO, Emacs for ITS, and the Lisp machine operating system (the CONS of 1974–1976 and the CADR of 1977–1979—this latter unit was commercialized by Symbolics and LMI starting around 1980).
Richard Stallman's Emacs editor was originally implemented in TECO.

GNU

GNU ProjectGNU operating systemThe GNU Project
Stallman announced the plan for the GNU operating system in September 1983 on several ARPANET mailing lists and USENET.
Richard Stallman, the founder of the project, views GNU as a "technical means to a social end".

Digital rights management

DRMDRM-freedigital rights management (DRM)
Since the mid-1990s, Stallman had spent most of his time advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against software patents, digital rights management (which he referred to as digital restrictions management, calling the more common term misleading), and other legal and technical systems which he sees as taking away users' freedoms.
Two notable DRM critics are John Walker, as expressed for instance, in his article "The Digital Imprimatur: How Big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle", and Richard Stallman in his article The Right to Read and in other public statements: "DRM is an example of a malicious feature – a feature designed to hurt the user of the software, and therefore, it's something for which there can never be toleration".

Recursive acronym

recursiveacronymPING is not GIF
The name GNU is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix".
This inspired the two MIT Lisp Machine editors called EINE ("EINE Is Not Emacs", German for one) and ZWEI ("ZWEI Was EINE Initially", German for two). These were followed by Richard Stallman's GNU (GNU's Not Unix).

POSIX

POSIX compatiblePOSIX standardixemul.library
Stallman's influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX and the Emacs editor.
Richard Stallman suggested the name POSIX to the IEEE instead of former IEEE-IX.

GNU/Linux naming controversy

GNU/Linuxalternative namecontroversial
This has been a longstanding naming controversy in the free software community.
GNU/Linux is a term promoted by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and its founder Richard Stallman.

Linux

GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating system
Most sources use the name Linux to refer to the general-purpose operating system thus formed, while Stallman and the FSF call it GNU/Linux.
The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryProject MACArtificial Intelligence Laboratory
In 1971, near the end of his first year at Harvard, he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, RMS (which he used in his computer accounts).
Talented programmers such as Richard Stallman and Guy L. Steele Jr., who used TECO to write EMACS, flourished in the AI Lab during this time.

Lisp Machines

LMILisp Machines, Inc.Lisp Machines Inc
As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects such as TECO, Emacs for ITS, and the Lisp machine operating system (the CONS of 1974–1976 and the CADR of 1977–1979—this latter unit was commercialized by Symbolics and LMI starting around 1980).
Among these hackers was Richard Stallman, whom Levy at the time called the last true hacker.