A report on Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner Signature.svg
Wagner's birthplace, at 3, the Brühl, Leipzig
Wilhelmine "Minna" Planer (1835), by Alexander von Otterstedt
Wagner c. 1840, by Ernest Benedikt Kietz
Warrant for the arrest of Richard Wagner, issued on 16 May 1849
Portrait of Mathilde Wesendonck (1850) by Karl Ferdinand Sohn
Wagner in Paris, 1861
Portrait of Ludwig II of Bavaria about the time when he first met Wagner, by, 1865
Richard and Cosima Wagner, photographed in 1872
The Bayreuth Festspielhaus: photochrom print of c. 1895
The Wagner grave in the Wahnfried garden; in 1977 Cosima's ashes were placed alongside Wagner's body
Leitmotif associated with the horn-call of the hero of Wagner's opera Siegfried
Opening of overture to Der fliegende Holländer in Wagner's hand and with his notes to the publisher
Brünnhilde the Valkyrie, as illustrated by Arthur Rackham (1910)
Franz Betz (by Fritz Luckhardt), who created the role of Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger, and sang Wotan in the first complete Ring cycle
André Gill suggesting that Wagner's music was ear-splitting. Cover of L'Éclipse 18 April 1869
Gustav Mahler in 1907, by Moritz Nähr
Friedrich Nietzsche in 1882, by Gustav-Adolf Schultze
Eduard Hanslick
Caricature of Wagner by Karl Clic in the Viennese satirical magazine, Humoristische Blätter (1873). The exaggerated features refer to rumours of Wagner's Jewish ancestry.

German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas").

- Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner Signature.svg

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Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, the festival's main venue, in 2006

Bayreuth Festival

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Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, the festival's main venue, in 2006
Bayreuth Festspielhaus in 1882
Felix Mottl conducted Tristan und Isolde at Bayreuth in 1886
Patronage certificate for funding the Bayreuth festival, issued 22. May 1922
Memorial to Jewish singers in the Bayreuth Festival Park

The Bayreuth Festival (Bayreuther Festspiele) is a music festival held annually in Bayreuth, Germany, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented.

Ludwig and Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld as Tristan and Isolde in the first performance, conducted by Hans von Bülow

Tristan und Isolde

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Ludwig and Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld as Tristan and Isolde in the first performance, conducted by Hans von Bülow
Photo of Richard Wagner in Brussels, Belgium, 1860
Painting of Mathilde Wesendonck (1850) by Karl Ferdinand Sohn
Photo of Hans von Bülow, who conducted the premiere
Drawing for a libretto (undated)
Tristan und Isolde by Ferdinand Leeke
Model by Angelo Quaglio of the set in act 3 for the premiere production
Portrait of Arthur Schopenhauer (1815) by Ludwig Sigismund Ruhl
Photo from a 1917 production

Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde), WWV 90, is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the 12th-century romance Tristan and Iseult by Gottfried von Strassburg.

Scene 1 of Das Rheingold from the first Bayreuth Festival production of the Bühnenfestspiel in 1876

Der Ring des Nibelungen

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Scene 1 of Das Rheingold from the first Bayreuth Festival production of the Bühnenfestspiel in 1876
Illustration of Brünnhilde by Odilon Redon, 1885
Amalie Materna, the first Bayreuth Brünnhilde, with Cocotte, the horse donated by King Ludwig to play her horse Grane
The Rhinemaidens in the first Bayreuth production in 1876
Gwyneth Jones performing at the 1976 Bayreuth production of Der Ring des Nibelungen, conducted by Pierre Boulez and directed by Patrice Chéreau
Modern costuming shown in closing bows following Siegfried in 2013 at the Bavarian State Opera in Munich
Modern costuming shown in closing bows following Götterdämmerung in 2013 at the Bavarian State Opera. Left to right: Gunther, the Rhinemaidens, Gutrune, Hagen, Brünnhilde, Siegfried

Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.

Giacomo Meyerbeer, engraving from a photograph by Pierre Petit (1865)

Giacomo Meyerbeer

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Giacomo Meyerbeer, engraving from a photograph by Pierre Petit (1865)
The young Jacob Beer, portrait by Friedrich Georg Weitsch (1803)
Amalie Beer, Meyerbeer's mother, painting by, c. 1803
Gioachino Rossini in 1820
Jules Arnout's lithograph of Act 3 scene 2 of Robert (the 'Ballet of the Nuns') at the Paris Opéra (Salle Le Peletier), 1831
Adolphe Nourrit
Eugène Scribe
Pauline Viardot
Meyerbeer's grave in Berlin
Heinrich Heine on his sickbed, 1851
Advertisement for the sheet music of Le pardon de Ploërmel (Dinorah)
Le prophète – Act 4, scene 2, of the original production, set design by Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry
Cover of the first edition of Liszt's Fantasy and Fugue on the chorale "Ad nos, ad salutarem undam"
Robert Schumann in an 1850 daguerreotype
Richard Wagner around the time of his first meeting with Meyerbeer – portrait by, c. 1840
Berlin memorial plaque, Pariser Platz 6a, Berlin-Mitte, Germany

Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jakob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth, "the most frequently performed opera composer during the nineteenth century, linking Mozart and Wagner".

Liszt in 1858 by Franz Hanfstaengl

Franz Liszt

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Hungarian composer, pianist and teacher of the Romantic era.

Hungarian composer, pianist and teacher of the Romantic era.

Liszt in 1858 by Franz Hanfstaengl
Franz Liszt's mother, Anna Liszt
Portrait of Liszt by Henri Lehmann (1839)
Liszt's fundraising concert for the flood victims of Pest, where he was the conductor of the orchestra, Vigadó Concert Hall, Pest, Hungary, 1839
Earliest known photograph of Liszt (1843) by Hermann Biow
Franz Liszt, portrait by Hungarian painter Miklós Barabás, 1847
Liszt, photo (mirror-imaged) by Franz Hanfstaengl, June 1870
Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music in Budapest
Liszt in March 1886, four months before his death, photographed by Nadar
Franz Liszt Fantasizing at the Piano (1840), by Danhauser, commissioned by Conrad Graf. The imagined gathering shows seated Alfred de Musset or Alexandre Dumas, George Sand, Liszt, Marie d'Agoult; standing Hector Berlioz or Victor Hugo, Niccolò Paganini, Gioachino Rossini; a bust of Beethoven on the grand piano (a "Graf"), a portrait of Lord Byron on the wall, and a statue of Joan of Arc on the far left.
Liszt giving a concert for Emperor Franz Joseph I on a Bösendorfer piano
One of Franz Liszt's pianos from his apartment in Budapest
Die Hunnenschlacht, as painted by Wilhelm von Kaulbach, which in turn inspired one of Liszt's symphonic poems

He was a friend, musical promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including Frédéric Chopin, Charles-Valentin Alkan, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Ole Bull, Joachim Raff, Mikhail Glinka, and Alexander Borodin.

Max Staegemann (1843–1905) as Hans Sachs

Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg

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Max Staegemann (1843–1905) as Hans Sachs
Act 3, painting by Ferdinand Leeke

Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg ("The Master-Singers of Nuremberg"), WWV 96, is a music drama, or opera, in three acts, by Richard Wagner.

Amalie Materna, Emil Scaria and Hermann Winkelmann in the first production of the Bühnenweihfestspiel at the Bayreuth Festival

Parsifal

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Amalie Materna, Emil Scaria and Hermann Winkelmann in the first production of the Bühnenweihfestspiel at the Bayreuth Festival
Amalie Materna, Emil Scaria and Hermann Winkelmann in the first production of the Bühnenweihfestspiel at the Bayreuth Festival
Drawing for a libretto cover page (undated)
Poster for the premiere production of Parsifal, 1882
Scene design for the controversial 1903 production at the Metropolitan Opera: Gurnemanz leads Parsifal to Monsalvat (Act I)
Emil Scaria as Gurnemanz, 1883
Hermann Winkelmann as Parsifal with Flowermaidens, 1882
Scene from Act I, scene 1 in the 1903 representation, New York
Paul von Joukowsky: Design for the Hall of the Grail (second scenes of Acts I and III), 1882
Parsifal and Kundry, two paintings by Rogelio de Egusquiza, 1910 and 1906
Scene from Parsifal from the Victrola book of the opera, 1917.
Amalie Materna as Kundry with Ernest van Dyck as Parsifal in Act III Scene 1, Bayreuth 1889
End of Act III in the original 1882 production (according to a painting by Theodor Pixis), original design by Paul von Joukowsky
Scene design for Act III by Arnaldo dell'Ira, using classical and classicist motives: "Nur eine Waffe taugt" (c. 1930)
German stamp showing Parsifal with the Grail, November 1933
Margaret Matzenauer as Kundry. She made her unexpected debut in the role in 1912 at the New York Met.

Parsifal (WWV 111) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner with the libretto by the composer himself loosely based on the 13th-century Middle High German epic poem Parzival of the Minnesänger Wolfram von Eschenbach, recounting the story of the Arthurian knight Parzival (Percival) and his quest for the Holy Grail.

Wagner in 1879, painted by Franz von Lenbach

Cosima Wagner

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The daughter of the Hungarian composer and pianist Franz Liszt and Franco-German romantic author Marie d'Agoult.

The daughter of the Hungarian composer and pianist Franz Liszt and Franco-German romantic author Marie d'Agoult.

Wagner in 1879, painted by Franz von Lenbach
Franz Liszt, depicted at the time of his affair with Marie d'Agoult
Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, seen here with her daughter Marie, exerted a powerful influence on Cosima's upbringing
Hans von Bülow, photographed in middle age
A portrait of Richard Wagner, around 1860. By 1863 he and Cosima were firmly committed to each other.
Ludwig II of Bavaria, Wagner's financial rescuer and sponsor for many years
The Villa Tribschen, Wagner's home in Switzerland between 1866 and 1872
Richard and Cosima Wagner, photographed in 1872
The Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as it appeared in the late 19th century
The Wagner family and guests, depicted at the first Bayreuth Festival. Cosima, her arm around Siegfried, is in the left foreground. Wagner is in the rear towards the left; Liszt, centre-right, is at the piano.
Hermann Levi, who conducted the first performances of Parsifal
Palazzo Vendramin Calergi, Venice, where Wagner died on 13 February 1883
Wahnfried, where Cosima remained in seclusion in the months following Wagner's death
Siegfried Wagner, Cosima's son and eventual successor as festival director, made his Bayreuth conducting debut in 1896
A caricature of Wagner, towards the end of her time in charge at Bayreuth
Cosima and Siegfried Wagner, c. 1929
The Wagner grave in the Wahnfried garden, where in 1977 Cosima's ashes were placed alongside Wagner's body

She became the second wife of the German composer Richard Wagner, and with him founded the Bayreuth Festival as a showcase for his stage works; after his death she devoted the rest of her life to the promotion of his music and philosophy.

Nietzsche in Basel, Switzerland, c. undefined 1875

Friedrich Nietzsche

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German philosopher, cultural critic and philologist whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history.

German philosopher, cultural critic and philologist whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history.

Nietzsche in Basel, Switzerland, c. undefined 1875
Portrait of Friedrich Nietzsche
Young Nietzsche, 1861
Young Nietzsche
Arthur Schopenhauer strongly influenced Nietzsche's philosophical thought.
The University of Basel, where Friedrich Nietzsche became a professor in 1869
Left to right: Erwin Rohde, Karl von Gersdorff and Nietzsche, October 1871
Nietzsche, c. 1872
Lou Salomé, Paul Rée and Nietzsche traveled through Italy in 1882, planning to establish an educational commune together, but the friendship disintegrated in late 1882 due to complications from Rée's and Nietzsche's mutual romantic interest in Lou Andreas-Salomé.
Photo of Nietzsche by Gustav-Adolf Schultze, 1882
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After the breakdown, Peter Gast "corrected" Nietzsche's writings without his approval.
Nietzsche's grave at Röcken with the sculpture Das Röckener Bacchanal by Klaus Friedrich Messerschmidt (2000)
Nietzsche, 1869
Wochenspruch der NSDAP 9 April 1939: "What does not kill me makes me stronger."
The residence of Nietzsche's last three years along with archive in Weimar, Germany, which holds many of Nietzsche's papers
Portrait of Nietzsche by Edvard Munch, 1906
Statue of Nietzsche in Naumburg
The Nietzsche Stone, near Surlej, the inspiration for Thus Spoke Zarathustra

His body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, philology, history, music, religion, tragedy, culture, and science, and drew inspiration from Greek tragedy as well as figures such as Zoroaster, Arthur Schopenhauer, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Wagner and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Carl Maria von Weber (1821), by Caroline Bardua

Carl Maria von Weber

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German composer, conductor, virtuoso pianist, guitarist, and critic who was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic era.

German composer, conductor, virtuoso pianist, guitarist, and critic who was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic era.

Carl Maria von Weber (1821), by Caroline Bardua
Carl Maria von Weber (1814) Painting by Thomas Lawrence
Weber's summer home (1818–1824) near Dresden; the Carl Maria von Weber Museum
Carl Maria von Weber (1825) Portrait by Ferdinand Schimon, Dresden, Städtische Galerie
Weber's grave in the Old Catholic Cemetery in Dresden

1820–21), Euryanthe (1823), Oberon (1826)—had a major impact on subsequent German composers including Marschner, Meyerbeer, and Wagner; his compositions for piano influenced those of Chopin and Liszt.